Management 301 Exam 2 Study Guide
Management 301 Exam 2 Study Guide MGMT 301
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Mitchell on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MGMT 301 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Leah Sheppard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see Principles of Management and Organization in Business, management at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE: CHAPTER 7 - CHAPTER 12 CHAPTER 7: INNOVATION AND CHANGE What is a technology cycle? -Begins with the birth of a new technology and ends when that technology becomes obsolete and its replaced with something newer Describe the s-curve pattern of innovation Technological discontinuity: a scientific advance or a unique combination of existing technologies creates a significant breakthrough in performance or function Discontinuous change: characterized by technological substitution and design competition -old technology becomes obsolete -firms compete to make their model the dominant design -look at money ball film analysis for these questions!!!*** (In Money Ball they use technological discontinuity) What are the 3 different types of innovation we discussed in class? -product innovation (tablet or iPhone) -process innovation (amazon instant delivery) -business model innovation (dollar shave club) What are the steps of the organizational change process? -create a sense of urgency -coalition building (remove resistance forces, create transparency -empowering others -recognition -alignment -refreeze, reinforcement CHAPTER 8: GOBAL MANAGEMENT What are the two general types of trade barriers? 1. Tariffs: direct tax on an imported good 2. Non-tariffs: non-tax methods of increasing the cost or reducing the volume of imported goods - Quotas - Subsidies - Government import standard for health and safety What is the purpose of trade barriers?? For protectionism!! Protecting the local economy What are the types of global businesses? -global sourcing -exporting -cooperative contract: licensing and franchising (licensing: selling your name, can’t know or control what that will be used for but can collect royalties from it) (franchising: can take on more control than licensing, you can make rules or tailor the business to local needs) -strategic alliance: (like barnes and noble with starbucks, come together as an alliance to drive sales, but are not in direct competition with each other) an agreement in which companies combine key resources, costs, risks, technology, and people -joint venture: a strategic alliance in which two existing companies collaborate to form a third, independent company -global new ventures: new companies that are founded with an active global strategy and have sales, employees, and financing in different countries. global form inception, active global strategy. What are the challenges associated with global business? -policy uncertainty: risks associated with changes to laws that impact business functioning -challenges associated with national culture -global consistency vs. local adaption (somewhat less costly at least at first to have global consistency/go to places where there isn’t a need for local adaptation, like opening stores in Canada versus China!) What are the dimensions of national culture? -power distance -individualism vs. collectivism -uncertainty avoidance (how comfortable are we with taking risks??) -masculinity vs. femininity -long term vs. short term time orientation -indulgence vs. restraint (NOT found in book!!!!!) THERE WILL BE QUESTIONS WHERE SHE WILL DESCRIBE A PLACE WE HAVE TO DETERMINE IF THEY ARE HIGH OR LOW ON IT (PAGE 173!!!!!) CHAPTER 9: DESIGINING ADAPTIVE ORGANIZATIONS What are the different types of organizational departmentalization? -functional: by expertise (communication/coordination issues) SILO PROBLEM: when employees are experts in one certain thing (columns occur of very specific tasks and skills) and little communication/little overlap occurs) -product: (duplication occurs!!) -customer: (duplication occurs!!) -geographic: (duplication occurs!!) -matrix: (duplication occurs!!) What are the 3 methods of improving specialized jobs? 1. Job enlargement: take on more tasks simultaneously 2. Job rotation 3. Job enrichment What strategies does the JCM recommend to increase internal motivation? -combine jobs -form natural work units -establish client relationships -vertically load job: push managerial authority down to workers -open feedback channels What are the elements of an organic structure? -flexibility -reengineering: increase reciprocal interdependence -empowerment: increase decentralization KNOW RECIPROCAL VS. SEQUENTIAL AND POOLED INTERDEPENDENCE -pooled: each person contributes and work independently to contribute to finished good -sequential: work completed in succession, one job’s output is other job’s input -reciprocal: different groups working back and fourth with each other CHAPTER 10: MANAGING TEAMS What is a work team? -small number of people -common goal -interdependent -held accountable for performance -DON’T want role overlap, want role COMPLEMENT!!! (this was on quiz) Norming vs. performing: there are gains in performance stage, they have hit a strive. In norming, there is socialization and people have settled into their roles. Types of teams: (these build onto each other to more and more autonomy and control) -traditional work teams: execute task -employee involvement groups -semi-autonomous work groups -self-managing teams (like the workshop example she gave in class) -self-designing teams: same as above but also have control over team design Disadvantages of teams: 1. Social loafing: individuals reduce effort when working in teams 2. Groupthink: motivation to reach consensus result in error CHAPTER 11: HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT The process of finding developing and keeping the right people to form a qualified workforce Major issues in the legal environment we need to know for test: -equal opportunity employment -affirmitive action -bonafide occupational requirements -sexual harassment: quid pro quo and hostile work environment -wrongful discharge: legal doctrine requires employers to have a job- related reason to terminate employees She will ask a question about in which situation is this most valid? (bonafide occupational requirements) we will need to identify which one of the characteristics is the most justified as being an occupational requirement Job analysis: first identifying job description (the who, what when where and why) and then the job specifications (what do we need in that person? KSAO: knowledge, skills, abilities, and others) Disadvantages associated w/ internal and external job recruitment: -internal: can result in lower motivation, less diversity fewer fresh perspectives -external: can result in less employee commitment, more risk associated with brand new hire Structured interviews: -situational: what WOULD you do? -behavioral: what DID you do? (better at predicting job performance!!!!) How do we make job appraisal a better process? -we want to combine subjective with objective measures (objective: easily and directly counted or qualified measures of job performance) (subjective: measures of job performance that require someone to judge or assess their behavior at work) -want 360-degree appraisal -use rater training: using training for employee rating so that it is accurate and useful (SPECIFICALLY frame of reference training) -focus on specific observable behaviors: graphic rating scale or behavioral observation scale -increase awareness about common errors (such as central tendency, leniency, and halo) Familiarize yourself with different compensation methods (gainsharing and profit sharing) -salary -commission: stable percentage -bonuses: lump some -gainsharing: share financial value of performance gains incurred as a result of increased efficiency or quality -profit sharing: sharing a percentage of profit CHAPTER 12: MANAGING INDIVIDUALS AND A DIVERSE WORK FORCE What are the advantages of supporting diversity in organizations? -cost savings form reduced turnover -attract and retain talent -drive growth by tapping into diverse markets Challenges we face for regarding diversity -severe underrepresentation of women and minorities in high ranking leadership roles -issues related to equal pay: much of this due to descriptive gender stereotypes Deep level diversity types: 1. Dispositional: tendency to respond to situations in a pre-determined way 2. Personality: relatively stable patterns of behavior, attitudes, and emotions that make us different Big five personality characteristics: -neuroticism is emotional stability -agreeableness (cooperative, good natured, tolerant) vs. conscientiousness (organized, hard working reliable)
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