Dendrology Exam 3 Study Guide
Dendrology Exam 3 Study Guide 336
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Saturday November 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 336 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Donald J. Leopold in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Dendrology in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 11/14/15
ELEVATIONAL IN EOEKY H HHHTMH REGI G H Tree Species Mauritian Vegeu unll 2065 feet f 7 turnline Cold Tmsiliun e 111100 39 A a Alpine Upper Ti timber pine 39 Subalpine quot 39 v CLIMATE 39 r BOREAL COOL MUIST lodgepole pine Montanex CLIMATE 39 AUSTRAMIWARHJRH T 39 39 I V P ndemsa ping W a 7 1 Luwer Timberline arid transition zone s 5 x 5000 Fonthill v quot rainfallyear Pinyon Pines P a edujjs 39e aslw m P mv ap y ggwest westward juniper Spacies Oak Species eastward sham grass prairie mumwestward 5 Arimna Cypress 1mm 1e rant pioneer 2TDLERANT cum 31ntwmediale 39Subclimax Dendrology Exam 3 Study Guide Southeastern and Piedmont Forest Quercus phellos willow oak Fagaceae intoerant smaller leaves deep sinuses fastgrowing common pioneer species on quotredquot oak timber also see water oak restricted to wetlands highly valued ornamental important street tree in Southeast native to southern NJ Jeafendsin has all the characteristics of red oak including uses eaves thinnest of all oak resembles willow leaves pyramidal form when young but opens up when older can grow up to 100 tall and 3 DBH rougher bark than northern red oak shallow furrows buttressing at base Congaree National Monument found naturally along oodplains high water levels in MarchApril is cold hardy but any temperature below will kill it aso a good street tree shallow root systems semievergreen Quercus nigra water oak Fagaceae common pioneer species of soils subcimax intolerant but seedlings may establish in shade M H oak very common in heart of MI oodplain and deep moist uplands good for waterfowl massive form up to 100 tall tree is topheavy buttressing in wetlands rough bark wood has ne texture coarse leaves Most commercially important of willow oaks firewood ornamental cooperage retains leaves through winter Liquidambar styraci ua quotstorax owingquot sweetgum Hamamelidaceae f0und all the way down to Honduras Syracuse is as far North as it gets vauabe hardwood good for paper products storax is highly valued Liquidambar orientals produces Storax shade intolerant pioneer species on very common species in Southeast c0mm0nly planted on found on many soils but best growth on along rivers eaf is very distinct BE ABLE TO DESCRIBE SHAPE very nice ornamental good owering color Multiple of capsules doesn t rot readily very sharp not a good street tree very big form when mature pyramida form when young more open as it gets older beautifu looking wood bark has granite color and is initially corky ridges noninterlacing very fast growing only member in Southeastern forest that does this and basal sprouter often found in very dense thickets Rotundiloba fruitless more manageable and planted along streets llex opaca American holly Aquifoliaceae reativey slow growing subcanopy tree except in where it is the canopy Sunken Forest found on bottomlands and lower slopes seen in driest sites and wettest sites native to Long Island Massachusetts RI CN not seen in upstate NY colected for Christmas greens very shade tolerant and one of the most of all trees hugs the Atlantic coastline white bark very hard like elephant hide shock resistant and very smooth like American beech used in making a hollies are diecious females produce the red or yellow fruits spine tipped at edges very sharp eaf is bright to dark green very dense crown very important horticultural tree leX aquifoium English holly used for Xmas decoration important tree for wildlife food and habitat sometimes has multiple stems Pinus echinata shortleaf pine Pinaceae shade intolerant drought tolerant thrives in hot and dry conditions multipe stems limited basal sprout capabilities only when young found in Appalachians and Piedmont very common in Ozarks native to NJ amp extirpated in NY doesn t get as far south as other pines but also not especially cold hardy either shows disease on poorly drained soils but isn t an issue very important for in Southeast no epicormic shoots epicormic refer back to Pinus rigida resin pockets persists in dense stands capable of basal sprouting while young and after being damaged Pinus taeda Loblolly pine Pinaceae absent from deep waters of MI best growth seen on but deep lower soil found on Coastal Plain and primary commercial pine in Southeast very important for timber papers everything gets cut out save for root system every 6070 years shade intolerant open canopy subclimax species replaced by hardwoods cod hardy but long needles can t tolerate glaze storms found in oodplains and old elds 3 needles per fascicle very popular landscape tree od eld species also colonizes raw sands bark has rectangular ridges granite like color commony paired with oak in understory up to 4 in diameter cones turn silver with age All 4 southern pines of old growth stands provide habitat for main predator is about 6 long 40 above ground climbs trees Pest very serious areas ooded in springtime but recedes as time goes on Slash pine Pinus elliottii Pinaceae shade intolerant very rounded and open crown subtropical tree fastgrowing needles about 8 12quot long the 3rd longest of 4 southern pines 3 needles per fascicle and long shiny cones cones are unarmed dorsal umbo One of the fastest growing pines can grow to 35 a year very susceptible to re was restricted to sandy soils but now more abundant due to re suppression found mainly on Coastal Plain of Deep South cold storms really damage the crown can t resprout variety densa has wood hard as a rock has a quotgrassquot stage lcharacteristic of slash and pine b0th long leaf and slash used in naval stores for turpentine paint thinners very nice landscape tree in southern streets often seen growing in depressions with palmettos baize in the understory bark has very at rectangular ridges quotPine rocklandquot very nutrient poor site seen in Everglades but some of the highest diversity in the US pine doesn t basal sprout after disturbance wide spreading root system can make it sensitive to competition Pests Fusiform rust very serious in dense stands one of the most devastating in North America recently identi ed further North Longleaf pine Pinus palustris Pinaceae shade intolerant re climax species new plants will sprout right after re otherwise is subclimax Deep South into Texas wetand tree also found in uplands sandy soils poorly drained sites THIS FEATURE allows it to compete on dryer sites ongest needles of the 4 pines 1218quot long not planted further North due to ice storms Pest susceptible to brown spot needle blight bud of pine protected by needes at the top so as re burns it up the bud remains unharmed Cone dorsal umbo unarmed nonserotinous seen as a 39clump for 510 years followed by very rapid g rowth often associated with southern magnolia does not sprout community type 99 removed from US for pine plantations most species rich natural community in US every 20ft2 has different plant species seen in North Carolina 12 different pitcher plants Venus y traps orchids fern snakes peatlands managed with exceptional timber particularly old growth Taxodium distichum baldcypress Taxodiacea moderatey shade tolerant fastgrowing decidu0us conifer bronze foliage variety ascendens aka pond cypress variety imbricatum quotNutansquot ongived oldest living tree in Eastern US 2200 vears oodplain species can grow in 510 of standing water most water resistant tree species historica range is Deep South but is seen throughout eastern US cones size of a PingPong ball moss on peltate attened scales kind of look like mushrooms Seeds in cones bene t from growing alcohol pyramidal when young more open attopped when older most massive tree in Eastern US can be up to 10 in diameter biggest one was 46 wood is rotresistant highly valued for timber and original greenhouses Frances near Charleston Congaree River Sky Lake Nature Reserve Okefenokee Swamp dominated by cypress stand Horseshoe Lake in MN have pneumatophores dissimilar in function to those on mangroves FUNCTION not seen on highlands rather a characteristic of site in standing water high level of eaves are sold as novelty item mainy con ned to deep water swamps permanenty ooded BECAUSE WHY regenerated by spring oods each year new sprouts all along bole after disturbance or cutting event epicormic only other tree species that can grow in this kind of habitat with big rounded base seen often with baldcypress See cypress domes l Everglades Chamaecyparis thyoides Atlantic whitecedar Cupressaceae very ecologically different from 77 occidentals found along the Atlantic coast up to Maine to the Carolinas Very salt sensitive tree rot resistant Coldhardy not much found in natural stands vauabe in teacolored water Northern whitecedar found in alkaline soils mined not cut production is booming at the expense of C thyoides hammered by halts regeneration hundreds of horticurtural varieities seen in genus Chamaecyparis accumuation of stomatiferous Xs has smallest scales of all members and has bluegreen foliage found in very dense monoculture stands may see occasional red maple thin bark very sensitive to re can destroy whole stands regenerates from scratch common landscape shrub cones are glaucous gandular along facial scales MidSouthern NewJersey NJ Pine Barings big cedar swamps Rocky Mountain Tree Species Pinus exilis limber pine Pinaceae shade intolerant not site sensitive longlived pioneer species lives about 1000years not high in timber valuable nice ornamental in the East watershed protection and conservation of clean water water is huge deal is Western US tufted foliage stout stems are very exible bend at nearly 90degrees often seen with found in exposed sites near the timberline termina gold brown umbo underside has 2 big seed cavities food source for wildlife white colored bark canopy is more box shaped big seeds with marginal wings dispersed by jay species Lewis amp Clark very important for pine dispersal Pinus ponderosa ponderosa pine Pinaceae occurs throughout the west pine with the greatest in the US ha ve slightly different taxonomic varieties based on habitat dense dark green foliage heavy thicker bark has more resistance to what cones are heavily armed basal scales remain on tree most important Pinus species dominates montane zone as early successional species re is main type of disturbance in Rockies very valuable timber used for construction animal bedding fast growing shade intolerant most drought tolerant of pines taproot can live 500600 years Black bark initially when younger more cinnamon color when older historicaly stands were burned regularly and were more spread out but more recently the stands are more densely packed due to lack of re which can inhibit regeneration of other species seen as the frame for Mount Rushmore Pinus contorta lodgepole pine Pinaceae intoerant pioneer species re climax species otherwise subclimax distinct varieties depending on habitat found in proi c variety latfolia main stem used for 2needlesfascicle well adapted to re persistent and somewhat serotinous cones similar to cones are more knobby than jack pine with a quotpricklequot most common tree species seen in Yellowstone often found in very densely packed stands limit wildlife value mature trees create a very dark understory re suppression overstory killed by decimated pine in CO in just the last 10 15 years aggressive colonizer early successional species Picea engelmannii Engelmann spruce Pinaceae bue spruce of the Rockies found higher than very nice Xmas tree out West never seen for Xmas back East cimax species of zone 8 11000ft good for building musical instruments wood has high strength to weight ratio cones are shorter and more redbrown than blue spruce foiage is always blue very ST ong lived 400600 years old and 4 in diameter needes have glaucous white pubescence could be used to minimize desiccation Note evergreens keep their needles on for about 2 years lose them the 3rd year amp then regenerate cooccurs with lodgepole pine cones found on upper third of tree pendent typicaly has sturdy pyramidal form very scaly white and redbrown bark with buttressing at the base found above alpine they are small shrubs thousands of years old Picea pungens Coloradoblue spruce Pinaceae most common in Colorado very nice Xmas tree very sharp foliage sharp enough to draw blood varies in color from silverblue and for the majority of them dark green moderatey shade tolerant 4 in diameter and 8090 tall goden brown cones twice the length of R engemannii erose margins with lots of resin amp exible pyramida form and more open the base more variable than R engemannii not as drought tolerant likes sites on and with R ponderosa found on upper slope and riparian zones not much use for timber but used for van kosteriana grows up and cascades down van aurea is more gold color Abies Iasiocarpa subalpine r Pinaceae commony associated with R engemannii broader canopy anol R eXiis cone thumb sized resinous upright has very ne pubescence found at top of tree very beautiful tree What is its growth form simiar color and foliage to R pungens shade tolerant slow growing found on sites either too wet or too dry for R engemannii initialy smooth bark then becomes more rigid and furrowed Engelmann is more scaly var arizonica found in our region different species A bifolia not smooth but corky bark found in different region than A lasiocarpa Abies concolor quotuniform color white r Pinaceae very abundant and important in Rockies and Sierra dominates southern section of western states not very economically important but high ecological importance mixed conifer climax species of zone very drought tolerant shade tolerant long lived great fir for Eastern landscape because of high drought tolerance grows up to 200 tall cones found at very top of tree erect barrelshaped lack of has allowed A concolorto grow out more than it has historically very re sensitive often seen with R ponderosa anol R menziesii Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas r Pinaceae var glauca seen in rocky soils moderately tolerant var menziseii seen prefers moist welldrained soils most important in US found more in Paci c Northwest good quality wood One of the most popular Xmas trees What pest has taken its toll on R menziesii cones have 3pronged bracts quotsnake tonguequot typically towards top of tree intermediate shade tolerance longlived often seen with R ponderosa amp R tremuoides found at upper region of zone thick bark more re resistant pure stands seen after disturbance Pinus edulis pinyon pine Pinaceae resembles R syvestris R banksana but a more tufted pine One of the most important to protein source shade intolerant very drought tolerant climax species of zone good size cone about size of st 2 seed cavities dispersed by thick bark not a closed canopy forest tree often seen as more of a shrub form important source for Smells like Zinfandel grapes when tree is damaged resin used for Cupressus arizonica Arizona cypress Cupressaceae not drought tolerant mod ST coldhardy slow growing subclimax species Bluegreen colored juniper quot uffy blue sprucequot larger cone comparatively speaking boss on peltate scales of cone not commercially important but has been used for often seen closer to streams realy abundant in Rockies and Sierras found in upper parts of zone with and bark is whiter out west 1 Clone can be connected for over 180acres trunk can suffer extensive damage by andor is really the only hardwood in Rockies
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