PSYCH 111 Chapter 8 & 11 study guide
PSYCH 111 Chapter 8 & 11 study guide Psych 111
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alisha Ellis on Friday November 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 111 at Brigham Young University - Idaho taught by Brother Marrot in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Brigham Young University - Idaho.
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Date Created: 11/13/15
Chapter 8 Development Bro Marrott What is development Continuity and change Birth 25 developed 75 out of womb Most of the development occurs in an environment Nature vs Nurture both are important 75 nurture we are genetic beans Free Will or determinism kids have no control Teratogens monster makers for What is made damage development Happens by the bad Nutrition drugs Schizophrenia and antisocial personality Don t care about people or rules Fetal alcohol syndrome SIDS brain abnormalities and cognitive deficits can be death in the night Tobacco perceptual and attentional defect problems Prenatal environment Good source of information Mother voice Remember books Infancy 18 to 24 months 600 feet and 20 feet bad vision Mirror neurons Sticking out tongue Mimic facial expressions 1 hour Mimic sound Motor development Take time Cephalocaudal proximodorsal Development from head to toe inside to out Re exes Rooting cheek Sucking Cognitive Development Thinkingunderstanding Know Jean piglet 3 things to develop How world works How the minds represent that world How others represent the world Four stages of cognitive Development Sensorimotor birth through infancy Sensing Moving for info Exploring leads to schemas experience or familiar with Assimilation acquire new information that we put a schema Accommodation revise their schemas to take new info into account Object permanence knowing something is there even if you can t see it Preoperational stage 26 years Mental operations Imagination Pretends play Egocentrism the world moves around you Cover my eyes or ears not there Concrete Operational stage 611 years Piaget was criticized for age and all or nothing Conservation two identical glasses tell what stages you are in Formal operational stage 11 years Abstract concepts Consequences Moral reasoning Theory of mind People have minds develop of language Discovering our culture Lev Vygotsky discover culture through Interaction wothers Social Development Harry Harlow studied monkeys 6 months in isolation Comfort with Artificial mothers Konrad Lorenz Ducks imprinting on first thing they see John Bowlby what do humans do Cry and smile make Emotional attachments Primary Caregiver one who comes to their needs Attachment styles Mary Ainsworth Did an experiment to see different attachments they have to primary caregiver Found strange situation with different results with kids Secure Attachment distress maybe happy to see mom again Insecure Attachment made of 3 things Avoidant attachment Mom and dad needs come first Child does not care mom leaves or comes back Independent does not care doesn t acknowledge Ambivalent inconstant of love and child needs being met Leg lock when mom leaves very distressed When she comes back the kid tries to get away and is upset Disorganized abused homes when return not sure what to do No consistent pattern Mary Main Secure people to date Know how to give and take in a relationship Strongsuccessful marriages Avoidantdetached selfcentered don t want love Good daters just want Ambivalentresistant insure about relationships Can drive relationships away Don t trust judgment Clingy Disorganized are abusive they really do love the people they abuse These are general principles We are part of all of it We are not in the clear We can so it all Moral Development Realism to relativism Relativism is not black and white Realism is black and white Prescriptions to principles Everyone gets a turn Fairness and equity Outcomes and intentions Outcomes is the right and wrong Intentions is the motives Lawrence Kohlberg Preconventional stage Consequences bad feelings result of bad behavior Conventional stage Conforming to social rules What society says Postconventional stage Principle and values Trumps What law says Life more important Chapter 11 Personality Bro Marrott Personality As humans we are inconstant Prior events Make up past experiences culture economics born with biology This makes up Personality Anticipated events Motivation desires goals aspirations Has past experiences shaped motivation Measure Personality Selfreport Problems we don t know our self well clink PSYCH Don t like to uncover unglue self Minnesota Multiphasic personality inventory MMPI Best personality test out there Find personalitypsychological disorders True or false test Inaccurate selfreports They are projective test Thematic Apperception Test TAT Gage sicey Motivesconcerns Problems misleading pictures focusing contains Psychologies bias Rorschach inkblot Test More bizarre indicate disorder Color personality tests they think they are lame Can just ask them Identifying Traits Traits relatively stable disposition that makes people behave in a consistent way Why care of traits PSYCH ants to be become a Science Predict Evidence General No number of traits tons depends Individual vs core traits Big five traits Openness to experience Imaginative independent high Down to earth conforming low Conscientiousness Organized careful selfdisciplined high Disorganized careless weakness low Extraversion Social fun loving affectionate high Retiring sober reserves low Agreeableness Softhearted trusting helpful high Ruthless suspicious uncooperative low Neuroticism Worried insecure selfprying high Calm secure selfsatisfied low Twin study Identical to fraternal Genetic bases of personality Political personality The Psychoanalytic approach Why did you come to college Sigmund Freud May 6 1856 in Czechoslovakia Low class family Trained for Psychiatrist MD Met Martha Bernays high class Freud is famous for sex theroys Pervert incest cocaine addict momma s boy etc Defense Mechanisms Therapy He revolutionized psychology we do therapy talk therapy Freud grew up in the Victorian era Had extreme sexual repression Don t talk about sex Sex is one of the most powerful things there is Freud s theories are a projection of his life Personality formed by needs strivings and desires that are outside of awareness unconscious Childhood experiences Structures of the personality ID drives from birth needs wants desires impulses sex and aggression Pleasure principle Immediate gratification not always bad Ego operates under the reality principle Ego will help you go and find the real thing as ID wants it now Superego rules thoughts values or conscience Learning from environment This is the battle in us Psychosexual Fixation too much energy expressed or not enough Oral stage 018 months of age Needs something in your mouth Experience through mouth Anal stage 23 years of age free expression Fixation of toilet training to early or late Anal retentive nutclean freaks hold their poo in Anal explosive messyslobs people Phallic stage Life dominated by pleasure love hate jealousy con ict etc 35 or 6 years of age Curious why stage Why girls and boys Greek Mythology Oedipus father was told his son was going to kill him and take the throne from him so he sent a servant to kill the son but couldn t so gave to a faraway village to take the baby in and raise him Oedipus hears the same prophecy so he leaves the village He solves the riddle to a not so friendly character so he could proceed He got mad at another traveler that almost ran him over He bets this man to death not knowing it was his father The queen sends for the one that solved the riddle Oedipus marries the queen not knowing it was his mother until they had 4 children together Oedipus complex the child boys wants his mother Mom is the whole world to them but dad is in the way Get castration anxiety Electra complex for girls Boys think to be like dad to get someone like mom Girls think to like mom to get someone like dad Latency Stage focus is more about developing intellect social skills creativity athletic skills computer hacking skills 5 or 613 years Focus is School friendships etc Genital stage this is where everything comes together 13 till death We learn to love to work please others Criticisms of Freud Not scientific No measure of ID EGO and Superego No real solid empirical evidence No predictive value After the fact interpretations It can explain everything so it explains nothing Emphasis on sexuality was too strong Defense Mechanisms unconscious is covered up Repression motivated forgetting Bad experience out of mind Rationalization justification It s love just one more piece Reaction Formation opposite feelings and behavior On the outside you show you hate someone but in secret you are in love with them Displacement less threatening object Punch walls they won t fight back to you Identification take on characteristics Bullies take on characteristics of someone who gave you anxiety Stockholm syndrome 8 Sublimation unacceptable urges to acceptable activities Gladiators American football cage fightingboxing Extra study What stage the brain begins to develops Locus of control internal My power I can do it External gain power from outside sources Self serving bias Internal accomplishments External someone else s fault for failures
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