Exam 2 Study Guide for EEOB 2520
Exam 2 Study Guide for EEOB 2520 EEOB 2520
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by hmoore on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EEOB 2520 at Ohio State University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
1 EEOB 2520 Exam 2 Study Guide Metabolism: total of all chemical reactions that occur in cells in order to maintain homeostasis Metabolic reactions classified as: o Catabolic: larger molecules are broken down into smaller ones o Anabolic: smaller molecules built into bigger ones Law of Mass Action: an increase in concentration of reactants relative to products tends to push the reaction forward, and an increase in the concentration of products relative to reactants tends to push a reaction in reverse Enzymes Biomolecules specialized to act as catalyst; increase rate of chemical reaction Lowers E an both forward and reverse reactions Almost always proteins End in –ase Change shape=conformation Cell can control rate by controlling number of enzymes Active site is where molecule binds Carbonic anhydrase o Conversion of carbonic acid to water and carbon dioxide o CO +2H O 2H CO 2 H 3 HCO + 3 o (Catabolic) ( anabolic) hexokinase o phosphorylation of glucose Factors affecting enzymes: o Substrate concentration Higher concentration of substrate higher rate of enzyme-catalyzed reactions and vice versa o Enzyme concentration Increased number of enzymes means more enzyme-catalyzed reactions and vice versa o Affinity: how tightly a substrate molecule binds to active site Higher affinity=higher rate of enzyme-catalyzed reactions and vice versa o pH and temperature: certain enzymes like certain conditions such as ones for humans work best at 37 degrees C and certain pH Factors influencing Protein Conformation o Temperature o pH: H concentration denature: break down proteins or nucleic acids Energy capacity to do work First Law of Thermodynamics: energy is neither created or destroyed Second Law of Thermodynamics: processes tend to proceed in the direction that spreads out energy 2 o Disorder tends to increase We spend energy to maintain our bodies We use energy in chemical bonds and convert them to other energy used to fuel our bodies ATP is the energy molecule used by all living things o Source of energy to maintain homeostasis o Phosphate=energy PO 4as negative charge and oxygen is an electron whore Bond formed by molecules that would normally repel each other Glucose Oxidation C 6 12+66O + 32ADP + 38Pi 6CO + H O + 28 ATP2 Four stages: o Glycolysis o Linking Step o Krebs Cycle o Oxidative Phosphorylation Glycolysis o Occurs in cytoplasm and by all living things o Anaerobic process o Net gain of 2 ATP o No carbons are lost o 2 hydrogens bound 3 Linking Step o Occurs in mitochondrial matrix o 2 carbons are lost o 2 hydrogens are bound o anaerobic process Krebs Cycle o occurs in mitochondrial matrix o 4 carbons are lost o 10 hydrogens bound o anaerobic o 2 ATP made 4 Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation o Occurs in mitochondrial inner membrane o No carbon lost o No hydrogens bound o Aerobic process o 34 ATP produced o oxygen is the final electron acceptor Build up of H+ gradient creates potential energy to power ATP synthase Mitochondria have own DNA reproduce by splitting started as free living bacteria formed symbiotic relationship with cells o mitochondria and chloroplasts Rate of Metabolism O 2onsumption is an indirect measure o Measure O in2room compared to amount you breathe out 5 CO 2roduction rate; more out means more krebs cycle Metabolic TNZ Rate (kcal/kg d) Upper Critical Lower Critical Ambient Temperature (C) lower the temp., higher the metabolism o breathing in more O 2 o burn ATP to keep body warm higher the temp., higher the metabolism o sweating costs energy Within TNZ o Behavioral adjustments made; take off jacket, put on jacket/blanket o No additional calories are used to maintain o Circulatory adjustments can be made Vasoconstriction or vasodilation to increase or decrease blood flow to areas of the body Thermoregulation use ATP to maintain body heat temperature: average kinetic energy of a piece of matter hypothermic: when core body temperature falls below 35 degrees C Mechanisms of Heat Transfer heat moves from hotter object to cooler conduction: transfer of thermal energy between 2 objects in direct contact with each other o such as, arm and desk, body and chair convection: transfer of thermal energy from a (s) (l) or (s)(g) radiation: thermal energy transfer between objects that are not in direct contact with each other o electromagnetic waves o sun to objects on Earth o body heat radiates in room evaporation: heat is lost from an object through evaporation of water o (l)(g) o relative humidity (% of water vapor) affects this more humid, less evaporation less humid, more evaporation GI Tract matter that must be consumed: 6 o ingest nutrients water minerals (needed chemical elements) C, H, N, O Na, K, Cl, Ca, P, Mg, S (macro minerals: needed in larger amounts) Fe, Zn, I (needed in trace amounts) Vitamins: small organic molecules Macromolecules Carbohydrates o Monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides Proteins o Essential: we can’t make these (9) o Nonessential: we make these (11) Lipids o Triglycerides, cholesterol Nucleic acids: nucleotides Functions of GI Tract o Mechanical reduction Break up food into smaller pieces by chewing or muscle contracting o Transport nutrients (peristalsis) o Sterilization Use acid Helicobacter pylori is an ulcer causing bacteria that can withstand acid o Chemical digestion Catabolize molecules: use enzymes to break into atoms o Absorption Actually move nutrients into body o Elimination Parts of GI Tract and Functions o mouth: teeth, tongue, salivary glands mechanical reduction and some chemical digestion teeth breakdown food salivary glands lubricate food and contain bicarbonate, mucus, and amylase (carb breakdown), lysozyme (kills bacteria) o pharynx: behind nose and mouth where food(bolus) and air passageway intersect o esophagus: transports food via peristalsis o stomach food enters through lower esophageal sphincter chemical digestion and mechanical reduction HCl acid is secreted by parietal cells chief cells secrete pepsinogen which combines with HCl and makes pepsin that breaks down proteins 7 food is now called chyme: slurry of food and broken down nutrients and gastric juices chyme leaves through the pylorus Small intestine o Duodenum: first component of small intestine Enzymatic digestion Secreted Embedded in cell membrane; lactase, maltase Lipids not soluble Liver makes bile salts that are stored in gallbladder Released to digest lipids o Microvilli help increase surface area for absorption o Pancreas: glandular organ Endocrine gland: duct-less, secretes products directly into blood Exocrine gland: has a duct, empty contents onto internal/external surface Transport Solubility of the transported molecules is Name(s) of specializCosts nsport hi→lo) or against (lo→hi) their concentration mechanism generally polar or nonpolar? proteins (if any are involved)energy? gradient? Simple diffusion Hydrophobic/nonpolar none no High to low (passive) Facilitated diffusion Hydrophilic/ionized/polar Carrier protein no High to low Channel diffusion Hydrophilic/ionized/polar Ion channel no High to low Active transport Hydrophilic/ionized/polar pump yes Low to high Cell Transport 8 Membrane Permeability higher permeability means faster transport more lipid soluble a substance is the greater the membrane permeability to that substance larger molecules move through the lipid bilayer slower in general, membrane permeability decreases the higher the temperature the faster the molecules move thus permeability increases thicker membrane means lower permeability due to molecules having to travel farther 9 Carrier protein
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