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Date Created: 11/14/15
Week Seven Homework Exercise 1 PSYCH/610 Version 1 University of Phoenix Material Week Seven Homework Exercise Answer the following questions, covering material from Ch. 13 of Methods in Behavioral Research: 1. Define inferential statistics and how researchers use inferential statistics to draw conclusions from sample data. Involves mathematical procedures that allow psychologists to make inferences about data which they have collected. An example of this would be if a psychologist wanted to draw conclusions about a larger population from which samples were collected (Cozby, 2009). 2. Define probability and discuss how it relates to the concept of statistical significance. Probability is the possibility that an outcome of an experience or an event will occur. Probability and significance are one in the same. For example if the statistical significance is low then the difference will be counted as random error, whereas if it is high it will not. If the significance is low then the probability is considered to be sound (Cozby, 2009). 3. A researcher is studying the effects of yoga on depression. Participants are randomly assigned to one of two groups: yoga and medication (experimental group); or support group and medication (control group). What is the null hypothesis? What is the research hypothesis? In this case, if the experimental group differed from the control group that would be the research hypothesis. If there were no differences in the mean then it would be a null hypothesis (Cozby, 2009). 4. In the scenario described in the previous question, the researcher implements two programs simultaneously: a 6week yoga program coupled with medication management and a 6week support group program coupled with medication management. At the end of the 6 weeks, participants complete a questionnaire measuring depression. The researcher compares the mean score of the experimental group with the mean score of the control group. What statistical test would be most appropriate for this purpose and why? What is the role of probability in this statistical test? The T Test would be a better choice in this case because a T test is used to determine Week Seven Homework Exercise 2 PSYCH/610 Version 1 the two groups are significantly different from one another. So with that being said the results would perhaps be more reliable than any other test described in our text (Cozby, 2009). 5. In the scenario described in the previous questions, the researcher predicted that participants in the experimental group—yoga plus medication—would score significantly lower on measures of depression than would participants in the control group—support group plus medication. True or false: A twotailed test of significance is most appropriate in this case. Explain your response. False. The researcher had predicted that the participants in the experimental group yoga plus medication would score significantly lower on measures of depression. The “Lower” implies a one tailed test. If it would have been stated by researchers that the results were going to be significantly different then this would have been a two tailed test. 6. Explain the relationship between the alpha level (or significance level) and Type I error. What is a Type II error? How are Type I and Type II errors different? Rejecting a null hypothesis when it is actually in fact true is referred to a type I error. When not rejecting a null hypothesis when in fact the alternate hypothesis is true this is referred to a type II error. Overall a type I error occurs when there really is no difference, but random sampling caused the data to show a significant difference. To whereas type II occurs when there really is a difference overall but random sampling caused the data not to show a statistically significant difference. This would draw the conclusion that the two are really not that different as in error (Cozby, 2009). 7. A researcher is studying the effects of sex—male and female—and dietary sugar on energy level. Male and female participants agree to follow either a high sugar or low sugar diet for eight weeks. The researcher asks the participants to complete a number of questionnaires, including one assessing energy level, before and after the program. The researcher is interested in determining whether a high or low sugar diet affects reported energy levels differently for men and women. At the end of the program, the researcher examines scores on the energy level scale for the following groups: Men – low sugar diet; Men – high sugar diet; Women – low sugar diet; Women – high sugar diet. What statistic could the researcher use to assess the data? What criteria did you use to determine the appropriate statistical test? In this scenario the researcher would use a study with two independent variables, each Week Seven Homework Exercise 3 PSYCH/610 Version 1 with two levels, which would be male and female and then high and low sugar diets. The dependent variable would be the level of energy found. With this information the best way to assess the information gathered, would be through inferential statistics. Inferential statistics are used to determine if we can in fact make statements that the results reflect what would happen if the experiment was conducted over and over again with multiple samples. Inferential statistics is what allows researchers to make inferences about the true difference in the population on the basis of sample data (Cozby, 2009). Week Seven Homework Exercise 4 PSYCH/610 Version 1 Week Seven Homework Exercise 5 PSYCH/610 Version 1 References Cozby, P. (2009). Methods in Behavioral Research. New York, NY: McGrawHill.
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