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Date Created: 11/14/15
Unit2 Biological and behavioral psychology Physical Anthropology History Demographic amp Ecology Biological and Behavioral Psvchology Psychology the study of the biological experimental and social causes of individual behavior Psychology can be divided into 4 subdisciplines psychoanalysis social psychology humanistic psychology and biological behavior psychology 0 Psychoanalysis founded by Sigmund Freud treats behavior as a product of the interaction between xed biological instincts amp the individual39s efforts to satisfy these in socially acceptable ways 0 Social psychology study of the individual as a product of their relationship with other individuals and groups Humanistic psychology the study of individual development and selfful llment with a focus on uniquely human issues 0 BiologicalBehavioral Psychology Charles Darwin was a central in uence he argued that the physiology and behavior of species is a response to their environment Darwin39s work changed perspectives in two fundamental ways 0 First behavior was seen as a response to the outside world 0 Second humans were understood to be rst and foremost animals 0 Biological Psychology 0 An expertise in biological psychology entails knowledge of biochemistry the structure of the brain and nervous system the body s endocrine systems and often a medical degree Behavioral Psychology 0 Entails the study of how people and animals respond to environmental stimuli how repeating it will produce a conditioned response reinforcement 0 Ivan Pavlov early proponent for this approach called quotClassical Conditioningquot Primary stimuli doesn39t need to be learned becomes associated with conditioned response 0 BF Skinner quotRadical behaviorismquot this rejects all causes for behavior beyond conditioned responses to stimuli Operant Conditioning was his focus which is conditioned behavior that operates on the environment 0 Biological and behavior psychology cannot offer a complete answer for the full range of human behavior thsical Anthronologl oAnthropology study of humanity from both a biological and a cultural perspective lts closely associated with the study of preliterature peoples by immersing oneself in their culture oAnthropology can be divided into 4 sub disciplines o Archaeology study of ancient people through the examination of their artifacts Linguistics study of language model for all human interaction 0 Cultural Anthropology study of the cultures and social structures of both ancient amp modern people 0 Physical Anthropology study of hominid evolution and of physical variation among Homo sapiens Human Evolution 0 Plesiadapiformes tree dwelling precursors to the primate provided us with a fortuitous biological inheritance Brachiation binocular vision a grasping hand and a freely moving arm enabled of our rst and most signi cant skills the use of projecties Australopithecus genius intermediate between apes and our genus Homo o Australopithecus afarensis was our direct ancestor Homo the genus that includes our own species Homo Sapiens o Homo habilus able human amp Homo erectus upright human were along the main line of human evolution Both species were in existence by about 2 million yrs ago Homo sapiens o Neanderthals a species of homo found only in Europe Has been suggested that the Neanderthals merged with invading H Sapiens 0 History 0Historiography refers to the written record of the past or to the study of the methodology of historical research oKey Figures 0 Focus upon political and military con icts Heroditus and Thucydides o The venerable Bede seventheighth century English Monk who wrote quotEcclesiastical History of the English Peoplequot 0 Leopold von Ranke considered one of the founders of modern historiography Approaches to the study of History two major approaches 0 The quotGreat manquot view of history approach that tends to dominate in the public school system and in most popular history books and documentaries This approach exhibits six characteristics 0 A Critical Approach places emphasis upon groups and social structure especially upon inequalities of class gender race and power The approaches to the characteristics are the opposite of the great man view of history Demography Demography is the study of a population and population changes Demographers primarily concern themselves with the effects of culture economics and social aspects of population In understanding populations dynamics demographers refer to the balance between the Birthrate mortality rate and total fertility rate Fertility mortality industrialization and the quotDemographic transitionquot seeks to explain the differences in population dynamics between preindustrial amp industrial societies Stable industrialized populations generally consume far more per capita more than negating the advances of low population growth Ecology and Resource Deletion Ecology the study of the relationship between living things and their living amp nonliving environment Resource depletion the result of the tipping point in any ecosystem Thomas Malthus argued that resource grows only arithmetically while population grows exponentially o Argued for celibacy before marriage and against public assistance to the poor Truth to Malthus theory we are animals and like any other organism do require resources to survive For any species growth is limited by the carrying capacity of its environment Peak Oil most in uential petroleum geologist of the twentieth century 0 O
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