POLS 1010 Study Guide for Exam 1
POLS 1010 Study Guide for Exam 1 9753
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Allis on Thursday January 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 9753 at Ohio University taught by Dr. Cady in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 180 views. For similar materials see Politics in the United States in Political Science at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 01/29/15
POLS 1010 Exam 1 Review Sheet Government formal institutions and procedures through which a territory and its people are ruled Politics con icts and struggles over the leadership structure and policies of governments Political Efficacy the ability to in uence government and politics Declining political efficacy 9 declining political participation self perpetuating cycle of apathy withdrawal from political life Political efficacy requires knowledge Political indifference lack of knowledge Citizenship informed and active membership in a political community enlightened political engagement Political knowledge includes knowing the limits and possibilities for pursuing one s own individual interests through political action most difficult to acquire To govern is to rule small tribe or big US Autocracy a single individual rules king dictator Oligarchy small group controls most of the governing decisions landowners military officers etc Democracy a system of rule that permits citizens to play a significant part in the governmental process usually through the election of key public officials Constitutional Government system of rule in which formal and effective limits are placed on the powers of government Authoritarian Government system of rule in which the government recognizes no formal limits but may nonetheless be restrained by the power of other social institutions Totalitarian Government system of rule in which government recognizes no formal limits on its power and seeks to absorb or eliminate other social institutions that might challenge it Power in uence over a government s leadership organization or policies Representative Democracy Republic system of government in which the populace selects representatives who play a significant role in governmental decisionmaking Direct Democracy system of rule that permits citizens to vote directly on laws and policies Pluralism the theory that all interests are and should be free to compete for in uence in the government outcome of this competition is compromise and moderation Political Culture broadly shaped values beliefs and attitudes about how the government should function American political culture emphasizes liberty equality and democracy LIBERTY freedom from governmental control personal and economic Limited Government a principle of constitutional government a government whose powers are defined and limited by a constitution Laissezfaire Capitalism an economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately owned and operated for profit with minimal or no government interference E UALITY Equality of Opportunity a widely shared American ideal that all people should have the freedom to use whatever talents and wealth they have to reach their fullest potential Political Equality the right to participate in policies equally based on the principle of one person one votequot Plessy v Ferguson separate but equalquot declared constitutional Brown v Board of Education overturned Plessy doctrine 3 inequality controversies 1 equality of access to public institutions 2 equality of opportunity in private life affirmative action 3 differences in income and wealth economic success is the product of individual effort DEMOCRACY participation of the people in choosing their rulers and the peoples ability to in uence what those rulers do Popular Sovereignty principle of democracy in which political authority rests ultimately in the hands of the people Majority Rule Minority Rights democratic principle that a government follows the preferences of the majority of voters but protects the interests of the minority Conceptions of Americanism constitutional patriotism a creed liberal nationalism more than a creed Warshawsky Huntington deep diversity celebrating diversity multiculturalism Liu Fault Lines Authors Liu Americans have a shared identity in uenced by ideas presented by various media effort to promote American culture should be led by progressives Warshawsky American identity centers around a commonly held set of ideas considered the American way of life assimilation is critical to American identity Elazar political beliefs in the US are unevenly distributed across the country migration patterns 3 types of value systems 1 Moralism community engaging in politics to do good 2 Individualism individual rights 3 Traditionalism uses government to preserve existing social arrangements Declaration of Independence statement of independence from British rule unalienable rights life liberty pursuit of happiness unified colonial groups Articles of Confederation America s first written constitution served as the basis for America s national government until 1789 Confederation system of government in which states retain sovereign authority except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government Shay s Rebellion Daniel Shays led a mob of farmers in a rebellion against Massachusetts government to prevent foreclosures on their land Appealed to Congress to restore order granted some of their demands Representation 74 delegates were chosen 55 attended convention represented every state but Rhode Island 39 signed constitution Convention Controversies Founders only aim was personal enrichment framers were concerned with philosophical and ethical principles Virginia Plan introduced by Edmond Randolph framework for the Constitution that called for representation in the national legislature based on population of each state New Jersey Plan introduced by William Randolph framework for the Constitution that called for equal state representation in the national legislature regardless of population Connecticut Great Compromise agreement reached at the constitutional convention that gave each state an equal number of Senators regardless of population but linked representation in the House of Representatives to population Slavery Controversy slave nonslave states opposed each other ThreeFifths Compromise for purposes of the appointment of congressional seats every slave would count as threefifths of a person Executive Controversy How much power Relatively strong executive Article 3 judicial branch powers Article 5 Amending process 23 Congress 34 of states Article 7 Ratification Constitution became effective when approved by 9 states Checks and Balances each branch of government is able to participate in and in uence the activities of the other branches veto power judicial review etc Separation of Powers division of governmental power among several institutions that must cooperate in decisionmaking Federalism system of government in which power is divided by a constitution between a central government and regional governments Expressed Powers specific powers granted by the Constitution to Congress and the president ElasticNecessary and Proper Clause enumerates the power of Congress and provides Congress with the authority to make all laws necessary and proper to carry them out Judicial Review the power of the courts to review and declare actions of legislative and executive branches unconstitutional Marbury v Madison established judicial review Supremacy Clause Article IV of the Constitution states that laws passed by the national government and all treaties are the supreme law of the land and superior to all laws adopted by and state of subdivision Federalists those who favored a strong national government and supported the Constitution Antifederalists those who favored strong state governments and a weak national government and opposed the Constitution Tyranny of the Majority oppressive government that employs cruel and unjust use of power and authority Antifederalists feared tyrannical rule Which Were Chosen Analysis of the 27 25 successful amendments were concerned with structure and composition of government amendment route is extremely limited a Constitution cannot eliminate power Living Constitution the Constitution is subject to change as conditions warrant and they argue that the judiciary is best qualified to adjust the constitution s principles to new problems and times How Democratic is the Constitution Levinson Constitution is a seriously awed document in need of fundamental change Constitution would require frequent updating the features that are most offensive are virtually impossible to change unequal Senate representation Lane Oreskes Constitution is fine as it is rather it is the people that must change we are using our power to demand the wrong things Unitary System a centralized government system in which lower levels of government have little power independent of the national government Implied Powers powers derived from the necessary and proper clause Powers are not specifically expressed but are implied through the expansive interpretation of delegated powers Reserved Powers powers derived from the 10th Amendment that are not specifically delegated to the national government or denied to the states Police Power power reserved to the state government to regulate the health safety and morals of its citizens to maintain public order Concurrent Powers authority possessed by both state and national governments levy taxes Full Faith and Credit Clause states normally honor the public acts and judicial decisions that take place in another state Privileges and Immunities Clause a state cannot discriminate against someone from another state or give its own residents special privileges Interstate Compacts states may enter into agreements with each other subject to Congressional approval Interstate Extradition requires states to return fugitives to the states from which they have ed Dual Federalism system of government in which most fundamental powers were shared between the federal and state governments Traditional Federalism all functions aimed at assisting commerce none of the national government s policies directly coerced citizens assistance promotion encouragement McCulloch v Maryland 1819 power to charter a national bank is implied from other powers delegated to Congress supremacy clause necessary and proper clause Gibbons v Ogden 1824 established supremacy of national government in all matters effecting interstate commerce Doctrine of Nullification articulated by John C Calhoun proposed that states were not bound by federal laws that they considered unconstitutional States Rights states should oppose the increasing authority of the national government US v Lopez 1995 Supreme Court struck down a law that barred handguns near schools stating that Congress exceeded its authority under the commerce clause Great DepressionNew Deal FDR proposed the New Deal to fight the depression provided federal relief and work programs provided future economic security Grantsinaid programs through which Congress provides money to state and local governments on the condition that the funds be employed for purposes defined by the federal government Categorical Grants Congressional grants given to states and localities on the condition that the expenditures be limited to a problem or group specified by law Project Grants grant programs in which state and local governments submit proposals to federal agencies and for which funding is provided on a competitive basis Formula Grants grantsinaid in which a formula is used to determine the amount of federal funds a state or local government will receive Cooperative Federalism type of Federalism in which grantsinaid have been used strategically to encourage states and localities without commanding them to pursue nationally defined goals CAKE METHOD Layer cake dual federalism distinguishing line between national and state governments Marble cake cooperative federalism blurred lines on where national government ends and where state governments begin Regulated Federalism form of Federalism in which Congress imposes legislation on states and localities requiring them to meet national standards Preemption principle that allows the national government to override state or local actions in certain policy areas Unfunded Mandates regulations or conditions for receiving grants that impose costs on the state and local governments for which they are not reimbursed by the federal government Devolution transferring responsibility for policy from the federal government to the states and localities removing a program from one level of government by passing it down to a lower level Block Grants federal grantsinaid that allow states considerable discretion in how the funds are spent New Federalism attempts by presidents Nixon and Reagan to return power to the states through block grants Revenue Sharing the process by which one unit of government yields a portion of its tax income to another unit according to an established formula Typically involves national government providing money to state governments Redistributive Programs economic policies designed to control the economy through taxing and spending with the goal of benefitting the poor Federalism Since 2000 When federal government does not act activists politicians achieve their goals in states and localities Courts decide which level of government has the final say Conservatives do not always support small government Court placed limits on 2 key powers of federal government regulate commerce and spend for the general welfare Federalism Immigration Reform and State Power Arizona v US show your papersquot provision of Arizona state law was upheld by Supreme Court because Arizona was enforcing federal law Fault Lines Authors ohnson preemption was held in Arizona law could have been decided as a civil rights claim PeltzSteele decision re ects dismantling Federalism state governments are losing too much power to control their own policies Sekulow victory for Arizona states should be allowed to enforce intent of Congress when the executive branch is not enforcing the law Dred Scott Decision slaves were property had no due process rights split the country Ex Post Facto Laws laws that declare an action to be illegal after it has been committed Why Federalism in the US large geography pluralism ability to coordinate with common problems Original Intent more strict interpretation of the Constitution the original intent of the framers Equal Rights Amendment almost succeeded guaranteed equality under the law for women and outlawed gender discrimination Federalist 10 Madison supports the Constitution so the government can control factions people who gather together to protect and promote their interests and opinions Federalist 51 Madison discusses how the structure of the government makes liberty possible powers of the 3 branches Schechter Poultry Corp v US poultry code violated separation of powers and exceeded the powers of Congress National Industrial Recovery Act declared unconstitutional Switch in Time to Save Nine FDR s court packingquot plan Justice Roberts unexpectedly voted on a New Deal legislation preventing FDR to increase the number of Supreme Court justices to 15 National Federation of Independent Business v Sebilius Court upheld Congress s power to enact most provisions of Obamacare Fault Lines Authors Douthat marriage between man and woman wants to preserve the cultural ideal Raimondo samesex marriage is a setback for liberty and a disaster for gay people themselves Rauch benefits of samesex marriage outweigh the cost 2 reasons why people are opposed antihomosexual preserve tradition Scalia justices must be bound by the original meaning of the Constitution Living constitution has no overall guiding principle it will destroy the Constitution Breyer argues for living constitution language of the Constitution does not provide enough guidance to answer contemporary questions
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