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Z370 Management Final Study Guide

by: Elizabeth Frabotta

Z370 Management Final Study Guide BUS-Z 37

Marketplace > Indiana University > Business > BUS-Z 37 > Z370 Management Final Study Guide
Elizabeth Frabotta
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Study guide for Z370 Final Exam
Gonzalez-Mule E
Study Guide
50 ?





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This 28 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elizabeth Frabotta on Friday November 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BUS-Z 37 at Indiana University taught by Gonzalez-Mule E in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 188 views. For similar materials see I-CORE - LEADERSHIP COMPONENT in Business at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 11/13/15
Z370 Final Compensation  Compensation Systems manage 2 employee benefits o Direct  Pay given directly to the employee in the form of money o Indirect  Employer pays for something employee receives (either legally required or optional)  Compensation System o Direct  Base Pay  To determine: o External Consideration  Strategic level of compensation in comparison to similar employers in industry  3 Company Strategies  Lead – pay above industry avg, attracts new employees, retains current employees, enhances employee satisfaction  Meet – pay at industry avg, avg at attracting new employees, retaining employees, and enhancing satisfaction  Lag – pay below industry avg, poor at attracting new employees, retaining employees, good at controlling labor costs, and poor at enhancing satisfaction o Internal Considerations  Ways they determine how to pay people consistently w/ their contribution Either through:  Job Structure  Pay based on job’s value to company  Focus on “Compensable Factors” of job  Skill or Competency Structure  Pay based on employee’s individual contribution  Focus on personal growth and development  Salary – set amount of money received for time worked  Job Pay Structure: Salary Bands o Pay Policy Line – allows a company to adjust compensation for all jobs to Lead, Meet, or Lag based on Strategic Considerations o Pay Banding  Pros: allows rewards for good performance without promotion, allows for higher salaries & flexibility with new hires  Cons: Ceiling on rewards that can be given w/out promotion  Can increase labor costs  Equity concerns with individuals in same job  Incentive Pay  Additional money based on their individual performance  Bonus, Commission, Profit Sharing, Gainsharing, Stock Options o Indirect  Legally Required  Social security, Unemployment compensation, workers' compensation, family and medical leave, some health insurance  Optional  Paid time off (holidays, sick leave, vacation), additional health insurance, Disability insurance, life insurance, tuition reimbursement, dependent care, flexible work schedules  Linking Pay and Performance o Merit Raises  Increases in base pay o Lump Sum Bonuses o Commission o Executive Stock Options o Employee Stock Options  Employee-Based Pay: Skills, Knowledge, and Competencies  Group Incentives o When to: workers are dependent on one another to achieve company goals, or product has to pass through various stages of a production line to reach completion o Provide incentives for people to cooperate w/ one another & think about their portion of the task’s overall impact o When companies need workers to band together o 2 Types  Profit Sharing  Company determines how much profit a work unit made in a year, shares some of the profits with the workers in the form of a bonus  Every member receives the same amount of bonus—all are perceived to share equally in the work  Gainsharing  Short-term and specific  Workers face a particular problem costing the company money, pre-set amount of time to solve it  Workers given a bonus consisting of % of savings to company  Employee Benefits o About 40% of base salary o Health Care o Retirement o Paid Time Off o Reimbursement for Training or Education o Child Care o Legally Require  Social Security, Workers’ Compensation Motivation  Core Rules o Money matters…but it is not enough o Everyone’s motivations are unique o Punishment does not motivate beyond minimum effort o Low performance may not be due to low motivation o Lack of motivation is not about laziness or apathy; depends on situation  Expectancy Theory o Motivation = 3 Employee Beliefs  Expectancy  Do they think they can actually do what you want?  Goal-Setting o Let workers participate in goal setting to enhance acceptance o Publicly monitor progress and celebrate success o Keep time frames relatively short o If goals aren’t met, work with individual to develop plan o SMART Goals  Specific (behaviors clearly identified)  Measurable (finite amount required, know when goal is met)  Attainable & Acceptable (“stretch goals are difficult but doable, people “buy in” and commit to goal)  Relevant (know why completing goal is important)  Time bound (clear deadlines to give urgency)   Instrumentality  If they do it, will it lead to an outcome?  Reinforcement Theory o Consistency in rewards and punishment is important o Behavior that is rewarded is repeated o Behavior that is punished is not repeated  Positive Reinforcement  Consequence = reward  person will do behavior more often  Extinction  Consequence = reward  remove the consequence, Person will do the behavior less often  Punishment  Consequence = punishment, Person will do the behavior less often  Negative Reinforcement  Consequence = punishment, remove the consequence, Person will do the behavior more often o Reinforcing with Compensation  Clearly tie pay to performance  Ensure pay isn’t rewarding the wrong things  Don’t make it too difficult for employees to get rewards  Valence  Is the outcome desirable (or avoiding it undesirable?)  Equity Theory o Believe you’re being treated unfairly or “Someone else is getting more for doing less”   I either lower my work level (inputs) or find a way to get more reward (outputs). o Outcome  Are others working as hard as me, am I getting same rewards for same amount of work? o Process  Are rewards determined fairly? Do I have say in how they’re determined? o Interpersonal Treatment  Am I treated the same as others? Am I treated with respect/dignity?  Maslow’s Hierarchy o Bottom to Top of Pyramid o Physiological Needs – basic needs o Safety Needs o Social Needs – allow time for employee socialization o Self-Actualization & Esteem Needs – consider life-balance programs  Understand what needs you need to be meeting at any given time  Job Characteristics Model o People are motivated by particular kinds of work  Want to increase Enrichment, decrease Enlargement  5 core job dimensions – vital characteristics of work  Proposes a link between dimensions and psychological states of worker o Enrichment  Skill Variety  Range in number of skills needed for job  Task Identity  Degree to which a job requires completion of a whole or identifiable piece of work (ex. Artists enjoy high task identity)  Task Significance  Degree to which the job has a direct effect on work or lives of others  Autonomy  Freedom to select how and when particular tasks are performed  Feedback  Degree to which individuals receive knowledge of their results from job itself o Enlargement  More of the same kind of work  Decrease this o 5 dimensions that influence beneficial work outcomes through critical states (states are explanation of why characteristics influence outcomes) o Experience meaningfulness is most important one, really relates to all outcomes o Job-based theory - ignores the people in jobs o Strength of employee growth need tries to get at employee/person  McClelland’s Learned Needs o Need for Achievement (NAch)  Challenging projects  Work w/ other NAch people  Fair & balanced feedback o Need for Affiliation (NAff)  Work in group setting with other NAffs  Avoid uncertainty, risk, & competition  Build rapport before feedback o Need for Power (NP)  Use competition as motivator  Give direct feedback & guidance toward goals  When you can, let them be in charge  Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory o Two factors needed in order to motivate employees into higher performance o Two sets of factors are independent and not just two ends of one scale o Can be satisfied at work with hygiene factors and not be motivated, or can be motivated but unsatisfied with hygiene factors o Hygiene Factors  Working conditions, quality of supervision, salary, security, interpersonal relations o Motivation Factors  Achievement, recognition, advancement, growth on the job  Theory of Purposeful Work Behavior o Considers person and environment o Individuals have different needs  Achievement, affiliation, power, autonomy o Job characteristic that is motivating for one might not be for another o Combination of Five Factor Model & JCM o People’s personality determines what is motivating**  Current Thinking o Recognize individual differences o Strive for equity, not equality  Don’t pay everyone the same, have pay reflect input to organization o Do all you can to make work more interesting o Link goal attainment and behaviors to rewards and punishments  How do Managers Appear Equitable? o Be transparent about how rewards given o Be clear about what inputs are valued o Give everyone same opportunities o Allow people to have a say in performance systems o Manage “shirkers” so others don’t think they can get away with “shirking” (slacking off) o Employee Engagement  Competitive Advantage  Engaged Employees Create Value Through: o Higher productivity o Better customer service o Lower turnover rates o More creative ideas  Components of Employee Engagement o Job Satisfaction  Positive attitudes about your job  Consistent with values  Meets expectations of what a good job is  Like the job  Want to do well at job  Ways to Improve Job Satisfaction  Let people be themselves  Share information freely  Focus on and develop employees’ strengths  Make sure organization has and adheres to values  Show employees how their work contributes to company’s outcomes  Have rules people believe in  Job Enrichment Minimize Bureaucracy  Meet Maslow’s Social Needs  New Ideas from Research  Ways to Measure Job Satisfaction  Exit Interview o Initial Interview  Departing employees meet w/ HR o Data Analysis  Responses analyzed for trends o Corrective Measures  Toxic people dealt with  Negative work practices corrected o Physical and Mental Health  Rationale  Clear link between work performance and physical and mental health  Wellness at work increases normative and continuance commitment  Benefits  Increased/consistent productivity and attendance  Decreased health insurance premiums  Determining Return on Wellness Programs  Find Baseline Numbers o Insurance premiums/increases related to particular conditions o Costs of absenteeism and lost productivity related to particular conditions   Implement the Program o Determine cost of program and its management o Track change in related expenses   Calculate Return on Investment o What did we spend? o What cost savings did we incur?  Employee Assistance Programs/Rehabilitation  Company pays a pear employee fee to enroll in or start EAP o Incident prompts employee referral to EAP and/or employee contacts EAP  EAP advises employee on services available and insurance coverage  Average ROI in the US: $4/$1 o Organizational Commitment  Affective Commitment  Normative Commitment  Continuance Commitment Coaching  Coaching o Focused on specific skills or behaviors o Providing both instruction and feedback on an ongoing basis o One part of Mentoring o Goal: Correct behavior o Focus on immediate behavioral change o Usually done in a boss/subordinate relationship o Relies on skill of person giving feedback  Sequence of Feedback  State observed behavior as specifically as possible  Describe the impact of behavior on self and others  Provide suggestions for improvement o Describe, don’t judge o Balance positive and negative feedback o Two or three points, beware feedback overload o Praise: be specific, gratitude & encouragement, timely, don’t do it too often  Mentoring o General relationship fulfilling one or more of these:  Signaling/Sponsorship  Protection or “buffering”  Challenges and stretch opportunities  Exposure and visibility  Coaching  All about growth  Goal: Supporting protégé’s personal and professional growth  Focus on long-term personal and career development  Mentor is seldom the protégé’s boss  Relies on strength of relationship  Best Practices o Be specific o Talk about behaviors rather than traits o Be timely o Focus on future o Provide multiple sources of information for improvement o Coaching always has multiple sources and can be used in a relative sense (compare employee to someone else who knows how to do that) o Feedback should be absolute  Preferences for Work Feedback o Work Attitudes  Those who are more committed tend to want more feedback, want to stay with company  People who are more satisfied want to know how they’re doing at work  3 Needs: Achievement, Power, Affiliation  Achievement oriented like consistent feedback as to how they’re progressing towards goal  Conscientious  Need for Achievement  Set more difficult goals  Prefer more feedback o Individual Differences  Across Generations  When (and where) you were born   Beliefs about how the world works (Worldview)   Generationally Based Work Tendencies  About Generational Differences  Psychological Stages of Human Development (Massey) o Imprinting (1-7)  Listen to everything our parents tell us and believe it to be true o Modeling (7-13)  More in-tune with the world and our experiences o Socialization (14-20)  Influenced by peers and media o Worldview is shaped between Imprinting and Modeling  Defining Events o Shape worldview o We believe experiences, not stories  US Educational System o Standardized testing o Parental involvement  Generational Groups in US Workforce  Traditionalists o 1900-1945 o Military influence o Loyal, family-focused, patriotic, hierarchical, top-down, live-to-work mentality o Learning Style: Read, concentrate, watch, listen o Feedback: subtle, private recognition preferred  Baby Boomers o 1945-1964 o Social justice, Cold War o Fairness, inclusion, social change, optimism, competition o Learning Style:  Face-to-face, listen, read o Feedback: like praise, recognition, and things to display to others, enjoy public recognition  Generation X o 1965-1980 o Corruption, social ills o Self sufficient, distrustful, skeptical, self- focused o Learning Style:  Skim, trial and error, watch o Feedback: do not enjoy public recognition, feedback on results not themselves  Millennials/Gen Y o 1989-1998 o Technology o Parental involvement, technologically dependent, narcissistic, impatient o Learning Style:  Real-time, visual o Puzzling Qualities:  Parental involvement  Expectations of quick promotion  Entitlement  Relaxed views of professionalism  Inability to solve problems o Things that puzzle them:  “Live to Work” mentality  Unwillingness to give answers  Need to answer ringing phone o Feedback: like feedback, will as for it often, want recognition tied to heroes Power  Power o Potential of an individual or group to influence the behavior of another o Political currency o Ability to get someone to do what you want them to do o Central part of every manager’s job  Powerful Managers… o Manage their teams o Manage the context for their team  Get items on and off agendas  Have advance knowledge of new initiatives  Obtain desired resources  Get fast access to decision-makers  Model of Power and Influence o Power comes from personal (charisma, etc.) and positional power o More powerful people use different strategies o More powerful individuals can develop more trusting relationships  Positional Power – comes from job w/in organization o Formal Authority  Position in hierarchy  Ability to reward or punish o Relevance  Involvement in things that are strategically relevant to organization o Centrality  Exposure to key individuals  Working with many different people o Autonomy  Discretion in decision-making o Visibility  Public nature of work  Personal Power o Expertise  Relevant knowledge and skills o Track Record  Positive past experiences o Attractiveness  Power of personal appearance o Affection  Likability  Strength of relationships o Personal Magnetism  Charisma  Communication skills o Coercion  Threats, immediacy, “In Your Face”  Power Should Enhance Trust o Trust = “willingness to be vulnerable” to someone  Type 1: Calculus Based Trust  Logical decision to trust based on: o Past performance o System protections o Commerce relationships  Type 2: Identity-Based Trust  Emotional decision to trust based on: o Shared values o All relationships have both trust and distrust o Mental Bar Code = shortcut/inventory, or “What trust/distrust is in this person for me?”  Distrust o Definition: Actively protecting yourself, avoiding vulnerability o What Prompts Distrust?  Reputation  Disconnected words and actions  Break of promise  Behaviors resulting in harm o Impact  Makes relationships difficult to maintain  Takes significant time and energy  Repairing Trust o Ultimately leads to better outcome in long-run o Steps:  Apology is necessary  Explanation of how/why break occurred  Provide a “safety net” to protect in future  Allow for monitoring and follow-up Influence  What Do I Want? o Need clear purpose o Define your interest first, then your positions  Who am I influencing? o Align how your interests are similar to theirs o Define their goals o Define their pressures and constraints  What do they need? o Make it easy for them to agree  Influences Strategies o Retribution  “If you don’t do X, you’ll regret it.”  A threat  Use When:  You don’t need ongoing commitment  Can monitor other person’s behavior  Quality and/or innovation don’t matter to the outcome  No other alternatives exist  Need immediate compliance, do it sparingly o Reciprocity  “If you do X, you’ll get Y.”  Use When:  Clear rules govern transaction  Have actual control over something the other person wants  Can specify levels of quality needed for the reward  Can give reward again if you need the behavior in the future o Reason  “You should do X because…”  Use When:  Ample time and evidence for attitude change  Need this person to convince others  Need person to engage in behavior long-term  Can involve others in problem solving or decision making  Logical argument for why someone should do something  Appeals to cognition, weighing costs & benefits o Personal Appeal  “Do X because you like me.”  Use When:  Personal relationship is well established  Regularly exchange favors w/ person  Relationship will not be compromised by request  Have ample capital in relationship bank account o Ingratiation  Using praise or flattery to put someone in a good mood prior to making request o Coalition  Seeking the help of other people to get someone to do what you want, or using support of others to get someone to agree with you o Legitimizing  Establishing legitimacy of request by appealing to authority or pointing out consistency with existing values or norms o Consultation  Seeking someone’s participation in planning or developing something he/she will ultimately need to buy into o Inspirational Appeal  Arousing an individual’s enthusiasm by appealing to values, ideals, and aspirations  Research on Managers and Influence o Most CEOs think they get power from personality & leadership skills o Straightforward communication is the most effective form of influence o Managers THINK they use Reason or Personal Appeal when often using implied Retribution o Training improves managers’ influence  Upward Influence: Managing Your Boss o Understand Your Boss  Priorities  Mindset  How your job helps boss succeed o Communicate in your Boss’ Preferred Style  Written, face-to-face, text, etc.  Learn preferred style from how they communicate with you o Solve Your Own Problems  Answer questions from other sources before  Never bring problem w/out proposed solution Conflict  2 Types of Conflict o Relationship Conflict  Between people o Task Conflict  Between ideas  Effects of Conflict on Organizations o Positive:  Highlights problems  Motivations understanding  Encourages people to voice new ideas  Challenges status quo o Negative:  Cause stress  Reduces communication  Causes people to resist collaboration  Results in negative stereotyping and group distinctions  Some conflict is necessary  Sources of Conflict o Competition over scarce resources o Ambiguity or uncertainty o Faulty communication or perceptions o Competing roles o Personality clashes o Stress  Responses to Conflict o Competition  High concern for issue, low concern for relationship  Use When:  Issue is really the most important in the dispute  Someone has to be in charge  Safety is an issue  Clear directions need to be issued  To Use:  Be direct  Explain rationale later  Don’t use the strategy too often o Collaboration  High concern for issue, high concern for relationship  Use When:  Relationship and issue both REALLY matter  Have ample time for discussion  Relationship has sufficient trust  To Use:  Define problem together  Focus on interests, not positions  Approach as a problem, not a conflict o Avoidance  Low concern for issue, low concern for relationship  Use When:  Delay will help you address the issue more productively  Issue is trivial and will disappear later  To Use:  Set time limits  Set goals for time out period o Accommodation  Low concern for issue, high concern for relationship  Use When:  The issue REALLY doesn’t matter to you  You’re collecting favors for later  You are outranked  To Use:  Acknowledge the accommodation  Have a rationale  Relationship Conflict o Gather Information  Cite specific behaviors and outcomes o Analyze the Problem  Is it the nature of the job? Work group dynamics? o Have a conversation about the behavior  Focus on why and how change is needed  Best Practices for Handling Conflict o Manage Self  Reflect  Behaviors: observe your reactions, identify your interpretations o Effects: cools you down, increases EQ  Reframe  Behaviors: try out alternative attributions, consider what you miss that others see (and vice versa) o Effects: Think outside current beliefs, formulate questions to generate new data o Manage Conversations  Dig into divisive topics  Behaviors: treat others’ concerns as legitimate, make your reactions public, ask others to help with your own “binds” o Effects: makes divisive topics OK, increases team members’ awareness, depends understanding  Examine competing views  Behaviors: explore competing beliefs before data, ask others what they feel and why o Effects: generates more useful data and range of options, creates more powerful solutions o Manage Relationships  Build trust  Behaviors: Recognize everyone’s assets and liabilities  Reduces feelings of betrayal  Maintain the right to make mistakes  Improves decision-making  Assuming responsibility for learning from mistakes  Accelerates learning Negotiation  “Interaction that occurs when two or more parties attempt to agree on a mutually acceptable outcome in a situation where their preferences for outcomes are negatively related.”  “Use of information and power to affect other party’s behavior within a web of tension.”  Making both parties feel like they won; one party wants something to a degree another party doesn’t want (negatively related)  Negotiation has 2 Kinds of Issues o Tangible  Things in the contract: price, delivery, quantity, other terms o Intangible  Unspoken things: “winning,” reputation, being fair, the relationship  Stages of Negotiation o Planning  Decide how much power you have in situation, where you are on conflict management grid/ concerns  Determine specific goals in negotiation, what you want, why, if you have a BATNA, want to beat your BATNA  Power Stage  Research  Competitive vs. Collaborative  Competitive: Win-Lose o Short-term relationship o Incompatible goals o Emphasizes tangible elements o Strategies: know what things are worth, when you’ll walk away, make your BATNA more attractive o Ex. Buying a car  Collaborative: Win-Win o Long-term goals o Need to find interests both parties share o Emphasizes intangible elements o Relies on trust  Integrative Strategy o Be nice to people but hard on problem o Uncover interests o Identify what a good decision looks like o Listen carefully, write things down as you go o Don’t forget to assert interests aggressively as you work to meet other party’s interests o Opening  When you sit down and talk  Affirm desire for good outcome = Set the Stage  Have a rationale = Offer Opening Bid  Fro both verbal and nonverbal response = Gather Information  Back and forth information gathering o Bargaining  Stay Objective  Separate people from problem  Watch Concessions  Smaller as we near the target point  Use Psychology  Anchoring: first offer is where every discussion after starts, around that offer, provides setting to negotiate around  Contrast: compare other options to less desirable options you saw earlier o Closing and Implementing  Confirm and document details  No celebrations  Take implementation seriously  Preparation Guidelines o What is my goal? o What is my walk-away point? o What will be my opening offer?  Salary Negotiation o Do your homework (know market rate) o How documented reason for request o Understand their constraints/power o Expand bargaining mix beyond salary o Ask, “Is this negotiable?” o Best Practices  Make it clear they can get you  Help them understand your value to firm  Avoid ultimatums  Don’t underestimate power of likeability  Don’t initiation negotiations unless you plan to take the job if they agree Work Team Effectiveness  Organization’s use teams because the outcome of a team’s work will be greater than the sum of all individual’s output  Effective Teams o Interdependent  Know why the group exists & have shared goals o Communicate  Communicate freely amongst themselves o Potency o Cohesion o Resole/Deal with Conflict  Model of Team Effectiveness o Inputs   Organizational context  Team context  Members o Mediators   Processes  How team accomplishes what it wants to do  Emergent States  Ideas  Over time, inputs lead to these processes & team becomes more cohesive  Cohesion is a function of inputs o Outcomes  Cohesion drives performance & outcomes  Interdependence o Pooled  Low-level interdependence o Sequential  Slightly higher level  One person does one piece of work & passes it on to another  Ex. Assembly line  Person 1’s output becomes person 2’s input  Higher than pooled because we have outcomes directly dependent on one another  Takes more time than pooled, but has more efficient outcome (information flow)  Can result in more conflict  Why do we used pooled so often but not sequential for teamwork?  It takes more time**  Disconnected** (ex. Different questions)** o Waiting on the work of another to begin yours o Reciprocal  Very similar to intensive  Everyone is interacting with everyone  o Intensive  Very similar to reciprocal  Everyone is interacting with everyone  Much more difficult to solve a problem  Moving information back and forth required/creativity  use intensive  Common Types of Teams o Functional  “work team”  doing similar function  work together day-in and day-out  usually in same physical location, semi-permanent, same team for a long time w/ similar jobs o Cross-functional  Similar to functional but people w/ different functions  Ex. Design person, marketing person, finance person  Different roles* o Problem-solving  Can be functional or cross-functional  Meet for a short period of time  Get together to solve one problem, once it’s solved it’s done  Ex. Consulting team o Self-managed  Autonomous – no leader  Empower a team by letting them work on their own  Motivational benefits  More satisfied teammates  Advantages: o Can better adapt to environment o Greater commitment/satisfaction bc of autonomy o Streamlined management  Disadvantages: o Not sure what to do without manager or defined tasks o Enhanced groupthink  When a team has an idea and they all just agree; no devil’s advocate; might have a dominant person where everyone agrees with their mentality o Informal norms can be coercive o Virtual  Not geographically co-located  Have to communicate via e-mail, Skype, phone software, etc.  Virtual can also be problem-solving etc., can be a mix of things  Advantages:  Can take turns working  Geographic dispersion can mean greater diversity  Work autonomously (less groupthink) o Not co-located, so it is easier to express ideas and disagreements via e-mail or some impersonal form of communication  Inexpensive infrastructure  Disadvantages:  Communication difficulties o Electronic communication can lead to misinterpretation  Individuals must be able to work autonomously o Very flexible, persons work from home, individuals on team have to be very conscientious and make sure they’re getting the work done  Less cohesion than in-person  Characteristics of members on teams o Selection decisions must consider everyone in the group o Focus on Fit  Supplementary – everyone is similar  Ex. Agreeableness or conscientiousness  Complementary – everyone is different  Ex. Extraversion and introversion o Surface-level characteristics  Age, race, gender o Deep-level characteristics  Personality, competency  Disagreeableness is okay as long as everyone on the team is disagreeable  Agreeable people get offended by the disagreeable people—causing conflict  Shared norms to interact with one another  Stages of Team Development o Ex. Remember the Titans video  Forming Stage  Anxiety, everyone is trying to figure things out  Early stage of team formation that emphasizes not focusing on the task yet, but feeling each other out  Storming  Conflict, most tumultuous part of forming  Question the team’s decision  People who want to be the leader start clashing w/ other members  Point where a lot of teams fail or disband  Norming  Almost simultaneous with Storming  Back and forth with Storming  Performing  Control structures in place that govern how they will behave  Leads to performing: how well teams resolve the storming and norming phase  Can still fail in this phase depending on how well they did in storming & norming  Leverage that synergy they may have created in past two stages  Adjourning  Team Processes o Cohesion & Potency strongly related to member satisfaction and team performance o Will determine what kind of processes the team goes through o Cohesion  How much group members like one another  Attraction team members feel towards one another  Attraction  Task commitment  Group pride  Has very strong effects on performance o Potency  Team’s collective perception if they can accomplish task  Team-level analog of Expectancy  Collective efficacy o Norms  Informal control structure on team  Team’s social ideas of rules and appropriate behavior  Prescription as to how to behave  Want to foster cooperative norms  Mutual understanding  Want to underscore shared goals as manager to get them away from competing  Harmonious interpersonal relationships  Norms can also have negative consequences  Informal pressure to adhere to norms  Violate norms  punishment


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