Biochemistry Final Study Guide Part 2: Glycolysis
Biochemistry Final Study Guide Part 2: Glycolysis 85034 - BCHM 3050 - 001
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80887 - BIOL 3150 - 001
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by joseph Garand on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 85034 - BCHM 3050 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Srikripa Chandrasekaran in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Biochemistry in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
Glycolysis Enzymes Enzyme Reactants Products Inhibitor Activators Class s 1. Hexokinase Glucose + Glucose 6 Glucose Glucose -Transferase ATP Phosphate 6- 6 Carbons phospha -ATP te Phosphorylat ATP investment es, gives G6P ATP (-) charge 2. Glucose 6 Fructose 6 None None Isomerase Phosphoglucose Phosphate phosphate Reversa Reversabl Isomerase bl e 6 Carbons 3. Fructose 6 Fructose 1,6 Bi- ATP , AMP, ADP, Transferase P hosphofructoki phosphate phosphate citrate Fructose2, nase + ATP +ADP + H 6- ATP Investment Biphospha te 6 Carbons 4. Aldolase Fructose Dihydroxyacet None none lyases 1,6 Bi- one + 6 C – 2 (3C) Phoshpate Glyceraldehyd e 3 Phosphate 5. Trios Dihydroxy Glyceraldehyd None None Isomerase Phosphate acetone e 3 phosphate Isomerase phosphate -Get 2 molecules of glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate 6. Glyeraldehyde Glyceralde 1,3 None None Oxioreductas 3 Phosphate hyde 3 Biphosphoglyc e dehydrogenase phosphate erate +NAD +NADH + H -Forms NADH from +P oxidation of NAD+ 7. 1,3 3 Transferase Phosphoglycerat Biphosphog Phosphoglycer e kinase lycerate ate + ATP -ATP production (SLP) -2 ATP molecules produced 8. 3- 2- Isomerase Phosphoglycerat Phosphoglu PHosphoglucer e Mutase cerate ate 9. Enolase 2 Phoshoenol Lyase Phosphogly pyruvate + -H20 Removal cerate H2O 10. Pyruvate Phosphoen Pyruvate +ATP ATP Fructose Transferase Kinase olpyruvate Acytyle 1,6 -ATP production +ADP COA Biphospha +H te Alanine 4 ways to regulate Glycolysis 1. Availability of substrate / Hormonal Regulation The availability of the substrate, glucose, regulates the secretion of insulin. - If levels of glucose are high, insulin will activate glucokinase in the liver (WHY) - What happens if blood sugar levels are low 2. Allosteric regulation -ATP, Citrate, AMP, Fructose 6-P, Fructose 2-6-BP 1. Anaerobic Respiration: No Oxygen available, organisms may be aerobic A) Alcoholic Fermentation: Pyruvate reduced to form Ethanol + CO2 and NAD+ RED ARROW: When Ethanol is consumed, NADH synthesis is stimulated by the liver by a reverse Acetaldehyde Reaction. -Excess NADH will inhibit glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation. -The result is accumulation of fat in the liver (cirrhosis) and loss of function ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________ B) Lactic Acid Fermentation: Pyruvate reduced to form lactate and NAD+ Pyruvate Lactate Fermentation allows regeneration of some NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue producing some ATP. This allows glycolysis to continue for a short while, until more oxygen becomes available. -Otherwise pain and cramps associated with muscle fatigue will follow. Catabolic and anabolic Pathways
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