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Pre-Chem 115 Study Guide

by: Andrea Alexander

Pre-Chem 115 Study Guide CHEM 115

Andrea Alexander
GPA 3.85
Chemistry 115
Maura Corcoran

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About this Document

This is a study guide for those taking the Chemistry 115 placement exam at SFSU. This is a packet of 30 pages of very thorough notes from chapters 1-15 of a high school chemistry textbook, focused ...
Chemistry 115
Maura Corcoran
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Andrea Alexander on Thursday January 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 115 at San Francisco State University taught by Maura Corcoran in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 333 views. For similar materials see Chemistry 115 in Chemistry at San Francisco State University.


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Date Created: 01/29/15
Assigned Readings Week 1 Week 1 Campbell pgs 110 Introduction Themes in the Study of Life Evolution is The process of change that has transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity of organisms living today The idea that organisms living on Earth today are the modified descendants of common ancestors Characteristics of living things Ordered structures Regulation Energy processing Evolutionary adaptation Growth and development Response to the environment Reproduction Reductionism the reduction of complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study Ex Watson and Crick studied the molecular structure of DNA to infer how this molecule could serve as the chemical basis of inheritance Levels of biological organization Biosphere all environments on earth inhabited by life Ecosystem All living things within a given area and their interactions both living and nonliving Community The entire array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem Population all individuals of a species living within the bounds of a specific area Organisms Individual living things Organsorgan systems A body part consisting of two or more tissues that carries out a particular function in the body Tissues A group of similar cells Cells life s fundamental unit of structure and function Organelles functional components that make up cells Molecules chemical structure consisting of two or more atoms Organisms interact with their environments exchanging matter and energy involves the transformation of one form of energy to another Structure and Function are correlated Form fits function Analyzing a structure can give us clues about what it does and how it works Eukaryotic vs Prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic x x k r k L 39 7 l rm l k y l Prokaryotic Intro to DNA Each chromosome has one very long DNA molecule with hundredsthousands of genes arranged along its length ll U l ll l Each molecule made up of two chains arranged in double helix comprised of nucleotides DNA provides he blueprints for proteins to actually build and maintain the cell and carry out its activities However this is controlled indirectly as RNA serves as an intermediary Campbell pgs 393394 Prions Model created by Stanley Prusiner in 1980 s but greeted with much skepticism Misfolded protein that causes other proteins to misfold Incubation period of at least 10 years before symptoms develop Prions are virtually indestructible No known cure for prion diseases Causes degenerative brain diseases Most likely transmitted in food Prionladen beef from cattle causes mad cow disease Campbell pgs 98103 Cells Prokaryotic cells DNA found in nonmembranebound nucleoid No memberanebound organelles Generally small Eukaryotic cells DNA found in membranebound nucleus Membranebound organelles Generally large Both Bound by plasma membrane Contain chromosomes Have ribosomes Both have cytoplasm Campbell pgs 9495 Size and Scale Microscope developed in 1590 Light microscope LM Visible light passed through specimen and then through glass lenses which refract the light and magnify it Magnification ratio of an object s image size to its real size Resolution clarity of the image Contrast accentuation of different parts of a sample making them stand out visually Electron microscope EM Focuses beam of electrons through specimen and onto its surface Scanning electron microscope SEM Transmission electron microscope TEM Campbell pgs 8689 Nucleic Acids Class of compounds containing DNA and RNA Macromolecules Polynucleotide consists of monomers called nucleotides Nucleotide is made of nitrogenous base 5carbon sugar and phosphate group Two components of nitrogenous base nucleoside Pyrimidine sixmembered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms C T U Purine Larger sixmembered ring fused to a fivemembered ring A G Ribose Sugar connected to the nitrogenous base of RNA Deoxyribose Sugar connected to nitrogenous base of DNA same but lacks oxygen Adjacent nucleotides are joined by phosphodiester linkage Campbell pg 40 Hydrogen Bonds When a hydrogen atom bonded to an electronegative atom is attracted to another electronegative atom Fluorine oxygen nitrogen 9 Hydrogen Most notably found in water DNA Campbell pgs 4647 Structure of Water Water is the biological medium of earth Two hydrogen atoms joined to oxygen atom by single covalent bonds Water is a polar molecule since electrons of covalent bond spend more time closer to oxygen then to the hydrogen Two ends of molecule have opposite charge Hydrogen bonding between hydrogen of one H20 molecule and oxygen of another Viruses reading Bacteria are living things Made of cells Proteinproducing Mechanism for extracting energy from environment Can get rid of waste Viruses are NOT living Lytic cycle cycle used by some viruses to replicate themselves in which the host cell is destroyed by viral rupture of the plasma membrane Virus brings its DNA or RNA and injects it into a living host cell Expresses virus disease once it destroys the hosts ability to express its own genes Replicate to make clones which quotbust out of nucleus and rapidly spread and keep infecting cells Lysogenic cycle Virus integrates its DNA with host DNA and stays there replicating each time the host cell divides Viruses cause smallpox chickenpox measles mumps rabies polio herpes AIDS some forms of cancer and hepatitis colds and flus Vaccines Antibodies are produced naturally in the body which recognize virus particles and bind to them blocking their life cycle Tcell recognize virusinfected cells and destroy them Both natural components have quotmemoryquot of fighting infection The first time attacking an infection might be slow but once it s cleared immune system retains clones of antibodies and t cells so that next time there is a rapid response Vaccinations elicit an initial immune response Prions reading Proteins are nonliving Prion misfolded protein Mishapen proteins will become deformed and then go on to deform more prion proteins upon contact resulting in a chain reaction that can lead to the destruction of brain cells Spongelike holes in the brain form death follows Week 2 Campbell pgs 516517 Endosymbiosis Campbell pgs 305310 the Discovery of the Structure of DNA II quotNY Times Rivalry among DNA Sleuths Comes Alive in Letters Campbell pgs 328331 from Genes to Proteins Campbell pgs 344348 Mutations genes transcription translation Week 3 quotGot Silk reading quotHenrietta s Dancequot reading Campbell pg 332 Promoters Campbell pgs 396397 Human protein production in bacteria Campbell pgs 418419 Transgenic Animals quotMaderquot reading quotAnother Campbell Book reading Week 4 No readings Exam on 219 or 220


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