Exam 1 Study Guide - Nutrition 101
Exam 1 Study Guide - Nutrition 101 Nutrition 101
Popular in Nutrition 101-001 Intro Human Nutrition
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kennedy Patterson on Thursday January 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Nutrition 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Lori Greene in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 703 views. For similar materials see Nutrition 101-001 Intro Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/29/15
Exam 1 Study Guide 2215 a taste amp flavor liking high fat foods appears to be universally common preference eating cereal every morning because they have always eaten cereal for breakfast eating a familiar food can be comforting people tend to prefer the foods they grew up eating most people enjoy companionship while eating people often eat foods that are accessible quick and easy to prepare and within their financial means people tend to like particular foods associated with happy occasions some people cannot eat when they are emotionally upset others may eat in response to a variety of emotional stimuli to relieve boredom or depression or to calm anxiety food choices may reflect peoples religious beliefs political views or environmental concerns people select foods and supplements that they believe will improve their physical appearance consumers make food choices they believe will improve their health a 1 Macronutrientenergy 2 Complex Nutrients 3 Organic Nutrients carbon 1 Macronutrientenergy 2 Complex Nutrients 3 Organic Nutrients carbon 1 Macronutrientenergy 2 Complex Nutrients 3 Organic Nutrients carbon 2 1 Complex Nutrients 2 Organic Nutrients carbon lt Exam 1 Study Guide 2215 1 Simple 2 Inorganic no carbon vi 1 Simple 2 Inorganic no carbon b i must be obtained from foods there are about 40 ii can be synthesized by the body iii compounds that do not fit into the 6 classes of nutrients 1 nonnutrient compounds in plants that have biological activity in the body a i Organic provide energy need large amounts grams ii Carbs proteins lipids iii Calories are units to measure energy iv Food energy is measured in kilocalories 1000 calories 1 kcal v 1 kilocalorie energy required to raise 1 kg in water 1 C vi Calories are useful in comparing the energy available from different foods when we are deciding what food to eat vii Carbohydrates 4kcalgm Proteins 4kcalgm Fats 9kcalgm Alcohol 7kcalgm Vs a Measure of the energy a food provides relative to the weight of the food b Measure of the nutrients a food provides relative to the weight of the food a Nutrition experts have produced a set of standards that define the amounts of energy nutrients other dietary components and physical activity that best support health b Reflect the collaborative efforts of researchers in both the US and Canada a Qualified Nutrition Professions Exam 1 Study Guide 2215 i Registered Dietitians ii Some Physicians b Research Studies i Doubleblind randomized control trial is gold standard ii wwwpubmedcom sufficient energy and enough nutrients enough but not too much key is to select high nutrient density foods occasionally low nutrient density foods Eat the Rainbowquot maximum nutrients on a limited energy budget avoid WanUm empty kcal foods a Emphasizes a variety of fruits vegetables whole grains and fat free and lowfat milk products b Includes lean meats poultry seafood legumes eggs seeds and nuts c Is low in saturated and trans fats cholesterol salt sodium and added sugars d Stays within your daily energy needs for your recommended body weight a The current nutrition guide published by the United States Department of Agriculture a food circle depicting a place setting with a plate and glass divided into five food groups H1 i l l i a Vegetables ChooseMyPIategov a Grains 6 oz Fruits 2 cups Vegetables 212 cups Meat 512 oz Milk 3 cups a Serving size on label does not always match USDA food patterns b Look at serving size first then calories then sugars etc c Dailey Value quot on label is based on a 2000 calorie daily diet d Health claims must meet FDA Definitions i Reduces risk of breast cancer must have evidence to back this statement Exam 1 Study Guide 2215 e StructureFunction claims do not require FDA approval i Ex Improves memory or builds strong bones 39 a i Process of digestion begins in the mouth 1 Chewing and crushing food pieces 2 Fluids from foodbeverages and from salivary glands blend with food for easy swallowing iii Carbohydrate digestion begins here iv 1 Circular muscle surrounding and able to close a body opening 2 Keeps the flow of food in one direction 3 There are multiple throughout the GI tract that regulate the flow of food particles a Upper Esophageal Sphincter mouthpharynx to esophagus b Lower Esophageal Sphincter esophagus to stomach c Pyloric Sphincter stomach to small intestine d Ileocecal Valve small intestine to large intestine e Two sphincters of the anus b i Upper esophageal sphincter opens and food enters the esophagus 1 Sphincter muscle at each end of the esophagus ii Food moves through the esophagus and passes through a hole in the diaphragm iii Lower esophageal sphincter opens to allow food into the stomach c i Food particles enter stomach upon the opening of the lower esophageal sphincter ii Food slowly transfers from the upper portion of stomach to the lower portion 1 At the same time juices are added to the food and ground into semiliquid mass called chime iii Strongest muscle of the GI tract Exam 1 Study Guide 2215 iv Thickest walls v Stomach wall releases gastric juices until chyme is liquefied vi Pyloric sphincter opens about 3 times per minute to allow chyme food contents into the small intestine vii Digestion of carbohydrates continue in the stomach and the digestion of protein and fat begin in the stomach d i 10 feet of tubing ii Cyme enters into the small intestine as they pyloric sphincter opens 1 The pyloric sphincter only allows a small amount of food at one time to pass by iii Chyme bypasses the opening of the common bile duct which drops fluid 1 The fluid is from the gallbladder and the pancreas iv 1 Duodenum 2 Jejunum 3 Ileum v Most digestion occurs in the small intestine e i Remaining contents enter the large intestine through the Ileocecal valve ii Large intestine withdraws water as intestinal contents pass to the rectum 1 Leaves a semisolid waste iii Rectum and anal muscles hold back waste until rectal muscles relax and 2 anal sphincters open f i wavelike muscular contractions of the GI tract that push the contents 1 Occurs continuously ii GI tract is ringed with circular muscles and surrounding the rings are longitudinal muscles 1 Circular muscles tighten and long muscles relax tube is constricted 2 Circular muscles relax and long muscles tighten tube bulges 3 Stomach has 3rd layer of diagonal muscles iii Sphincters muscles open and close periodically Exam 1 Study Guide 2215 chews and mixes food with saliva directs food from mouth to esophagus secrete saliva passes food from the mouth to stomach allow passage from mouth to esophagus and from esophagus to stomach prevent backflow f churns mixes and grinds food to liquid mass adds acid enzymes and fluid g allows passage from stomach to small intestine prevents backflow from small intestine h manufactures bile salts detergentlike substances to help digest fats i stores bile until needed j conducts bile from the gallbladder to the small intestine a DQDO39QJ 1 Squirt just enough saliva to moisten food 2 Saliva contains water salts mucus and enzymes 3 Initiated carbohydrate digestion 4 Not acidic very neutral juices 1 Gastric glands secrete gastric juice 2 Gastric juices contain water enzymes and hydrochloric acid 3 Stomach contents is highly acidic pH of 2 4 Stomach will protect itself from the acidic juiced by secreting mucus iii iv 1 Pancreatic juice ex pancreatic lipase enters into the digestive process in the duodenum a Pancreatic juice contains enzymes that act on all 3 macronutrients b Contains sodium bicarbonate which helps to neutralize the chime that has entered from the stomach Exam 1 Study Guide 2215 c Chime remains neutral or slightly basic from this point forward 2 Bile also enters into the digestive process in the duodenum a Liver continuously produces bile and it is stored in the gallbladder b Bile is an emulsifier not an enzyme 3 Cells of the intestinal wall also have digestive enzymes b i Enzymes are proteins that facilitate a chemical reaction ii Identified by the organ they come from and the nutrient breakdown ex gastric lipase 1 stomach enzyme to break down lipidsquot iii Enzymes in digestion facilitate hydrolysis c the addition of water to break a molecule into smaller pieces a Most absorption occurs in the small intestine b Fibers are not absorbed and continue through the digestive tract i Carry some minerals bile additives and contaminants out of the body ii Helps exercise GI muscles and keeps them strong to perform peristalsis c Intestinal bacteria ferment some fibers producing water gas and small fragments of fat in the large intestine d Large Intestine retrieves material that it can use i Water and dissolved salts e Blood continuously comes by the surface of the SI and carries nutrients away f Nutrient molecules are trapped in the microvilli tiny fingerlike projections on each cell villi g Nutrient molecules are digested further by enzymes on the microvilli and then absorbed into the cell h Absorption typically occurs by diffusion a Prebiotics Food for probiotics b Probiotics bacteria found in foods and supplements that are beneficial to heath i Alleviate diarrhea constipation IBS ulcers allergies Exam 1 Study Guide 2215 2000kcal X 55kcal from carb w kcals from Carbohydrate 2000kcal X 20kcal from protein 400 kcals from Protein 2000kcal X 25kcal from fat 500 kcals from Fat Carbohydrates 4kcalgm Proteins 4kcalgm Fats 9kcalgm Alcohol 7kcalgm If a granola bar has 19 grams of carbohydrate how many kcal come from carbohydrate i 19 g X 4 76 kcal from carbs If a cup of soup has 4 grams of fat how many kcal come from fat i 4 g X 9 36 kcal from fat If a container of yogurt has 5 grams of protein how many kcal come from protein i 5 g X 4 20 kcal from protein If a sandwich has 400 calories and 41 of the calories come from fat how many grams of fat does the sandwich contain i 400 X 41 164 kcal from fat ii 164 kcal 9 1822 g of fat If a pizza slice has 250 calories and 20 of the calories come from protein how many grams of protein does the slice contain i 250 kcal X 2 50 kcal from protein ii 50 kcal 4 125 g of protein A slice of cheese is 100 kcals and has 3 grams of fat How many kcals in the cheese come from fat i 3g X 9 27kca Calculate grams carbohydrate in a 1500 kcal meal plan if planning 60 of kcalories from carbohydrate can be done for all macronutrients i 1500 kcal X 6 kcal 900 kcal from CHO ii 9004 225 CHO You plan a 2000 kcalorie weight reduction diet plan for your healthy 35year old female client The diet you planned contains 55 kcals from carbohydrates 20 kcals from protein and 25 kcals from fat Calculate the kcals and grams of each macronutrient your client should be eating on this regimen 1100kcal 4kcalgm from carb E grams Carbohydrate 400kcal 4 kcalgm from protein 100 grams Protein 500kcal 9kcalgm from fat 5556 grams Fat Exam 1 Study Guide 2215 True or False 1 8 9 10 11 No single food supplies all the nutrients the body needs to function Essential nutrients can be synthesized by the body The body is composed of mostly carbohydrate protein vitamins and minerals Micronutrients are needed in large amounts and are typically recommended in grams Vitamins are energy yielding Both vitamins and minerals are organic Alcohol is not considered a nutrient Adequate Intake AI is a nutrient recommendation based on observed or experimentally determined approximation On a food label ingredients are listed from the highest amount to the lowest amount Most absorption and digestion occurs in the small intestine The recommended Dietary Allowance RDA is the average requirement of nutrient for health individuals and is only used to assess nutrient adequacy of population Matching 1 Circular Muscles surrounding and able to close a body opening 2 Chemical substances obtained from food 3 The process by which food is broken down 4 Nutrients that must be obtained from food 5 AMDR for carbohydrate 6 AMDR for protein 7 AMDRfor fat 8 Wavelike muscular contractions of the GI tract that push the contents 9 10 The science of nutrients within the body The foods and beverages a person eats met E I III I I S I I II I I 45 65 1 9 3596 E I II I I Peristalsis G 35 Exam 1 Study Guide 2215 Fill i 1 8 9 10 11 n the Blanks List 4 factors that influence food choices List the 6 major classes of nutrients Highlight blue those that are micronutrients highlight yellow that are macronutrients The is the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is unlikely to have adverse health effects List the kcaIgm for Carbs Fats Protein Alcohol a Carbs b Fats c Protein d Alcohol List the 6 meal planning principles List the 5 food groups The is the amount of a nutrient needed to meet the requirements of almost all healthy individuals Promotes heart healthquot is an example of a claim Prevents osteoporosisquot is an example of a Excellent source of fiberquot is an example of a are bacteria found in foods amp supplements that are beneficial for health while are the food for these bacteria Secretions of the Digestive Tract List the secretion as well as what the secretion is breaking down 1 Stomach Pancreas Salivary glands Gallbladder Small Intestine
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