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Date Created: 11/13/15
ANT101 Chapter one notes pre test 1. Which of the following best defines the culture area concept? d. Small geographic regions in which different societies come to share many similar traits through diffusion. 2. The concept of diffusion is best defined in which of the following ways? The spread of customs, artifacts, and ideas from one society to another. 3. According to Eric Wolf, which of the following statements best characterizes the relationship between anthropology to the sciences and the humanities? The first loyalties of the anthropological fieldworker must lie with the people being studied. 4.Anthropological ethics are usually predicated on the idea that The first loyalties of the anthropological fieldworker must lie with the people being studied. 5. Which of the following is an advantage of fieldwork over laboratory research? 6. It permits the collection of data in its more natural setting. Explanation: Fieldwork is the distinctive method of anthropological research. It involves firsthand observation of behavior and culture in their natural setting. 1. What is the main reason that cultural anthropologists use crosscultural comparison in their research? b. It is an important way of testing the validity of their generalizations about human society and culture. Explanation: Data on many cultures allow us to check whether our interpretation of the relationships we believe are at work in a particular culture are at work in cultures generally. 2. The function of a custom is best defined as which of the following? d. The contributions of a custom to the unity and survival of a society. Explanation: Functionalist cultural anthropologists analyze how customs are adaptive: they help people cope with their environment and influence other parts of a culture. These influences are called the "functions� of those customs. 3. A study that aims to describe or interpret a culture by employing categories used by members of that culture is called a/an ____ study. Explanation: An emic approach is similar to translating one language into another. It seeks to understand a culture as insider's understand it, using terms and experiences that are meaningful to members of the culture being studied. b. fieldwork 4. Boasian empiricism is best defined in which of the following ways? d. A scientific approach that stresses careful observation and description over theorizing. Explanation: Empiricism is the scientific method that emphasizes careful and accurate observation. Franz Boas taught his students that collecting accurate information should take priority over largescale theorizing such as cultural evolutionism. 5. Which of the following would an ethnographer LEAST likely do as a research activity? . d. Mail out questionnaires. Explanation: Cultural anthropologists emphasize direct observation in reallife settings. 6. Nineteenthcentury cultural anthropologists typically adopted which of the following frameworks for interpreting cultural diversity? c. The history of cultures could not be reconstructed, so anthropology should restrict itself to describing rather than interpreting nonWestern ways of life. Explanation: The earliest cultural anthropologists used the concept of cultural evolution to account for the existence of cultures that ranged from simple to complex. Review this content to learn more. 7. Which of the following is an advantage of participant observation over other forms of research about human social behavior? b. Collection of data from people who are behaving as they normally do when outsiders are not present. Explanation: Fieldwork allows the observation of people who would be overlooked by other methods of collecting information. It also allows for trust to develop between the anthropologist and the people being observed, such that they behave in their usual, everyday ways. 8. Which of the following best defines a HOLISTIC view of the human condition? Explanation: Holism is a perspective that treats each part of a culture as systematically related to other parts of that culture. . d. A way of looking at human ideas that shows that they are the immediate causes of human behavior. 9. Diffusionism was an early twentieth century concept that dominated anthropological thinking in __________. a. South America 10. How does an anthropologist's allegiance to the expansion of scientific knowledge compare with the priority of protecting the integrity of the people being studied? c. Scientific knowledge takes precedence over the concerns of the subjects of study. Explanation: Anthropological ethics require first and foremost that those we study are not harmed by our research. Review this content to learn more.
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