Practical Exam 2 Definition Notes
Practical Exam 2 Definition Notes KNES 2169L
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shanavia Bates on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to KNES 2169L at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II Lab in Kinesiology at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
Exercise 50 The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs is called external respiration The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the tissues is called internal respiration The right lung has three lobes, the left lung has two lobes The blood transports gases to and from the alveolar sacs and the body cells Smooth muscles is part of the walls of these bronchial tubes, and if these smooth muscles of these tubes relaxes, the air passages dilate, which allow greater volume of air movement The epithelial lining of the respiratory tubes includes occasional goblet cells, which secrete protective mucus A right main bronchus branches into three lobar bronchi, each extending into one of the three right lobes A left main bronchus branches into two lobar bronchi, each extending into a left lobe A visceral pleura adheres to the surface of each lung, including the fissures between the lobes A parietal pleura covers the internal surface of the thoracic wall and the superior surface of the diaphragm A narrow potential space, called the pleural cavity, which is located between the two pleurae and contains pleural fluid secreted by these membranes. The fluid serves as a lubrication during breathing movements and due to the surface tension, it resists separations of the pleurae Nasal cavity – hollow space behind nose o Naris – external opening into nasal cavity o Nasal septum – divides nasal cavity into right and left portions o Nasal conchae – increase surface area and air turbulence during breathing o Nasal meatuses – air passageways along nasal conchae Paranasal sinuses – air filled spaces that open into nasal cavity; lined with mucous membrane o Maxillary sinus o Frontal sinus o Ethmoidal sinus o Sphenoidal sinus Pharynx – throat o Nasopharynx – air passageway only o Oropharynx – air and food passageway o Laryngopharynx – air and food passageway Larynx – airway enlargement superior to trachea o Vocal folds – consist of two sets of folds Vestibular folds (false vocal cords) – upper fold but do not produce sounds Vocal folds (true vocal cords) – vibrate when exhaling to produce sounds o Thyroid cartilage – largest hyaline cartilage of larynx ; covered by part of thyroid gland o Cricoid cartilage – complete ring of hyaline cartilage of inferior larynx o Cricothyroid ligament – connects thyroid and cricoid cartilages o Epiglottis – covers part of larynx opening during swallowing o Epiglottic cartilage – elastic cartilage supporting epiglottis o Arytenoid cartilages – vocal cords attached to these small cartilagaes o Corniculate cartilages – small cartilages superior to arytenoid cartilages o Glottis – vocal folds and opening between them Trachea – windpipe anterior to esophagus Bronchial tree – branched airways extending throughout lungs o Right and left main bronchi – arise from trachea o Lobar bronchi – branches of main bronchi into lobes of lungs o Segmental bronchi – branches of lobar bronchi into segments of lungs Bronchioles – smaller branches of airways Lung – location of external respiration between alveoli and blood capillaries o Hilum of lung – medial indentation where main bronchus, blood vessels, and nerves enter lung o Lobes – large regions of lungs Superior (upper) lobe – located in both lungs Middle lobe – only in right lung Inferior (lower) lobe – located in both lungs o Lobules – smallest visible subdivisions of a lung Visceral pleura – serous membrane on surface of lung Parietal pleura – serous membrane on inside of thoracic wall and superior surface of diaphragm Pleural cavity – small space between pleurae containing lubricating serous fluid Exercise 47 SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION LEFT VENTRICLE Through AORTIC SEMILUNAR VALVE to AORTA to MUSCULAR ARTERIES to ARTERIOLES to CAPILLARIES to VENULES to LARGE VEINS to RIGHT ATRIUM PULMONARY CIRCULATION RIGHT VENTRICLE through PULMONIC SEMILUNAR VALVE to PULMONARY ARTERY To LUNGS to PULMONARY VEINS to LEFT ATRIUM Hepatic Portal circulation Stomach Gall bladder Spleen Small Intestine Gastric vein cystic vein Splenic vein Superior mesenteric vein Hepatic portal vein to Liver to Hepatic vein to Inferior vena cava to Right atrium Name of artery and the Organs supplied Pulmonary trunk or artery - Lungs Innominate (brachiocephalic) - Head and arms Right and left Subclavian - Limbs and behind clavicle Right and left Common carotid - Head area Right and left Axillary - Axilla Right and left brachial - Upper arm Name of veins and the Organs drained Right and left external jugular - Superficial surface of head and neck Right and left Brachiocephalic vein - Head and face Right and left subclavian - Limbs Right and left axillary - Axilla Superior or Anterior vena cava - Head and arms Exercise 63 Name of artery and the Organs supplied Celiac artery (3 branches) a. Hepatic b. Left gastric c. Splenic a. Liver b. Stomach c. Spleen Superior mesenteric - Small intestine and ascending colon R&L Renal - Kidneys Inferior mesenteric - Large intestine and rectum R&L External Iliac - Upper leg R&L Femoral - Thigh area R&L Internal Iliac - Pelvic area Name of vein and the Organs drained R&L Renal - Kidneys R&L External Iliac - Upper leg R&L Internal Iliac - Pelvic area R&L Femoral - Area above knee Hepatic portal vein - Brings deoxygenated blood from digestive organs to liver Exercise 51 1. TIDAL VOLUME (TV): The volume of air inspired or expired during normal respiratory cycle. Avg. 500 ml. 2. MINUTE RESPIRATORY VOLUME (MRV): The amount of total air that passes in and out of your lungs in one minute. (TV x Breaths /minute). 3. INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME (IRV): The amount of air that can be inspired after normal TV. Avg. 3000 Ml 4. EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME (ERV): Amount of air that can be forcefully expired after expiration of normal TV. Avg. 1100 ml. 5. RESIDUAL VOLUME (RV): Volume of air remaining in lungs after most forceful expiration. Avg. 1200 ml. 6. MINIMAL VOLUME: Volume of air remaining in lungs after residual volume. Inspiratory capacity (IC): IC = TV + IRV Expiratory capacity (EC): EC = TV + ERV Functional residual capacity (FRC): FRC = ERV + RV Total lung capacity (TLC): TLC = IRV + TV + ERV + RV EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY: BACKGROUND: Exercise if performed regularly and sufficiently vigorously, brings about adaptive increases in performance capacity. The nature of the adaptive response, as a result of such a TRAINING regime, varies with the type of exercise. 1. The development of SKILL, increased coordination and increased agility results from activities such as baseball, driving a car, or playing a musical instrument. 2. The development of muscle STRENGTH results from repetitive (but relatively few) forceful muscle contractions, as in weight lifting. The “fast" skeletal muscle fibers play a major role in muscle strength or power. Hypertrophy of predominantly these fibers occur as a result of weight training. 3. The development of muscle ENDURANCE results from repetitive activities such as long distance running, bicycling, or swimming. The "slow" muscle fibers play a major role. They DO NOT HYPERTROPHY in response to such training. The major adaptation is an INCREASED CAPACITY FOR AEROBIC METABOLISM, this leads to increased FITNESS. 4. FITNESS: Is defined as a given energy output can be accomplished with relatively less physiological strain. 5. The following sections give an overview of the effect of exercise of the repetitive, endurance type on various body structures and functions. A. EFFECT ON SKELETAL MUSCLES: Release of substances from the skeletal muscles after the onset of exercise e.g. C02 and Lactic acid stimulates local vasodilation which serves to INCREASE OXYGEN DELIVERY. The activity of the muscles leads to an increased venous return, increased stroke volume, increased cardiac output, and increased blood pressure. All of these factor lead to an increased blood flow through the muscles and potential increase in oxygen delivery. Increased FITNESS of the individual. B. CHRONIC EXERCISE leads to an increased myoglobin content which Increases the rate of diffusion of oxygen into the cells. Increases the oxygen reservoir inside the cells. Increase in the size and number of mitochondria. Increase in the amount of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes. Increased use of fat for energy resulting in a reduction of serum triglyceride levels. C. EFFECT ON THE HEART: Increased venous return results in increased stroke volume, and increased cardiac output. Increased activity of the sympathetic nerves results in an increase in the heart rate, which also contributes to an increase in cardiac output. The heart hypertrophies which also leads to an increased cardiac output. D. EFFECT ON BLOOD FLOW: 1. Shown below are the changes in amount of blood flow from rest to maximal exercise in a 25 year old male. BLOOD FLOW in ml/min. REST (BLOOD FLOW in ml/min.) EXERCISE (BLOOD FLOW in ml/min.) Left Heart 5,700 24,000 Coronary arteries 250 1,000 Brain 750 750 Visceral Organs 3,000 600 Inactive muscle 600 300 Active muscle 600 20,850 Skin 500 500 2. Highly fit individuals are more efficient at dissipating the thermal load of exercising, requiring less peripheral vasodilation and thus reducing the demand on the heart and sparing blood flow for active muscles. E. EFFECT ON LUNGS: Minute respiratory volume increases from a resting value of approximately 6 liters to values above 100 liters during the end stages of exhaustive exercise. This is due an increase in both TV and RESPIRATORY FREQUENCY. Several other factors assist in the promotion of increased gaseous exchange: a. Opening of previously dormant capillaries between the alveoli. b. Dilation of vessels in the lungs.
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