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Date Created: 11/14/15
Research Evaluation Worksheet 1 PSYCH/610 Version 1 University of Phoenix Material Research Evaluation Worksheet Title: Effect of antiinflammatory drugs on overall risk of common cancer: casecontrol study in general practice Full Article Reference (APA style): Langman, M. J., Cheng, K. K., Gilman, E. A., & Lancashire, R. J. (2000). Effect of anti inflammatory drugs on overall risk of common cancer: casecontrol study in general practice . BMJ, p. 320:1642. Abstract To examine whether or not the use of common antiinflammatory drug treatments may actually reduce or eliminate the again common cancers such as oesophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, and pancreas, also along with the four non gastrointestinal such as bladder, breast, lung, and prostrate. Introduction a. Is the need for the study clearly stated in the introduction? Explain by using information presented in the literature review. The need for the study of the cross between the common antiinflammatory drugs that many people take on a daily basis just for the common headache or minor aches and pains and how it may have an effect on the possibility of reducing and possibly eliminating the risk of cancer is stated clearly. b. What is the research hypothesis or question? Whether or not taking these common drugs can actually reduce the risk of someone getting cancer or even eliminating cancer all together without all of the harsh medications and treatments. c. What are the variables of interest (independent and dependent variables)? In this experiment the researchers use patients that have been diagnosed with five gastrointestinal cancers and also patients that have been diagnosed with the other four non gastrointestinal cancers. Controls also included patients without a diagnosis and also current smokers. d. How are the variables operationally defined? The researchers in this experiment had taken individuals from records in the United Kingdom that had previously been diagnosed with one of the forms of cancer and had been given a prescription medication 1336 months prior to the study. Method a. Sample Size (Total): ________________ Size Per Group/Cell: _______________ I did not put the sizes on this question since the tables that are included in the test and the numbers really depend on which test we would be referring to. Research Evaluation Worksheet 2 PSYCH/610 Version 1 b. Were the methods and procedures described so that the study could be replicated without further information? What information, if any, would you need to replicate or reproduce this study? There were different tests that have been conducted in this test. There were tests for those that have been on medications within the last 1336 months and the results and tests are also dependent upon if the test was male and females and which cancer the patient has been diagnosed with. Participants a. How were participants selected and recruited? The patients were selected based on their type of cancer and medications that they may be taking already. b. Were subjects randomly selected? No the researchers had gone through the medical research data base of the United Kingdom. c. Were there any biases in sampling? Explain there were no biases because of the fact that the patients were selected through the database. d. Were the samples appropriate for the population to which the researcher wished to generalize? I feel that the sample were appropriate given the fact that the database was given to the researchers. e. What are the characteristics of the sample populations? The participants were given this opportunity based on the information that was given to them some of the participants have been on some of the treatments anywhere from 1336 months. There are many different types of cancers that these patients have been dealing with and the researchers want to see if there is any relief with the pain from the cancer. Research Design (check which design applies) _______ Single group, time series study _______ Multiple baseline (sequential) design: ______________ _______ Single group, no measurement _______ Single group with measurement: Pre ______ During _____ Post _____ _______ Two groups classic experimental versus control group, randomly assigned _____X__ (quasiexperimental) two groups experimental versus control group, not randomly assigned _____X__ Correlation research, not manipulated, degree of relationship _____X__ Descriptive research (qualitative study) _____X__ Natural observation _____X__ Analytical research _____X__ Interview research _______ Historical study _______ Survey research _____X__ Legal study _______ Ethnography research _______ Policy analysis _____X__ Fieldwork research _____X__ Evaluation study _______ Phenomenology _______ Grounded theory ______X_ Protocol analysis (collection and analysis of verbatim reports) _______ Case study, no measurement _______ Case study, with measurement: Pre _________ During _______ Post _________ ____X___ Developmental research Research Evaluation Worksheet 3 PSYCH/610 Version 1 ____X___ Longitudinal (same group of subjects over period of time) _______ Crosssectional (subjects from different age groups compared) _______ Crosssequential (subjects from different age groups, shorter period of time) _______ Correlation, more than two groups: control, treatment, and other treatment comparisons _______ Factorial design, two or more groups: other treatment differences, no untreated controls _______ Two or more dependent variables (MANOVA) _______ Other design: __________________________________________________________ Consider the Following Questions: a. Was a control group used? Yes ___X___ No ______ If yes, complete b, c, and d below. b. Was the “control” method for the study appropriate? Yes c. What variable was being controlled for? Dependent variable was used because the researcher had control d. In the case of an experimental study, were subject randomly assigned to groups? No subjects were put in groups Measures a. Describe the Dependent Measure(s)/Instruments used: The dependent measures that are used are the results that are used in order to come up with the control groups the researchers are not able to change the initial results. b. Describe the Measurement/Instrument Validity Information: The validity is questionable in this test because of the fact that there are many people that take antiinflammatory medications already before they were diagnosed with cancer and take it for other reasons other than cancer. c. Describe the Measurement/Instrument Reliability Information: The information gathered is from th medical records of the patients so it is considered to be reliable. Consider the Following Questions: a. For all measures (measures to classify subjects, dependent variables, etc..) was evidence of reliability and validity provided, either through summarizing the data, or by referring the reader to an available source for that information? The information was provided in this article even though the validity was not something that could be proven since antiinflammatory are something that many people may take often. b. Do the reliability and validity data justify the use of the measure? The reliability and validity do justify the measure however the test results seemed to have come out inconclusive. c. Are the measures appropriate (if not, why not)? The measures seemed that they could have been appropriate if the patients had not taken antiinflammatory prior to testing. d. Are multiple measures used, particularly those that sample the same domains, or constructs but with different methods (e.g., selfreport, rating scales, selfmonitoring, or direct observation)? There are multiple measures used throughout the testing depending on the cancer and the age and sex of the patients in each of the control groups. Research Evaluation Worksheet 4 PSYCH/610 Version 1 f. If human observers, judges, or raters were involved, was interobserver or interrater agreement (reliability) assessed? Was it obtained for a representative sample of the data? Did the two raters do their ratings independently? Was their reliability satisfactory? There was an agreement to the testing and there was overall satisfaction even though the results were inconclusive there were still some results to show that there was a decrease in inflammation and pain. Independent and Dependent Variables a. What is/are the Independent Variable(s): The independent variables are the anti inflammatories that are used throughout the testing. b. What is/are the Dependent Variable(s): The dependent variable is the cancer since it cannot be controlled or changed. Data Analysis Scales of Measurement (check those that apply): Nominal _______ Ordinal _______ Interval _______ Ratio __X_____ a. What type of statistical techniques are used? The statistical techniques that were used were from the information gathered from the control groups based on age, sex, and type of cancer. b. What type of tables and graphs are used? The tables that were used were posttest tables recording the results of the tests. Consider the Following Questions: a. Were tests of significance used and reported appropriately (e.g., with sufficient detail to understand what analysis was being conducted)? Yes b. Do the researchers report means and standard deviations (if relevant) so that the reader can examine whether statistically significant differences are large enough to me meaningful? Yes c. Other comments on the reported statistical analyses? The researchers were honest as to the results that were gathered being inconclusive, and not trying to manipulate anything to make the experiment look better. Discussion Evaluate the Summary and Conclusions of the study (Usefulness): The conclusion is clean and easy to understand it puts a clearer understanding on all of the information that was gathered. Describe the Strength(s) and Limitation(s) of the Study: The strengths of the tests were that there were plenty of participants, and there were limitations, because of the fact that there are many people that do already take these antinflamitorys for other pain that is not related to cancer Describe what you learned from the study: I was able to learn that even though an anti inflammatory does not cure cancer or cut the risk it may help the pain. Research Evaluation Worksheet 5 PSYCH/610 Version 1 List any remaining questions you have about the study: If the researchers were to get another control group together that had not taken any antiinflammatories in their life would the results have come out differently? *Adapted from form created by Dr. Randy Buckner, University of Phoenix Instructor
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