PY 352 Exam 1
Popular in Developmental Psychology
Popular in Department
This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gretchen Pierce on Thursday January 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 11505 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Andre Souza in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 412 views.
Reviews for PY 352 Exam 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/29/15
PY 352 Exam 1 Intro to Developmental Psychology 1 Developmental Psychology a Study of constancy and change throughout life span b Study of behavioral patterns and trends that occur through a persons life c Complex and involves variety of factors and relationships d Research in the field is vast e Vital to understand that many factors in uence the changes we observe in humans 2 What you need to know a Global understanding of all theories that try to describe and explain development b Understand processes that underlie the changes in human development c Important role of biology plays in human development d Important role of context and culture on human development e Interdependency and complex interaction between the biological emotional cognitive and social components of development f Understand research questions and methods that inform us about human development 3 Periods of Development a Prenatal 9 conception to birth b Infancy to toddlerhood 9 birth to 2 yr c Early childhood 9 26 yr d Middle childhood 9 611 yr e Adolescence 9 1118 yr 4 Why is it important a Helps better understand yourself and the people around you b Understand children and why they act the way they do c Helps you know how to interact with children d Understand what is is not normal e Helps create optimized solutions for what is NOT normal 5 VIDEO a How Do Children Thinkquot by Allison Gopnik b Baby thinking like brilliant scientists c How to ask them questions broccoli vs goldfish i If someone acted like they loved broccoli babies would give her broccoli what she wanted ii Babies know we don t all like the same things human nature d Relationship between how long their childhood is and how their brain develops Childhood is the reason for great development in knowledge and learning e Disadvantage is until you re done learning 9 you re useless f Think about babies as same species but different stages of life caterpillars vs butter y g The Blicket experiment i Detector 9 wave over not place on box has higher probability ii Make it goquot preschool wave h Christine yellow and red box i Children do experiments in order to figure things out i Adults decide if something is relevant then pay attention and everything else goes dark Research in Developmental Psychology Chapter 1 1 Developmental Psychology a Study of constancy and change through a life span b The field of developmental science i Scientific 9 research to understand ii Applied 9 people use the knowledge they have to apply iii Interdisciplinary 9 variety of disciplines c There are many theories to explain observable changes in a lifespan 2 What is a theory a It is an orderly integrated set of statements that describes explains and predicts behavior b There are many theories explaining the various aspects of development c It provides an organized framework to evaluate behavior d Only If the theory is testable by research e Provides solid basis for actions 3 Basic Issues a Is development continuous or discontinuous i Continuous process of gradually increasing the same type of skills that were present since the beginning ii Discontinuous process which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times b Is there one course of development or many i Context unique combination of personal and environmental aspects that result in different developmental paths ii NO theory says there is just one path c What is the role in nature vs nurture i The genetic and environmental aspects that play significant role in development ii Nature hereditary information received from parents at conception iii Nurture physical and social forces psychological in uence 4 Dynamic System a Development is an ongoing dynamic process from conception to death b It is molded by a network of in uences biological cognitive emotional and social c Lifespan is multidimensional multidirectional highly plastic brains are ready to change if needed plasticity and in uenced by a multitude or different forces d As we get older our brains become less plastic e Five major periods of development 9 prenatal infancy amp toddlerhood early childhood middle childhood and adolescence 5 Science and Development a Scientific study of development dates back to 19th and early 20th century i Darwin 9 Theory of Evolution ii Hall Gesell 9 Normative Approach iii Binet 9 Mental Testing Movement 6 Psychoanalytic Perspectives a Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson b Emphasis on individuals life stories c Con ict between biological drives and social expectations Sigmund Freud ID Largest portion of mind Biological needs and desires Ego Conscious rational part early infancy redirects ID to acceptable ways Super Ego Conscience ages 36 interaction with caregiver Freud s Psychosexual Stages Oral Stage Babies have pleasure sucking objects Anal Stage Children find pleasure retaining feces urine Control over bodies and environment Phallic Stage Genitals Touch themselves Latency Stage Pay attention to social relations with same sex Freud says this is when identity is formed Genital Stage Pleasure looking at opposite sex Erikson s Psychosocial Stages Basic trust vs mistrust Birth 1 year Anatomy vs shame doubt 13 yr Initiative vs guilt 36 yr Industry vs inferiority 61 1 yr Identity vs role confusion Adolescence Intimacy vs isolation Early adulthood Generativity vs stagnation Middle adulthood Integrity vs despair Old age 7 Behaviorism and Social Learning a Behaviorism directly observable events stimuli and responses are the appropriate focus of study b Classical Conditioning Pavlov s dog one stimulus can provoke another i Food makes salivate with bell ii We need to talkquot makes you instantly nervous c Operant Conditioning Skinner change behavior on punishment vs reward d Social learning imitation emphasis on modeling imitation or observational learning as a source of development 8 Conditioning Video a Classical Conditioning i Dave goes to dentist ii Routine as adult still causes stress iii Stress conditioned response iv Routine conditioned stimulus b Operant Conditioning i Giving Suzie a treat 1 Treat positive reinforcement 2 Bad grade negative reinforcement ii Trouble 1 Time after school positive punishment 2 Cellphone taken away negative punishment 9 Piaget s Cognitive Developmental Theory a Children actively construct knowledge by manipulating and explores their worlds Mental constructs adapt to better fit the demands of the environment c Development happens through several stages i Sensorimotor baby uses senses and movement to explore the world ii Preschool children preoperationalize symbolic but illogical thinking iii Concrete operational school age children engage in more organized logical reality iv Formal operational thought becomes abstract systematic reasoning of adolescents and adults 10 Information Processing Theory a Human mind is viewed as a computer in which it manipulates symbols b Development is a continuous process 11 Developmental Neuroscience a Brain and behavior b It brings together researchers from psychology biology neuroscience and medicine to study the relationship between changes in the brain and changes in behavior 12 Neuroscience Video Record brain electrolyte activity b Electrical juncture from signals on heads c EEG 9 very early in life d Developing autism before MRI e Early intervention for early identification 3 month old 13Common Research Methods a Naturalistic observation to go into natural environment and record the behavior of interest b Structural observation the investigator sets up a situation that evokes the behavior of interest c Selfreport interviews questionnaires and tests i Best to be indirect with kids d Case study brings together a wide range of information about one person e Ethnography method that aims to understand a culture or social group 9 14 General Research Designs a Correlational 9 relationship between participants characteristics and behaviors i Cannot make causal causeeffect inferences ii Correlation is not causal b Experimental 9 randomly assigned participants assigned to treatment conditions i Embodied cognition 9 our cognition depends on how we physically act ii Detects cause effect relationship 15 Experimental Design a Dependent Variable i Response variable ii Measured but not manipulated by the experimenter iii Expected to be in uenced by the independent variable b Independent Variable i Explanatory variable ii Manipulated by experimenter iii Expected to cause changes in another variable DV Developmental Research Longitudinal Same group studied at different times Crosssectional Different groups studied at same times Sequential Compares similar crosssectional or longitudinal studies sequential 16Developmental Designs a Sequential Designs i Compare crosssectional or longitudinal ii Permit longitudinal and crosssectional comparison b Combining experimental and developmental design i Experimental manipulation of experimenter ii Provides evidence of casual associations 17 Rights of Participants Protection from harm Informed consent Privacy Knowledge of results Beneficial treatment gangs Genetics and Environment Chapter 2 1 Genotype amp Phenotype a The foundations of development are hereditary and environment b Heredity supplies each individuals genotype c Heredity and environment combine to create phenotype d Genotype is an individuals genetic information e Phenotype is an individuals directly observable characteristics 2 Genetic Foundation Chromosomes Rodlike structures within the cells that store and transmit genetic information DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid chemical substance that makes up chromosomes Gene Segment of DNA along the length of the chromosomes on your tounge 2 Mitosis amp Meiosis a Mitosis i Process which DNA duplicates itself ii Produces new body cells containing the same genetic information b Meiosis i Process which sex cells gametes are formed ii Divide into two by the number of chromosomes iii Leads to genetic variability 3 TypesofCeHs Autosomes Normal 22 pairs of chromosomes Sex Chromosomes 23rd pair of chromosomes XXfemale XYmale Gametes Sex cells sperm and ovum Zygote Form when sperm and ovum unite 4 Twins a Fraternal Dizygotic Result from release and fertilization of the ovum b Identicalmonozygotic Result when a single zygote separates to form two individuals c Studying twins is important because it lets us study how two people from the same genetic code are formed and how they challenge nature vs nurture 5 Patterns of genetic inheritance a Two forms of each gene occur at the same place on the chromosomes b One inherited from mother and one from the father c Each form is called an allele i Homozygous 9 both alleles are alike ii Heterozygous 9 alleles differ 6 DominantRecessive Inheritance a In dominantrecessive inheritance only one allele dominant affects the child characteristics The second allele recessive has no effect c Heterozygous individuals with just one recessive allele are carriers of the trait and can pass it on to their children d Knowing the parents genetic makeup allows us to predict the child s likelihood of disorders or carrying an inherited trait 7 Xlinked inheritance a 8 Reproductive choices a Genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis helps people make informed decisions about conceiving carrying a pregnancy to term and adopting a child b Genetic counseling helps couples asses their chance of giving birth to a baby with a heredity disorder and choose the best course of action in view of risks and family goals c Prenatal diagnostic methods are medical process that permit detection of developmental problems before birth 9 Genetic Counselor Video what about genetic testing a Mary Norton b There is a bigger picture to prognosis outcome 9 birth defect may be fixable but might not fix everything that is wrong 10 Environmental Contexts for Development a Many environmental in uences combine to affect the cause of a child s development b This includes family friends neighbors school work communities and religious organizations c Development is also in uenced by i Socioeconomic status SES ii Family functions iii Cultural context 11 Family In uences on Development a Family is most important microsystem context b Researchers view the family as a network of individual relations c Direct In uences behavior of each family member helps sustain a form of interaction in the other that either promotes or undermines psychological wellbeing d Indirect In uences interaction between any two family members is affected by 3rd parties who can serve as support for or barrens to development i Divorce 12 Socioeconomic Status SES a SES is an index of a family or individual social positions and economic wellbeing Based on years of education prestige income c SES is linked to timing of marriage parenthood family size and family values i Lower SES parents tend to emphasize external characteristics ii Higher SES parents emphasize psychological traits such as curiosity amp happiness 13Poverty Who is Poor a Poverty affects about 15 of Americans i Parents under age 25 ii Ethnic minorities iii Older adults living alone b Children of poverty are more likely than others to suffer from lifelong poor physical health and deficits in cognitive development c The stressors accompanying poverty individuals daily hassles and crisis that reduce parents ability to deal with their children effectively 14Wealthy Parents What are the risks of Af uence a Af uent parents in prestigious and highpaying occupations too often fail to engage in family interaction and parenting that promotes favorable development b Poorly adjusted af uent young people report less emotional closeness with or supervision from parents c Excessive parental demands for achievement and also leads to problems 15 Cultural Context a Cultures shape all aspects of daily life i Some value independence and privacy of family life ii Others value extendedfamily households b Cultures differ in the emphasis hey place on collectivism vs individualism i In collectivist societies people define themselves part of a group and stress group over individual goals Asians ii In individualistic societies people think of themselves as separate entities and are largely concerned with their own personal needs 16 Geneenvironment Interaction a Behavioral genetics are a field devoted to uncovering the contributions of nature and nurture to the diversity in human traits and abilities b There is now consensus among researchers that genetics and environment are inseparable c Geneenvironmental interaction is the idea that because of their genetic makeup individuals differ in their responsiveness to qualities of the environment d Study with twins 17 Twin Studies Nature vs Nurture Video Embryo splits into twins 3 brothers visit university for weight height etc see for alike personality traits Look for intelligence how long did the mother father go to school 99 crsv Chapter 3 Prenatal Development and Newborn 1 Conception a Once every 28 days an ovum is released from one of a woman s ovaries and ends up in the fallopian tubes i Lives for only 1 day b Males sperm swim upstream into the female reproductive tract remaining viable up to 6 days c Conception takes place in fallopian tubes which sperm and ovum form zygote d Most conception is in the form of intercourse on the day of ovulation lasting 2 days 2 Prenatal development a Pregnancy is divided into 3 phases i Period of zygote lasts for 2 weeks From fertilization until cell mass attaches itself to uterine wall ii Period of embryo implantation through 8th week of pregnancy iii Period of fetus 9th week to end of pregnancy growing 3 Prenatal Development Fertilization Video 300 million sperm enter Contractions help sperm get to egg Cilia pushes egg to uterus Male and females code each have 23 chromosomes Forms zygote push to uterus which starts to grow as a baby 99962 4 Period of the Fetus a 3rd Month i Organs muscles and nervous system start to become organized and connected ii By 12th week sex of fetus can be detected with ultrasound b 2nd Trimester i 1720 weeks moms can feel movements of fetus ii At end of 2nd trimester most of the brain s neurons are in place They begin to rapidly form synapses or connections c 3rd Trimester i 2226 weeks baby can survive if born early ii Cerebral cortex enlarges fetus spends more time awake iii Responsiveness pain and irritation iv Fetus DO poop pee inside womb 5 Baby Waste Nutrition Video Nutrients travel inside moms bloodstream Embryo start peeing after 2 months in womb Mom digests food pass nutrients through umbilical cord to baby Large intestine in sterile poop is sterile 99 crsv 6 Environmental In uences a A teratogen is any environmental agent that can cause damage during prenatal period Larger doses over longer period of time usually has negative effects c The effects of teratogen s vary with organisms age at any time of exposure d Teratogens are most likely to cause serious defects during embryonic period 7 Smoking During Pregnancy Video a Increases risk of miscarriage low weight placenta eruption b Terrible habit meditation acupuncture and medicine can help 8 Emotional Stress During pregnancy a Severe emotional stress during pregnancy first 2 trimesters is associated with miscarriage prematurity low birth weight infant respiratory and digestive illness and irritability b Maternal stress hormones cross placenta causing dramatic rise of fetal stress hormones c Excessive fetal stress may permanently alter fetal neurological functioning thereby heightening stress reactivity in later life 9 Prenatal Care is important a Early and sustained prenatal care helps ensure the health of mother and fetus Important if mothers have health issues c What prevents many mothers from seeking early prenatal care i Financial hardship ii Difficulty finding a doctor iii Demands of taking care if younger children 10 Prenatal care Video Detect problems with baby give advice etc b Help women with own health c Can find free or lowcost prenatal care I Iamie 29 weeks i Check blood pressure weight ii Only need to eat 300 calories extra iii Having a boy Michael iv Fundus top part of uterus E V 29 cm and 29 wks is perfect vi Sugar tests blood count iron 1 1 Cosby Show Video Cosby delivers babies She thinks storks delver babies They start to argue whether or not the baby is inside a mother at all Mom gets big because she eats so much 9962 12 Childbirth a Stages of childbirth i Dilation and effacement of the cervix 1214 hour w 1St baby and 46 hour w later babies ii Delivery of baby 50 min 1St birth and 20 min in later birth iii Delivery of placenta 510 min b The Baby s adaption to labor and delivery i Role of stress hormones caused by the force of the contractions c Assessing the newborns physical condition i The APGAR Scale is used to assess infants physical condition based on 5 criteria ii Doctors and nurses can identify infants who need immediate help 13 Labor and Delivery Video a Mucus plug water breaks b Stage 2 cervix is dilated to 10 cm and head is in birth canal 14 APGAR Scale Video a A appearance b P pulse c G grimace d A activity and muscle tone e R respiration f Happens 15 minutes after birth g Total score on birth record can be 710 46 or 03 15 Approaches to Childbirth a Childbirth practices vary widely around the world b Before the late 1800 s childbirth usually happened at home and was a familycentered event c During the Industrial Revolution childbirth moved to the hospital c section d By the midtwentieth century women began to question the use of medical procedures during labor and delivery e The natural childbirth movement arose 16 Pain in Birth vs Being Kicked in the Balls a b c d 45 del of pain is most amount a human can take Say it takes 57 del pain to give birth HOWEVER del does not even exist People perceive pain differently IT IS A TIE 17 Prenatal Infants a b c d 1 out of 13 infants in America are born underweight Preterm Infants 9 born several weeks before due date Smallfordate infants 9 below expected weight considering length of pregnancy Consequences for caregiving i Preterm infants are more irritable when awake ii Research reveals that distressed preterm infants are susceptible to the effects of prenatal qualities 18Interventions for Preterms a b c d Preterm infants are kept in beds called isolettes that protect them from infection and has all the right temperature Special Infant Stimulation i Rocking in a suspended hammock ii Exposure to heart beat sound iii Soft music iv Mothers voice Touch is extremely important for preterm babies Skintoskin kangaroo carequot fosters improved oxygenation S6 E8 Grey s Anatomy 19 Newborn Re exes seem A re ex is an automatic response to a particular form of stimulation Some re exes have survival value rooting Others form the basis for complex motor skills Disappearance of newborn re exes happens during the first 6 months Infants gradually increases voluntary control over behavior 20 Newborn Re exes Video a b c d e f Rooting helps newborn find nipple Sucking automatic re ex Eye blinking helps form strong stimulation Babinski toes fan toes curl Moro Re ex cling to caregiver Escape no suffocation 21 Newborn States a Newborn infants move in and out of 5 stages of arousal i Regular sleep 9 body is almost motionless and heart rate breathing and brainwave activity are slow and even ii Irregular sleep 9 brainwave activity is similar to that of waking state iii Drowsiness 9 falling asleep or waking up iv Quiet alertness 9 body is inactive but eyes are open and attentive make sense of noises in the environment v Waking activity 9 frequent bursts of uncoordinated movements 22 Crying a Crying is the first way that babies communicate their physical needs b Also cry in response to temperature change or noise c Crying typically peaks at about 6 weeks and then declines d Soothing Crying Infants i Feeding ii Diaper changing iii Rocking or walking e Abnormal Crying i The cries of braindamaged babies and those who have experienced prenatal and birth complications are often shorter in duration ii When a baby s cries are unpleasant and the infant is difficult to soothe parents may become frustrated and angry putting them at greater risk to harm baby 23 Infant Crying is Normal Vide a Babies cry to communicate b Normal part of growth c Crying is a late sign of hunger 24 Mom Father Interpret Crying Video a Men and women s brain react differently to babies crying b Women s brain go from rest to intentive c Men s stay at rest 25 Sensory Capacities a Touch i Sensitivity to touch and to pain is present at birth ii Helps stimulate early physical growth and emotional development iii Newborns use touch to investigate the world b Taste and Smell i Newborns can distinguish basic tastes and communicate their taste preferences ii Certain odor preferences odor of newborns lactating breast are present at birth c Hearing i Prefer complex sounds voices and noises instead of pure tones ii Young infants listen longer to human speech than to structurally similar nonspeech sounds iii Can hear from 6 months in the womb d Vision i Vision is least developed of newborn baby s senses ii Newborn s cannot focus their eyes very well and their vision acuity or freeness of discrimination is limited
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'