PSY211 body+brain+and+sleep+team+paper week 2
PSY211 body+brain+and+sleep+team+paper week 2
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Date Created: 11/14/15
Running head: BODY, BRAIN AND SLEEP 1 Body, Brain and Sleep PSY/211 Michelle Barron BODY, BRAIN AND SLEEP 2 Body, Brain and Sleep During the early 1920s sleep was once considered an inactive, or passive, state in which both the body and the brain "turned off" to rest and recuperate from the day's waking activities. (Harvard Medical School, 2007) In 1929 scientist found a new way to record brain activity, which changed their way of thinking. Through electroencephalograms (EEGs) recordings researchers found that the brain was actually extremely operational at times, and not turned off at all. During time and different machines scientist discovered that the body goes through two main types of sleep, rapideyemovement (REM) and nonrapideyemovement (NREM) sleep. REM sleep is also known as paradoxical sleep, a stage during which you have rapid eye movements and your muscles become almost paralyzed. (AlleyDog) The majority of dreams occur in REM sleep, but not all of them. REM sleep is identified and characterized by its low amplitude (small), highfrequency (fast) waves and alpha rhythm, as well as eye movement. (Harvard Medical School, 2007) Experts believe that during REM sleep your body becomes paralyzed to build a neurological barrier that prevents a person from “actingout” their dreams. REM sleep is your deepest sleep it last about 6090 min. A person who wakes up from REM sleep usually is dreaming a vivid dream that almost seems real. It takes about 90 min after a person falls asleep to reach REM sleep before REM sleep we go through NREM sleep, which can be characterized in three stages: N1, N2 and N3. During N1 the body is going through a transition between wakefulness and sleep. During N1 the brain is producing high amplitude theta waves, which are very slow brain waves. (Harvard Medical School, 2007). N1 sleep is important to the body because it begins to relax your body in order to continue to stage two. N2 is the second stage of sleep, and can last for approximately 20 minutes. BODY, BRAIN AND SLEEP 3 The brain starts producing rapid wave activity known as sleep spindle. (Sherry) N2 sleep is important because it brings the body temperature down and heart rate begins to is slow down. N3 is when the brain starts to create slow brain waves known as delta waves. This stage is important because a person is resting and begins to dream. A person is in their deepest sleep and can last approximately 30 minutes. Interestingly, bedwetting and sleepwalking and nightmares occur during deep sleep. (Sherry) The body and brain go through a sequence of sleep but it does not always progress through the same stages. Typically a person begins with N1 and progresses al the way to N3 then it goes back to N2 and N1 before going into REM sleep. Not everyone has the same sleeping pattern for example a service member sleep pattern is always ruined after a deployment. Many soldiers say they can never sleep how they use to prior to deploying. During deployment a soldier does not have a sleeping schedule. Sometimes they wake up at four in the morning, the next day they may wake up a two. A soldier overseas has many duties to pull through out the night or even 24 hours such as convoys, and guard duty. They have to stay alert at all times which prevents them from going through REM sleep. Not having enough sleep can cause diseases such as heart problems and usually are caused by sleep disorders. Throughout years of research sleeping disorders have been found. Disorders can vary from Sleep Apnea, to Insomnia or even Sleep Paralysis to mention a few. Many people have experienced these disorders, which have even affected their way of life. A sleeping disorder is something very serious, which if experienced should be taken immediate action to solve the problem. Sleep Apnea occurs when a person’s breathing is interrupted when they are asleep. People experiencing sleep apnea stop breathing repeatedly while they sleep. There are two types BODY, BRAIN AND SLEEP 4 of Sleep apnea people may experience. Central Sleep Apnea happens when the airway is not blocked but the brain fails to signal the muscles to breathe. Obstructive Sleep Apnea is when the airway is blocked usually because tissue on the throat collapses during sleep. Even though Obstructive Sleep Apnea is the more common form of sleep apnea both are very serious if left untreated sleep apnea can result in a number of health problems. Insomnia is a sleep disorder where people struggle to fall asleep or once asleep experience difficulty trying to stay asleep. People with insomnia experience symptoms, such as waking up too early in the morning, feel tired once awake, or wake up often during the night and struggle to fall back asleep. Primary Insomnia is when the person is experiencing these symptoms but not because of any health problems. Secondary Insomnia is when the person is experiencing these problems because of health conditions such as asthma, heartburn, or even depression. Insomnia is also another very common sleeping disorder. Sleep Paralysis is a feeling of being conscious but unable to move. It occurs when a person goes through stages of being awake and asleep. Through these transitions, you may be unable to move or speak for a few seconds or for some up to a few minutes. Some people may also feel pressure or a sense of choking. Some have even thought of this feeling as an evil presence. Although the feeling might be very serious researchers have often said that sleep paralysis is only a sign that the body is not transitioning properly during the normal stages of sleep and is not considered a dangerous health problem. These are only a few sleeping disorders that have been covered but always healthy to avoid any sleeping disorder by maintaining healthy sleeping habits. Keeping a regular sleeping schedule or setting aside enough hours for sleep, on average seven to eight hours and are tips to maintain healthy sleeping habits so our daytime activities will not be affected. BODY, BRAIN AND SLEEP 5 How many hours should a person sleep? The amount of hours that are necessary for the body and mind rest depends on age and individual characteristics of each human being. Since some people need more sleep than others? Recommended that you should sleep you need to be active, alert and in a good mood during the day. Sleep times range on the age of each human being. Infants: The smallest are those who should sleep more hours a day to ensure proper brain development. Approximately 15 hours a day is healthy. (kidshealth, 19952012) Children: The need for sleep is reduced over time. After three years a child should sleep about 11 hours. (national and sleep foundation, 2011) Schoolage children: The physical and mental activities of children say schools require a high expenditure of energy, so the rest is vital. So that children at this age should sleep at least ten hours. (national and sleep foundation, 2011) Teens: This stage of life is marked by significant physical and social changes, so there is often little consistency in sleep routine. Many teenagers prefer to maximize nighttime and prioritize other activities over the break. At this age you should spend eight hours rest. (John Cline, 2009) Adults: The pace of life in the productive age is quite heavy. The daily work, overwork and family absorb the necessary hours of rest. However, it is recommended sleep six to eight hours daily. (family doctor, 99) Seniors: The dream is of great importance in the last decades of life. However, sleep behavior changes over time. At this time it is common to sleep becomes fragmented surface, so you sleep for a few hours in the day and others at night, for a total of about eight to ten hours. (family doctor, 99) It is hard for the average human being to have healthy sleeping patterns. Factors such as job hours, personal problems affect how much time a person sleep. Sleeping is very important in BODY, BRAIN AND SLEEP 6 order for the body to rest from a long day. If someone is having problems sleeping, seeking help is very important. Without sleep a person’s body will shut down. Reference BODY, BRAIN AND SLEEP 7 AlleyDog. (n.d.). Rem sleep defined. Retrieved from http://www.alleydog.com/glossary/definition.php?term=REM Sleep Family Doctor. (99, 05). family doctor. Retrieved 12 05, 12, from Sleep Changes in Older Adults: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/seniors/stayinghealthy/sleepchangesin olderadults.html Harvard Medical School. (2007, December 18). Natural patterns of sleep. Retrieved from http://healthysleep.med.harvard.edu/healthy/science/what/sleeppatternsremnrem John Cline, P. (2009). sleep and teenagers. pshicology today , 1. Kidshealth. (19952012). nemours. Retrieved december 05, 2012, from kidshealth.org: http://kidshealth.org/parent/growth/sleep/sleepnewborn.html National and sleep foundation. (2011). National Sleep Foundation. Retrieved 12 5, 2012, from children and sleep: http://www.sleepfoundation.org/article/sleeptopics/childrenand sleep Sherry, K. (n.d.). Stages of sleep. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/statesofconsciousness/a/SleepStages.htm
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