SOC201-Ch3; Critical Theory
SOC201-Ch3; Critical Theory
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Date Created: 11/14/15
Chapter Three Critical Theory Critical Theorv the combination of other social sciences philosophy psychology critiques the social sciences and how the world works Horkheimer University of Freiburg worked with Edward Husserl and his assistant Martin Heidegger became full time professor in 1928 father wanted him to take over family business he had no intentions of becoming a capitalist married a woman who worked for his family39s business Thedor Adorno got his PhD in philosophy interested in music all his articles in music are more than 100 1933 he published his rst philosophy publication music offered an expression of truth Herbert Marcuse studied at Humboldt University doctorate in 1922 economic and philosophy went to go study with Adorno and Horkheimer published quotBeing and Timequot in 1927 an addition to Marxist theory by Heidegger he abandoned his book business and went to go study with two other sociologists lnstitute of Social Research located in Freiburg Germany where they got their notoriety for working together established Feb339 39 1923 because of Felix Weil39s generous donations His father was a wealthy man who hated that Felix was donating his money Socialism comparing another form Major industries are owned and controlled by government Horkheimer became the director he started Critical Social Philosophy that battled bougiecapitalist ideology Went to Columbia University The Frankfurt School Adorno and Mascuse joined Horkheimer in 1938 and they all went to work together for 7yrs Horkheimer went to LA because of nancial situation but Marcuse couldn39t stay with him Marcuse after the separation from school moved to DC His views began to change because of different in uences and life experiences Biggest impact on study was 1 Karl Marx 2 Max Weber 3 Sigmund Freud Intellectual ln uencesamp Core Ideas Karl Marx claims that society is oppressed difference between other thinker and Marx was that they wanted to change why society does what it does way of the struggle with the capitalist stated that the quotworking class will save humanity Horkheimer39s goal of critical theory is quotman39s emancipation from slaveryquot Prior to critical theory Horkheimer along with the other 2 looked for waysreasons to gure out society Offered theory and how it could help but never gave examples Never pointed out anyone like Marx and the capitalist No detailing Resulted in pessimism because they never pushed to say who is going to make the changes Max Weber more towards totalarism government controls all distorted consciousness something that we think we are seeing in the right way but distorted because it s our opinion prevents us from looking at objective truth this does not allow us to question the status quo Weber thought that the quotIron Cagequot of society is because of the bureaucratic society 0 established an ultimate end that gives meaning to our actions ONLY concerned with the end does not justify the means 0 bases on establishing impersonal calculated procedures Not caring about how it affects someone39s feelings Very informal how businesses and governments are ran 0 Subjective Reason concerned with the means and end of the adequacy of procedure Objective Reason speaks to relative value of the ends of action and thus provides us with what is ethical rightjust o critical and oppositional attitude that derives freedom of action of action from the unrestricted liberty of thought and conscious that is measured by all social standards and relations but he individual39s rational selfinterest citizens are subject to an absolute state authority Theorist are in uenced by life experiences without that experience their theory becomes harder to prove Emaciation of Humanity individual freedom it is essentially the reason for doing what we do Culture Industry what we deal with everyday the creation and distribution of mass media designed to entertain pacify theorist feel like it s a mass deception because the product advertised sucks you into creating an adverse effect achieves the opposite but affects all regardless of where you are in social class Free Choice you get branded by mass media ex standardization of products Sigmund Freud Pleasure Principle our instinctual drive unconscious impulses immediate ful llment ex 1 Sex 2 Food Reality Principle engaging in association with others in it of itself can secure some of the basic needs not always a pleasurable relationship but gives you the basic need to survive society on a whole Surplus Repression certain social situation affects the way that we go to those instinctual grati cation society dictates what your instinct and those becomes the norms values etc surplus of those societal in uences Apparatus system of economic production more work less thinking which leads to less knowledge of progress less thinkinga buildup of oppression
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