Exam 3 Study guide
Exam 3 Study guide HDFS 1600
Popular in Foundations of Family Studies
Popular in Human Development
This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kyler Garron on Saturday November 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HDFS 1600 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by David Schramm in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Family Studies in Human Development at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 11/14/15
Sunday, December 27, y HDFS Exam 3 studyguide Work & Family Why I’m tired: It wasn’t until 1841 that the term “housework” was introduced into the written English language Money as Power in a Relationship Wives typically make decisions in more areas in relationships In 1/4 marriages, wives make more $$$ Effects of Poverty on Marriages and Families: anxiety over $$$ often leads to conflict 1 Sunday, December 27, y $ stress contributes to substance abuse, domestic violence, child abuse/neglect, divorce couples earning <$25,000 are 30% more likely to divorce than those earning $50,000 emotional wellbeing rises with income and tops out at $75,000 — increases above this figure not associate with more satisfaction How work has changed: t one time (preindustrial), work and family were practically the same thing Industrial Revolution in late 1700’s changed that, and people became part of the labor force, selling their time Businesses insisted people put in longer hours Labor unions formed to counteract the longer hours Workers hours have steadily increased (148 more hours in 1996 than in 1973) U.S. workers have the fewest vacation days in the industrialized world — 13paid per year (most countries get 2530) Largest increase in working time occurred with dualearner couples In the competition among work, family, and self, family is losing 80% of America’s jobs are in the service sector many of the jobs pay less, are part time, and offer no employee benefits Occupational Segregation: the tendency for meant and women to be employed in different jobs. In 1980, 2/3 employed women were clerical workers, saleswomen, or service personnel and only 7% were managers In 2005, 42% of employed women were clerical or service workers, 13% were in managerial or administrative positions Husbands and the Provider role The “good provider role” emerged in the 1830’s and lasted through the late 1970’s. 2 Sunday, December 27, y In 2004, 19% of men i marriedcouple families were the sole breadwinner compared to 42% in 1960. Provider Role Systems main/secondary provider couple: providing is the man’s responsibility, the home in the woman’s. Co provider: both partners are equally responsible for providing for the family Ambivalent provider couple: wife’s providing responsibilities are not clearly acknowledged. Rolereversed provider couple: husband is responsible for homemaking and wife in the principle breadwinner. Parttime employment: 25% of women worked part time in 2005 fewer than half of all mothers employed part time more similar to fulltime homemakers than to fulltime employed mothers in their attitudes about wife and mother roles. Doing Paid Work at Home Home based work has increased dramatically over the last decades—55% increase between 1990 and 2000. Home based work used to involve piecework, sewing, or flower making. 3 Sunday, December 27, y This mode of home production is declining due to competition from lowwage workers overseas. Resolving WorkFamily Issues: Families need: Adequate provision for quality child and elder care family leave flexible employment scheduling 4 Sunday, December 27, y Communication and Barriers to communication: Family conflict/how they were raised and what they witnessed often influences the way the handle differences, especially when high emotions/intense emotions are involved. Conflict: Physiologically, what happens to our bodies when we become stressed, prepare for disagreements, and engage in conflict? fight! flight! or freeze! a perceived threat initiates a reaction in our bodies that affects our ability to reason and communicate Triggers: External internal Simply mentally replaying an incident Our physical and emotional condition (HALT) can influence our sensitivity to some triggers How threats affect our mind and bodies: Escalation— our body prepared for action Our adrenal glands flood our bodies with adrenaline and other chemicals enter the blood stream Breathing becomes rapid and shallow Heart pounds, blood pressure rises Muscles become more tense (jaws, shoulders, face, hands, chest, throat) Voices become strained Crisis: 5 Sunday, December 27, y we engage in verbal and/or physical action (fight or flight) Overwhelming wish of adrenaline tunnel vision— difficult to hear (or care!) our ability to think, reason, or communicate is minimal Recovery: depends on physiological and psychological makeup, intensity of the response, and how ling we dwell on it Adrenaline and other chemicals dissipate Oxygen is restored to the forebrain Post crisis: heat rate drops below normal to counter the increase in chemicals Examine our thoughts and behavior — feel guilty, depressed May avoid the person and/or the issue Building positivity — 5:1 6 Sunday, December 27, y 7 Sunday, December 27, y five positives for every negative Manage: perpetual problems: 69% — same issues year after year, part of our personality Solvable problems: 31% Chapter 11 continued Four types of marital relationships: Warm, or friendly high at showing signs of affection, low antagonism Tempestuous or stormy high on affection and antagonism Bland or empty shell low affection and antagonism Hostile or distressed low on affection but high on antagonism Levels of communication: Superficial Personal Validating Each involves a level of risk Active listening: Paying close attention to what the other person is saying and giving feedback checking it out Gottman: listener backchannels = ways of letting the person talking know you're listening with body language at the heart of who we are as humans, we have a deep longing for belonging, a desire to be loved and a craving for connection. How do emotional connections develop? Dr. Dave's pool theory of connection: 8 Sunday, December 27, y Relationships are built by adding to the pool cup by cup how do they lose water? Neglect=evaporation if connections are not continually strengthened we will naturally drift apart. "Relation dehydration" Loyalty leaks Lack of commitment, broken trust, emotional and sexual affairs Dippingsaying something mean and nasty Power and Violence in Families POWER: is the ability to exercise one’s will. Personal power or autonomy: power exercised over oneself Social Power: the ability of people to exercise their wills over the wills of others Parental power: power between parents and children Marital Power: power between married partners Marital Power Involves: Decision making Division of labor Allocation of money Partners sense of empowerment — Objective measures of power — Subjective measures of fairness Six Bases of Power: 9 Sunday, December 27, y Coercive power— based on dominant partner’s ability to punish partner with psychological, emotional, or physical abuse Reward power— based on ability to give material or nonmaterial gifts and favors Expert power— stems from dominant partner’s superior judgement, knowledge of ability Informational power— based on the persuasive content of what the dominant partner tells another individual Referent power— based on less dominant partner’s emotional identification with the dominant partner Legitimate power— based on individual’s ability to claim authority Control over money: research on couple’s allocation systems— whether they poo their money together and who controls pooled or separate money. Cohabitant and those previously divorced are especially likely to maintain separate money. Gender still plays a song role, with men seeming to retain more control over the family’s income, and are especially likely to retain personal spending money ThreePhase Cycle of Domestic Violence: initial violent episode usually a shock Promises from man, and woman attempts to understand her actions that caused the violence 1. tension over minor disagreement builds over time (tension building) 10 Sunday, December 27, y 2. situation escalates, ening with violent episode (acute incident) 3. Man becomes contrite, treats woman lovingly (honeymoon effect) Three Types of Violence: patriarchal/intimate terrorism— mostly male, controls the partner through fear and intimidation (both physical and emotional abuse). Violent resistant/secondary aggression (96% women) Situational violence— mutual violence that occurs in conjunction with a specific argument. Less likely to escalate (still can be serious), less frequent than PT, occurs out of anger/frustration rather than as a means to gain control and power. Correlates of Family Violence: IPV (intimate partner violence) perps and victims tend to have the following : young adults cohabiters less integrated with family/community substance abuse stress (financial, lifestyle, parenting, poverty) psychological struggles 11 Sunday, December 27, y witnesses or experiences DV 30% transmission rate vs 24% Why do Women Stay? fear cultural norms love economic dependence hopes for reform gendered socialization childhood experiences low selfesteem Five protective Factors: 12 Sunday, December 27, y 13 Sunday, December 27, y Family Stress, Crisis, and Resilience Acute Stress: • often short term • most common form of stress • stems from demands and pressures of recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. • can be thrilling and exciting in small doses, but too much is exhausting. • overdoing on shortterm stress can lead to psychological distress, tension headaches, upset stomach, an other symptoms. • Emotional distress: some combination of anger or irritability, anxiety and depression, the three stress emotions. • Muscular problems including tension headache, back pain, jaw pain and the muscular tensions • Elevation in blood pressure, rapid heartbeat, sweaty palms, heart palpitations, dizziness, migraine headaches, cold feet or hands, shortness of breath and chest pain.’ Chronic Stress: never see a way out of a miserable situation. unrelenting demands and pressures seen extending into the future, with no hope, the individual may give up searching for solutions. stems from many sources — poverty, dysfunctional families, nene trapped in an unhealthy relationship or despised job or career 14 Sunday, December 27, y damages bodies, minds, and lives persistent/consistent can stem from traumatic childhood experiences that become internalized and remain painful and present may affect personality, view of the world, belief system people may adjust to it and consider it to be their norm people are immediately aware of acute stress because it is new, but not chronic stress as much because its old and familiar chronic stress kills through suicide, stroke, heart attack, violence, and even cancer Crisis: a situation in which the usually behavior patterns are ineffective and new ones are called for immediately crisis involves change a crisis is a turning point wit the potential for positive effects, negative effects, or both a crisis is a time of relative instability ABCX Model of Family Crisis A: stressor event addition of a family member loss of a family member sudden change in income or social status 15 Sunday, December 27, y ongoing family conflict daily family hassles B: family’s ability to cope C: family’s appraisal of the stressor X: the crisis Thursday, November 5, 2015 Some Adapt to stressors better than others… 1. An outlet for frustration 2. a sense of predictability 3. a feeling on control 4. an optimistic outlook 5. social support Preventing vs. Managing take in more positivity — dwell on it for 5 to 15 seconds create positive experiences in the present and/or recall them in the past absorb them, stay in the moment, appreciate it share them, write them 16
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