Study Guide Test 3
Study Guide Test 3 PSYC 218 - 01
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PSYC 218 - 01
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jasmine Sandozz on Saturday November 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 218 - 01 at Radford University taught by Lara Barbir in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at Radford University.
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Date Created: 11/14/15
Sunday, December 27, y Week 8: Moral Development, Values and religion Moral development: involves changes in thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding standards of right and wrong. Kohlberg’s stages: Preconventional reasoning: is the lowest stage of the moral development. Morality is focused on reward and punishment. Conventional reasoning: The second stage of moral development where individuals follow rules that are standards whether for external or internal reasons. Postconventional: The third level of moral development where morality is more internal. Stages 5 and 6 of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development were NOT found to be universal moral competence and moral performance interpersonal (between people) intrapersonal Social Cognitive theory of Moral Development: reinforcement punishment imitation Bandura: 1 Sunday, December 27, y selfregulation rather than abstract reasoning is the key to positive moral development Prosocial behavior: altruism: an unselfish interest in helping one another Prosocial behavior occurs more in adolescence Gender differences in prosocial behavior 6 types of prosocial behavior: altruism ; public ; emotional ; dire ; anonymous ; and compliant Forgiveness and gratitude (positive psychology) Moral feeling: psychoanalytic theory (Freud) superego oedipus complex ego ideal conscience Erik Erikson specific moral learning in childhood ideological concerns in adolescence Ethical consolidation in adulthood Empathy The contemporary perspective: 2 Sunday, December 27, y The contemporary perspective negative and positive feelings contribute towards moral development not sufficient to generate moral responsibility Moral Personality thoughts, behavior, feelings can be involved in an individuals moral personality moral identity moral personality Moral character moral virtues (Lawrence walker) honesty truthfulness care compassion trustworthiness thoughtfulness Moral Exemplers people who lived exemplary have a moral personality identity, character, and set of virtues that reflect moral excellence 3 Sunday, December 27, y Parenting Piaget and Kohlberg: Parents don’t provide any unique inputs to children development 3 discipline techniques: Power assertion Love withdrawal Induction the findings vary according to developmental level and socioeconomic status induction is more positively related to moral development Schools: hidden cirriculum school and classroom rules the moral orientation of staff text materials character education 40 out of 50 states have mandates on character education. Values clarification: helps clarify what their lives are for and what is worth working for character education cognitive moral education: a third approach / based on the belief students should learn such things as democracy and justice as their moral reasoning develops Service learning: 4 Sunday, December 27, y education that promotes social responsibility and service to the community Benefits: service learning is more efficient long term higher grades and selfesteem increased goal setting identity achievement exploration of moral issues increased volunteering in the future Ethical Sensitivity Ethical Judgment Ethical Action Values: beliefs/attitudes about how things should be over the past 3 decades traditional aged college students more egotistic (care about their well being more than others) Moral Personality moral identity: an aspect of personality that is present when individuals have moral notions and commitments that are central to their lives. Moral Exemplars: People who have lived exemplary lives 5 Sunday, December 27, y Domain theory of moral development: theory that identifies different domains of social knowledge and reasoning, including moral, social conventional, and personal domains. social conventional reasoning: thoughts about social consensus and convention opposed to moral reasoning that stresses ethical issues. Religion and Spirituality in 21 century downtrend in religious interest among college students 1824 emerging adults in less developed countries are more involved in religion Adolescents girl identity w/ a religion more than males Development changes can be an important juncture in religious development Cognitive changes: abstract thinking, increased idealistic thinking, increased logical reasoning Erikson (Identity) Identity development becomes a central focus College students identity integration related to intrinsic religion orientation Religious Socialization and Parenting religious institutions created by adults are designed to introduce certain beliefs to kids adolescents seek different religious affiliation when they’re is conflict or insecure attachment mothers may be more influential in religious affairs peers also play a role in religious affairs as well 6 Sunday, December 27, y Chapter 8: Families Family Processes: reciprocal socialization: the process by which children/adolescents socialize just as parents socialize family though of as a collection of subsystems, defined by generation, gender and role Martial relationship, child behavior/development and parenting all interact Happily married parents: sensitive responsive warm affectionate Maturation: physical, cognitive and socioemotional changes conflicts between parents especially between mother and son is most stressful during pubertal growth Parent Changes: Martial satisfaction economic burdens career reevaluation time perspective health and body concerns (Marital satisfaction increases as adolescents live home) 7 Sunday, December 27, y Multiple developmental trajectories: adults follow one trajectory and children and adolescents follow one Adolescents/ Emerging Adults: relationships w/ their parents many parents see their child from being complaint to noncompliant Parents as managers find info make contacts help structure choices provide guidance effective monitoring Parenting Styles: Authoritarian: restrictive Authoritative: A style when parents are encouraging kids to be independent but still having limits Neglectful: very uninvolved Indulgent: parents highly involved but few demands or controls Parenting discipline styles: love withdrawal power assertion 8 Sunday, December 27, y induction - Coparenting: poor coordination lack of cooperation/warmth disconnection by one parenting partner active undermining and disparagement of other parent child issues ParentAdolesceant conflict: generation gap is a stereotype / most parents and children have same beliefs about: value of hard work achievement career aspirations religion and politics only 20% of families engage in intense unhealthy conflicts adolescents problem may be caused by intense conflict with parents Adjustment improves when divorced parents have a harmonious relationship and use authoritative parenting style intense conflict is linked to emotional problems, insecure relationships Risks: personality and temperament developmental status custody 9 Sunday, December 27, y gender relocation adjustment prior to divorce Autonomy and Attachment: increased independence adolescents push for autonomy has little to do with their feelings for their parents Autonomy: selfdirection and independence Emotional autonomy: the capacity to relinquish childlike dependence on parents boys given more independence than girls Adolescents runaways: 1.6 million youth run away in the US generally unhappy home linked to: lack of parental support depressive symptoms school disengagement substance use in grade 9 Attachment: secure attachment: secure base (caregiver) from which children explore the environment insecure attachment: ambivalence towards the caregiver or avoid them all together 10 Sunday, December 27, y Old model: as adolescents mature they detach themselves from parents. Conflict is intense. New model: as adolescents mature parents serve as a role model and important attachment figure. Today many emerging adults continue to live at home or return home called boomerang adults Families 40 % of children born to married parents will experience their parents divorce 80 % of adolescents have siblings 20 % of families go through intense prolonged conflict 2550 % of custodial mothers decrease income in comparison to to pre divorce income Step families: different types of stepfamilies are based on family structure and relationships Common stepfamily structures: stepfather, stepmother, blended adolescents in step families have more adjustment problems boundary ambiguity: the uncertainty in stepfamilies about who is in charge/ what rules to listen to. Working parents: one of every 2 U.S mothers with a child under 5 is in the labor force latchkey adolescents: se parents late at night. because parents working from early morning to late at night. 11 Sunday, December 27, y Adoption: in early 20th century mostly whites were adopting differences in adoption in early vs. later in life Chapter 9: Peers, Romantic relationships and lifestyles peers: individuals who are about the same age and maturity level. Peer context: influenced by if parents are around and how parents manage adolescent peer interactions Peer pressure Sociometric status: the extent to which an adolescent is liked or disliked by peers 5 type of children: 1. Popular: frequently nominated to be best friends and not disliked by peers 2. Average: receive a average of positive and negative nomination by peers 3. Neglected: rarely nominated as best friends by peers but not disliked 4. Rejected: rarely nominated as best friends and frequently disliked by peers 5. Controversial: frequently nominated as best friends and being disliked by peers Popular children: give out reinforcements good listener happy control negative emotions selfconfident without being conceited 12 Sunday, December 27, y Social cognitive perspective: conglomerate stages use of a combo of techniques Friendship: a subset of peers 6 categories of friends: 1 Companionship 6. Stimulation 7. Physical Support 8. Ego support 9. Social comparison 10. Intimacy/Affection Intimacy and similarity a part of friendship Homophily: the tendency to associate with similar others Mixedage friendships: Do older individuals influence younger adolescents into deviant behavior Loneliness chronic loneliness can lead to imparted physical and mental health loneliness is interwoven with the passage of life Adolescent groups: childhood groups differ childhood groups include neighbors/ friends 13 Sunday, December 27, y opposite sex friends develop in adolescent Cliques: small groups (212) average about (56 people) Youth organization: currently there are more than 400 national youth organizations in the US Gender and Culture: gender plays an important role in the peers group Boys are more likely than girls bigger groups Competition, conflict, ego displays , and risk taking to seek dominance Emphasize power and excitement on friendships Girls are more likely to show higher peer attachment engage in collaborative disclosure focus on intimacy Socioeconomic status and ethnicity: middle SES often assume leadership role Dating and Relationships: 8 functions of dating: 1 Recreation 14 Sunday, December 27, y 11. A source of status and achievement 12. Part of socialization process 13. Involves learning about intimacy 14. Context for sexual exploration 15. Provide companionship 16. Identity formation and development 17. A means to make sorting and selection Three stages: 1 Entry to romantic attraction (11 to 13) triggered by puberty, starts to form crushes 18. Exploring romantic relationships (14 to 16) causal dating and dating in group occurs 19. Romantic bounds (1719) strong emotional bonds Sexual minority youth: most common sex partner is initial samesex partners sex partner is usually a close friend Romantic love: (passionate love or orus) has string sexual and infatuation components Affectionate love: (companionate love) When individuals desire to have another caring affection for that person Dating scripts: cognitive models that adolescents and adults use to guide and evaluate dating interaction Males script is proactive Females script is reactive 15 Sunday, December 27, y Gender and Culture The age dating begins How much freedom is allowed in dating How much dates are chaperoned Respective roles of males/female in dating Emerging Adult Lifestyles: changes often take place in romantic relationships A striking social change is decreased stigma attached to individuals who don’t maintain conventional lifestyles Single adults: 46 % of adults never never been married 45 % of adults have been married “swinging single” to desperately lonely, suicidal single Problems: forming intimate relationships loneliness Advantages: forming identity/ privacy developing personal resources to meet goals more freedom opportunities to explore new places and try new things\ 16 Sunday, December 27, y Cohabiting Adults: More than 75 % percent of adults cohabiting prior to getting married 1/3 of marriages usually lasts less than a year problems: disapproval from parents difficulty owning property jointly less certain legal rights elevated risk of partner violence Married Adults: more adults are remaining single Women usually get married around 26/27 Men usually get married around 28/29 A unhappy marriage can shorten a person’s life by 4 years it is recommended premarital education began 6 months to a year before the wedding Divorced Adults: U.S has highest rates of divorce Divorce usually takes place early in a marriage Most occur in the 5th to 10th year of marriage gender differences in process and outcome in divorce 17 Sunday, December 27, y Gay Male and Lesbian Adults similar to heterosexual relationships— Satisfaction, love, joys and conflicts Schools (Chapter 10) Constructivist approach: A learnercentered approach examples: explore the world discover knowledge reflect thinking critically Direct instruction approach: Teacher direction and control High teacher expectations for students Maximum time spent by students on academic tasks Turns students into passive learners Accountability: spread of state mandated tests national policy in 2002 when no child left behind was signed Transition from middle school to high school 18 Sunday, December 27, y stressful transition puberty 1989 Carniege council on adolescent development issued an extremely negative evaluation of the U.S middle school Most high school graduates are poorly prepared for college and demands Top dog phenomenon transition from being the oldest in school to becoming the youngest again Asian least likely to drop out Latino most likely to drop out High school dropouts: rates have declined females from likely to drop pout from personal reasons like pregnancy or marriage Transition from high school to college: replays top dog phenomenon more impersonal diverse ethnic backgrounds Classroom Climate: Authoritative strategy of classroom: encourages students to be independent thinkers but still involves effective monitoring. Authoritarian strategy of classroom: A teaching that focuses on being restrictive and keeping order in the classroom rather than learning and instruction. Permissive strategy of classroom: A teaching that focuses on students considerable autonomy but provides them with little support for developing learning skills or managing behavior. Multicultural education: education that values diversity 19 Sunday, December 27, y jigsaw classroom: a classroom strategy that has students from different backgrounds are placed in a cooperative group in which, together they have to construct different parts of a project to reach a common goal. Learning disabilities: disabilities in which children experience difficulty learning that involves understanding or using spoken/written language , the difficulty can appear in writing, spelling, listening, thinking, reading. LD can also involve math. To be classified primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; intellectual disability; emotional disorders or environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A disability in which children consistently show one or more of the following characteristics over a period of time: 1. inattention 2. hyperactivity 3. impulsivity Public Law 94142: The education for all handicapped children act, which requires all students with disabilities to be given a free, appropriate public education Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Federal legislation spelling out broad mandates for providing education services to all children with disabilities. these include evaluation and eligibility determination, appropriate education and an individualized education plain (IEP) and education in the least restrictive environment Least Restrictive Environment (LRE): A setting is as similar as possible to the one children with a disability are educated under the IDEA, efforts ti educate children with a disability in this setting have been given a legal basis Inclusion: educating a child with special needs in a full time regular classroom Adolescents who are gifted: Usually an IQ of 130 or higher and some superior talent in art, music or math. Characteristics of gifted children: 1. Precocity 2. Marching to their own drum 3. A passion to matter 20 Sunday, December 27, y 21
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