chapter 13-14 study guide
chapter 13-14 study guide CHM 132
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Starr walker on Friday November 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CHM 132 at Central Michigan University taught by Dr. Bradley Fahlman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 2 in Chemistry at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 11/13/15
Tables are located at the last pages of the document Le chandelier Principle If a stress is applied to a reaction mixture at equilibrium net reaction occurs in the direction that relieves the stress The concentration Altering equilibrium mixture changes in pressure amp volume PVnRT Increasing pressure shifts to the side with lower number of gas molecules AaqBaq ltgt 2C As temperatures increase the equilibrium shifts from products to reactants Endothermic reaction ABheat ltgt CD Exothermic reaction ABltgt CDheat Adding a catalyst has no effect on the equilibrium CH 14 Acidbase concept Arrhenius Acid A substance that dissociates in water to produce hydrogen H ions HAaqltgt Haq A Arrhenius Base A substance that dissociates in water to produce hydroxide OH ions BronstedIowry acid A substance that can transfer hydrogen ions a proton donor Bronsted Iowrv base A substance that can accept hydrogen ions a proton acceptor HABltgt BHA Conjugate acidbase pair chemical species whose formulas differ only by one hydrogen ion H HClNaOHltgtNaCH20 The stronger an acidbase the weaker the conjugate baseacid Amphoteric can act as a acid or base Conjugate acid will have 1 more proton Conjugate base will remove 1 proton H2CO3HCO3CO3 pHlogH pOHlogOH pOH1400pH H3010quotH30 HAaq H20ltgt H30 A H3010x10quot14OH OH 10x10quot14H If Ka is really smalt0x10quot3 then assume x is really small Adding conjugate base to a solution of a weak acid will decrease pH Bases BaqH20ltgt BH OHaq Kb products iHBilOHl reactants B KaKbKw KaKwKb Salts i Conjugate species from strong acidsC Br etc amp strong base kNa etc NH3H20ltgt NH4 OH Base acid conjugate acid Kb1x10quot5 ii acidic conjugate acids of weak bases NH4 iii iii The charged cations iv Basic conjugate bases of weak acids CN F HPO4 PO4quot3 CH3COOSaIts such as NaCN that are derived from a strong base NaOH and a weak acid HCN yield basic solutions Odium has no effect on pH because its af iated with a strong acid Oxoacids an acid that contains oxygen in addition to hydrogen and other elements The higher the bond strength the weaker the acid NucleophileHas electron pairs that can be donated to a base ie Oxygen Review Louis structure have an understanding of the ice chart and how to apply them to nding concentration Examples 1Woud the pH be greater than equal to or less than 7 after mixing 005M H2504 and 01 M NaOH a greater than 7 Bequa to 7 C less than 7 Dmore information needed 2Woud the pH be greater than equal to or less than 7 after mixing 01 M HCN and 01NaOH A greater than 7 B equal to 7 C less than 7 D more information needed 3The pH of a HCI solution will do which of the following with the addition of LiCI to the solution Ancrease BDecrease CRemain unchanged Dmore information needed 4The solution containing the weak acid acetic acid has a pH of 289 which of the following would not increase the pH of the solution if added to the acetic acid solution A Ammonia acidNH3 BAmmonia chlorideNH4C Csodium hydroxideNaOH DSodium acetate NaOOCCH Commonion effect the shift in the position of an equilibrium on addition of a substance that provides an ion in common ion in common with one of the ions already involved in equilibrium Solution with approximately equal concentration of weak acid conjugate base 0 Moderate pH 0 pH resist change when strong acid or base is added Buffer Solution Requirements 0 HA and A both present 01ltAHAlt10 A and HAgt 100xKa Example Which of the following is a buffer solution A03 M NaHCO3 04 M K2CO3 B05 M HCI 05 M NH4C C10quot6 M HOCI 1 M NaOCI D02 M HCI 03 M KOH E 02 M C2H5C02H 06 M c2H5C02 TABLE 141 Relative Strengths of Conjugate Acid Base Pairs Acid HA Base A Stronger lHCl Oqtc Strong acids 104 Very weak bases Weaker acid HCl 10000 ajssociated Cl Negligible tendency base H2804 in aqueous H804 to be protonated in HN OQ solution N03 aqueous solution H3D H20 HSOJ 304 1 H3P04 HZPO HN O Z N02 HF Weak acids F Weak bases CH3COZH Exist in solution CH3COZ gt Moderate tendency H2003 as a mixture of HCng to be protonated in H28 HA A and H30 HS aqueous solution Nillg NH3 HCN CN HCng J C O 32 J H20 OHquot N H3 Ver weak acids NHf Strong bases W ea ker O H Negligible tendency 02 llU OOo protonated in Stronger acid H to dissociate H aqueous solution base TABLE 142 AcidDissociation Constants at 25 C Molecular Acid Formula Structural Formula KaI pKal Stronger Hydrochloric HCl 11 Cl 2 X 106 63 acid Nitrous HNO2 H o N o 45 gtlt 1W 335 Hydro uoric HF HF 35 X 104 346 t Fortnic HC02H H C OH 18 X 104 374 O HOC C Ascorbic C nao in o 80 X 105 410 Vitamin C C H C H0 H EH CHZOH OH ll Acetic CHSCOZH CH3 C OH 18 x 105 474 Hypochlorous HO Cl H O Cl 35 X iii 8 746 weaker Hydrocyanic HCN H C EN 49 X 10l 0 931 acid Methanol CHSOH CH3OH 29 x 10 1554 9 The proton that is transferred to water when the acid dissociates is shown in red 2012 Pearson Education Inc lpKa log Ka TABLE 143 Stepwise Dissociation Constants for Polyprotic Acids at 25 C Name Formula K 31 Kaz K a3 Carbonic acid H2C03 43 x 107 56 x 1011 Hyclrogen sulfide i H28 10 X l0 7 radii 19 Oxalic acid 11122ch1 59 x 10 2 64 gtlt 10 5 Phosphoric acici 5131904 75 X io3 62 gtlt io8 48 x in13 Sulfuric acid H2504 Very large i2 X 10 2 siiiiiirciia acid H2303 15 x 102 63 x mt8 Because of its very small size Kaz for H28 is difficult to measure and its value is uncertain 2012 Pearson Education Inc TABLE 144 Kb Values tor Some Weak Bases and Ka Values for Their Conjugate Acids at 25 C Base Formula B Kb Conjugate Acicl B H Ka Ammonia NH3 18 X 1T5 NH 56 gtlt it Aniline C115NH2 43 gtlt 1T1 CEHsNiH 23 gtlt i05 Dimethylamine CH32NH 54 gtlt 164 CH32NH2 19 gtlt 1011 Hydraz39me N2H4 89 gtlt iiUi7 N214 11 x 105839 Hydroxylamine NHZOH 91 x 169 NHgOHquot 11 gtlt 1056 Metl nylarmirie CH3NH2 37 x 10 L CH3NH3t 27 gtlt 10 11 2012 Pearson Education Inc Answers 1 b 2c 3b 4b Buffer solution answers Ayes Bno strong acids and strong base do not make buffer C no ratio D no strong acid strong base E yes
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