Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide GEOL 101 001
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GEOL 101 001
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madeline Wilson on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 101 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Knapp in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introduction to the Earth in Geology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
Solidified fragments of volcanic material ejected into the air are called pyroclasts. Continental arcs produce the most felsic lavas. The Elastic Rebound Theory describes the build-up and release of stress during an earthquake Three seismograph stations are needed to locate the epicenter of an earthquake. The area on the surface of the earth where p waves and s waves area not recorded by seismograms following an earthquake event are referred to as shadow zones. The Mercalli intensity scale measures the amount of destruction caused by an earthquake, the amount of slip on a fault plane caused by an earthquake, and the amplitude of the surface waves. The traveltime curve is the graph of travel-time vs. distance. S waves are shear waves. Based on seismic tomographic images, subducting slabs extend to the core-mantle boundary. Variations in gravity cause large-scale variations in the Earth’s geoid. Sulfur dioxide is not a greenhouse gas. If the Earth’s atmosphere did not contain greenhouse gases, the Earth’s surface would be approximately 33 degrees C cooler. Quartz is not altered by chemical weathering. Mass movements do NOT require wind or running water. The presence of soil does NOT slow down weathering of underlying bedrock. Iron oxides are responsible for the orange-brown colors of weathered surfaces in the desert. The Milankovitch cycles are dependent on the Earth’s orbital eccentricity, precession, and angle of tilt on the rotation axis. Weathering is the general process by which rocks are broken down at the Earth’s surface. Feldspar is most likely to form a clay mineral during weathering. Organic matter in the Earth’s topsoil is called humus. The two most common chemical elements in the Earth’s atmosphere are nitrogen and oxygen. Gravity is the dominant cause of mass movement. The cryosphere is ice caps and glaciers. The Earth’s albedo is the fraction of solar energy reflected by the Earth’s surface. Burning of fossil fuels has most dramatically changed the carbon cycle over the past 150 years. Photosynthesis removes carbon from the atmosphere. Shallow earthquakes, less than 20km deep, are associated with all plate boundaries. The approximate distance from the surface to the center of the earth is 6400km. The moho separates denser rocks below from less dense rocks above. Tomography is the principle based on the continents being less dense than the underlying mantle. The inner core does not transmit S waves. Calculations suggest that the inner core spins at a faster rate than the rest of the earth. The earth’s magnetic field is generated in the inner core The earth’s magnetic field shields the surface of the earth from solar winds Fumaroles are small vents on volcanoes that emit gas fumes and steam The amount of ground displacement in an earthquake is called the slip Earthquakes that originate at depths greater than 100km are associated with convergent boundaries The average time between large earthquake events along a fault is known as the recurrence interval Molten rock beneath the earth’s surface is called magma Pahoehoe is basaltic lava flow that has a ropy, folded surface The eruption of vast quantities of superheated steam is called a phreatic explosion Mantle plumes originate at crust-mantle boundaries
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