Psychology of Gender Exam 2 Review: Ch. 5-7
Psychology of Gender Exam 2 Review: Ch. 5-7 PSYC 3331
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by lambdalambdalambdas on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3331 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Herb Agan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 95 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Gender in Psychlogy at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
1. Which sex increases in gender flexibility during adolescence? a. Women 2. Fagot, Leinbeck and O Boyle study found regarding mothers who did gender type play activities? a. Toddlers/preschoolers discriminate objects/toys in genderstereotyped way 3. How do parents contribute to gender differences in children? a. Boys encourage autonomy b. Girls foster dependence c. Occurs even at pregnancy 4. How is sexism apparent in the English language, regarding women? a. Male terms or pronouns to refer to humans as a whole 5. At what age do children obey the samesex parent? a. 1 year old (toddlers) 6. According to an American Association of University of Women study, what was found regarding the study of singlesex education? a. Did not have better grades b. Had more confidence and better attitudes toward math and science 7. Regarding family and financial needs, what do contemporary adolescent women expect? a. Stability provided by the husband; home is the woman’s responsibility 8. What are the favorite childhood fairy tales? a. Cinderella b. Sleeping Beauty c. Snow White 9. How do fathers perpetuate gender roles? a. Involve boys in more physical activity than girls b. Reward girls for being compliant c. Spending more time with sons 10. How do Westerners judge who’s smarter? a. Biology 11. Who said that educating women was useless and a waste of resources? a. Thorndike 12. What did researchers discover in comparisons of men and women? a. No significant difference 13. What’s the largest remaining gender difference in verbal ability? a. Verbal fluency/phonological retrieval b. Writing 14. How do teachers see boys and girls’ academic success: Ability or hard work? a. Boys ability b. Girls succeed through hard work 15. What are the major reasons for dual earners in the 90s? a. Desired standard of living b. Modeling cooperation among family members 16. What is the Ostrich Effect? (Ch. 7) a. Sex bias operates in society but does not apply to me 17. What is aversive sexism? a. Like aversive racism; proclaiming that all people are equal but still judging and discriminating against minority groups 18. What is occupational segregation? a. Specific occupations are overwhelmingly female or male 19. Why does Hochschildsay that some workers prefer to spend more time at work? a. Work serves as a retreat from home stress and pressure b. More emotional support is received at work than at home c. Work provides more feelings of importance and recognizes their efforts 20. What is the LackofFit model? a. Gender biases stem from incongruence in applicant’s perception of their own abilities and the requirements of the position 1. 4 Psychology Theories on Gender Development (Psychodynamic, social learning, cognitivedevelopment, and genderschema theory) a. Psychodynamic Freudian model is the resolution of conflict with samesex parents; Jung model is gender comes from manifestations of archetypal expression; b. Social learning rewards and punishment condition and shape our gender behaviors; we learn by observing or imitating others c. CognitiveDevelopment children form their own gender images by age 2; remain fluid until gender constancy is achieved in early adulthood d. Genderschema children develop a schema for gender through their culture and the world around them; associations with biological and cultural influences; social roles are culturally determined. 2. What is an archetype? List 2 feminine and 2 masculine archetypal energies: Warrior/seeker and caregiver/lover. Note the gift that each provides to the human experience. a. Archetype Commonalities between people that exist in the unconscious b. Warrio: sticks to goals, singleminded, ability to fight, requires commitment, protects boundarie,ift is courage and discipland skill, c. Seeker: desire to individuate, yearns for more, wants wisdom, wants to cross new frontiers, wants to ascegift is ambition/autonomy and spiritual transformation d. Caregive: nurturing, ideal parent, teaches, loving, attentive, gives to create selfsufficiengift is compassion and generosity e. Lover: connection/attachment and passinift is commitment/passion/ecstasy 3. List 5 traits that are masculine and 5 that are feminine archetype that all humans possess. a. Masculine: hierarchical, competitive, aggressive, achievement, mastery b. Feminine: Receptive (open minded), egalitarian (all people are equal), cooperative, relationship with the natural world, living in the process 4. What are stereotypes? How are they created? Give examples of gender stereotypes in the American culture that are going through transition. a. Women are finding their warrior/seeker and men are finding their caregiver/lover roles 5. Hyde’s 1996 study of two male and female psychological differences: a. Aggressiveness seen more in males b. Communication styles: Selfdisclosure more easy in women than men and women are more expressive 6. List 4 aspects of the pseudowarrior (negative warrior). a. Narrow minded b. Win at any cost c. Not having ideals or higher social purpose d. Seeks to dominate 7. How do we get unstuck from romantic love? 4 Aspects of lover’s shadow a. Destroyer enters to stop the attachment; very painful b. Discover that love is plentiful, not scarce c. Healthy warrior may emerge to set boundaries d. We learn to love ourselves 8. What is romantic love and its origin? How does it negatively affect modern relationships? What is meant by human love? 9. What is the purpose of anima and animus? List 3 negative and 3 positive traits of each. a. Positive anima: relatability, fosters understanding, patience, kindness, compassion, consideration b. Negative anima: Moodiness, vanity, loss of reason, easily hurt feelings, poor communication c. Positive animus: empowerment, assertive, control, rational thought d. Negative animus: ruthless, destructive, erodes will, erodes selfconfidence, erodes selfbelief, opinionated Anima man’s experience of the feminine; connects the male to mother nature Animus female’s experience of the masculine; gives woman strength of character and confidence
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