test 4 study guide
test 4 study guide 370
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This 152 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Gray on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 370 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Wyley B Shreves in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 209 views. For similar materials see History and Systems in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
Chapter 5 Psychology and the Mass Society Outline • Culture in the 1900s • Impact of Natural Science • 4 Types of Knowledge • Functionalism vs. Structuralism • Birth of Evolutionary Psychology • New Fields • Conclusion Birth of Modern Society • The turn of the 19 century saw much of the world turning into is current form – U.S.A. – Canada – Europe – Japan • Less emphasis on hereditary elites • More emphasis on popular participation Education • Education expands rapidly – “Elites” see the value in school – Progressivism strongly supports it Liberals – Need for educated workers • Greater opportunity • Use of “electives” collegechoose what classes you took in – Guess who benefits? Psychologists benefit because when given the choice, students wanted to take psychology Social Climate • Embraced practicality – The smart/capable will be successful – The dumb/unwilling will fail Negative • This extended to culture as well – The “Western” ways were desirable – The “Others” customs were barbaric or backwards • Not necessarily a bad thing… Social Climate • Paradoxically Progressivism was slowly gaining traction – Government should implement policies that guaranteed equality • Health care • EducationPublic schools open • Social Services • Many Psychologist saw themselves as social reformers • Do you see the paradox? Slow Gender Progress • Women began entering the workforce in large numbers • Many institutions of higher learning outright barred women from entry • First cracks in the wall were appearing Outline • Culture in the 1900s • Impact of Natural Science • 4 Types of Knowledge • Functionalism vs. Structuralism • Birth of Evolutionary Psychology • New Fields • Conclusion Science Booms • Huge discoveries – Radioactivity – Nuclear Physics – Radio Broadcast – First automobile – First airplane – Germ Theory Psychology Borrows • Psychologists worked shoulder to shoulder More co mingling with – Physicists, Chemists, Engineers, Biologists • All began using the same Scientific Method – Objective Methods – Peer-review – Practical Application • Two new viewpoints emerge Utilitarianism & Pragmatism One in the same/ new way of thinking John Stewart and James • The Mills • Value of an object or action is defined by its usefulness – If it promoted happiness it is right • Drug use? Negative • Violence? Not always negative. Have to look at context of situation Following other disciplines footsteps • If the field will serve a practical and progressive role in society – Increase public visibility – Increase our reputation – Get more funding Outline • Culture in the 1900s • Impact of Natural Science • 4 Types of Knowledge • Functionalism vs. Structuralism • Birth of Evolutionary Psychology • New Fields • Conclusion Scientific • Greater emphasis on measured variables • Heritability was accepted Traits were passed down from parents – Mom’s were greater • Greatly Structuralist – Small parts made the greater whole Folk • Beginning to be aware of environment's affect on behavior Blend of nature and nurture • Heritability led to criminal acts heritability negatively • Women were mentally inferior to men • Different ethnicities had different mental capabilities • Psychology did little to dissuade these views Research that was coming out supported these notions Values • Still highly intermingled with religious values • The presence of “God or “Spirit” completely disappears from academic journals • Psychologists are still very much unable to directly question the role of the divine Legal Started becoming expert witnesses. • Psychological experts are becoming increasingly involved in legal proceedings – Coca Cola Thought caffeine was addictive and wanted Coke to do away with caffeine. Coke got off • Psychologists often assisted in the legal Expert witnesses were giving barbaric advice – Forced sterilization Locked in an asylum Outline • Culture in the 1900s • Impact of Natural Science • 4 Types of Knowledge • Functionalism vs. Structuralism • Birth of Evolutionary Psychology • New Fields • Conclusion Functionalism If you were studying the country structuralist were just • William James looking at the world • Focused primarily on the dynamic process of psychology based on the experience not the structure – Structuralism was geography – Functionalism was historiography • Psychological processes are dynamic and depend on the situation actually function in the world to understand psychologyey Functionalism • James stressed the importance of comparative psychology – Child, animal, or abnormal • More dynamic view of emotions – Combination of situation and physiology • Many Psychologist combine these two theories Mary Calkins • First female president of the APA • Stressed the iAs the self evolves over time, we need to look at how it changes to Psychology other objects. Can focus on the structure but need to look at it in the real world over time – Coined “attitudes” to describe our evolving self over time and its relation to other objects • Snubbed by Harvard, Snubbed them rightnd functionalism back Outline • Culture in the 1900s • Impact of Natural Science • 4 Types of Knowledge • Functionalism vs. Structuralism • Birth of Evolutionary Psychology • New Fields • Conclusion Evolution Revolution • Homology was already a popular view – Animals all have similar organs the only vary in complexity • “Micro Evolution” was also commonly accepted – Minor changes resulting from a common ancestor Darwin • Natural Selection – Evolution as a result of competition – Those with advantageous attributes thrive, others die Spencer • Survival of the fittest – Success, either in the wild or in business, was determined by who could adapt the quickest • Competition would create stronger individuals/products • Darwin- Observational Had observations to back up his ideas • Spencer- Theoretical Just sitting writing ideas down Impact on Psychology • If humans are the “end” stage of evolution than: • New emphasis on studying children and animals – “Products” of evolution Social Engineering • We can improve society through wide reaching government policies • Logical combination of progressivism and evolutionary theory • If natural selection can do THIS, how much good can we do with artificial selection? Galton • Coined the term Eugenics – Incentivize those with distinguishing feature to marry and produce offspring – Prohibit (even sterilize) those with undesirable features so they cannot produce offspring • Saw great enthusiasm in many circles inside and outside of psychology • Even proposed this idea on a national scale – U.S.A. vs. Europe this big in America. Hitlers policies were based on If you were arrested or found criminally insane part of your punishment was to be sterilized Outline • Culture in the 1900s • Impact of Natural Science • 4 Types of Knowledge • Functionalism vs. Structuralism • Birth of Evolutionary Psychology • New Fields • Conclusion New Fields of Study • Mental testing • Child and Educational • Industrial • Gender Mental T esting • Galton – Royal Society – Twin Studies intelligence genetics in an environment. Can determine • These were the first attempts to objectively measure individual difference in intelligence Mental T esting • James Cattel – “mental test” – Compare the difference • Individual score • Average score Have to give the test to a lot of people to get the average and then can compare whether or not you are smart How they score IQ tests and ACT test First IQ test • Binet-Simon then Standford-Binet – You have probably taken a test based on their research The more intelligent the more successful • Set standards for different age groups – Can you not do the task for your age group? Benchmarks: what the average kid could do at that time – Can you do tests for an age group above yours? 3 Year olds Points to places on your face; count objects in a picture, repeat a shot sentence 7 year olds Distinguish left from right places on the face, perform multiple tasks at once, count varying coins, name multiple colors 12 year olds Use three given words in a new unique sentence, define abstract nouns, use more than 60 unique words in under 3 minutes Adults Assemble pieces into a whole, compare and contrast abstract nouns, answer civic questions like “What does the president do?” Use of Mental T ests • Led to negative outcomes • Should anyone be able to administer these tests? • Do these tests give the entire picture? • And positive outcomes • Do these tests serve a practical function? • Do these tests help show exceptional individuals? Child and Education Psychology Puberty = no more school Girls got ready for marriage Boys got a job • By the 1900’s compulsory education for boys and girls into their adolescents was required • Helen Thompson – Huge longitudinal Kids were way more developed – 750 kids who went to school to the age of 19 – 750 kids who started working at 14 Severely impaired in cognitive area. Still thought like kids School Psychology • Special schools were created to study education – University Elementary School • University of Chicago • Let Psychologists compare different methods of teaching • Students received top of the line education Child Psychology • Stanley Hall – First to theorize “critical periods” in childhood Only gong to be able to learn certain things development • A 6 year old will not understand justice, so why bother teaching it to them? Women weren't as smart and the white man was – Still very sexist and racist in his views better • Multiple female Ph.D students and first African American Ph.D student Industrial Psychology • “Evaluation” system had taken hold in the industrial West – China had been using it forever • Industrialists and governments wanted a way to select capable workers and improve effieciency Smart capable workers and a way to find the smart capable workers Industrial Psychology • Hugo Munsterburg – There were too many wrecks from motormen driving cable cars – How do we select good drivers? – He drew from the new field of mental testing – Internal Validity Got 75 drivers who were great drivers 75 drivers that were bad drivers Compared scores to the guys who did well and who did not do well and that's how he picked his drivers. Hired the good drivers Frederick Taylor • Became an advocate for workplace efficiency – Making sure workers could operate machines quickly – Saw that they wasted a lot of time chit-chatting Made work place really efficient but everyone was miserable • How do you think workers felt in a Munsterberg specialized factory? Gender Psychology • As females were slowly entering the academia a greater focus was placed on gender differences (and similarities). • Many of even the most “enlightened” thinkers of the say let their ideology blind them to scientific evidence – Nature or Nurture? • In its early works Gender Psychology had female Ph.Ds at the forefront Helen Thompson (Wooley) • She painstakingly recreated dozens of different landmark studies using male and female undergrads – Sensation, Reaction times, intelligence – What do you think she found? There were no differences. These basic things were the same Leta Hollingsworth • Refuted the popular belief that woman suffered “mental deficiencies” during menstruation Lost too much blood to function – Silly now but this was often cited as a reason for not hiring women No difference when on their period. Still smart on or off period • Variability hypothesis – There are more difference WITHIN men and women than there were between men and woman as a whole Conclusion • The rise in economic power in the Northern Hemisphere led to an abundance of resources that could be spent on academic pursuits • Education became important, and measuring it equally so • Psychology was slowly earning its stripes, becoming more popular, more individualized, AND more respected Piaget’s Stages Stage Age Range Characteristics Sensorimotor Birth to 2 years old• Focusing on motor schemas • No object permanence Preoperational 2 – 7 years old • Egocentristic thinking • Centration fallacy Concrete 7 – 12 years old • Can use logic, Operational but not in the abstract Formal Operational 12 years + • Fully functioning adult brain Chapter 10 Personality and Social Outline • Personality Psychology – Traditional approaches – Newer Interpretations • Social Psychology • Conclusions Personality • What makes someone an individual? • Many different approaches tried to answer this question. Ancient • Humans have always questioned individuality • Buddhism and Hinduism Karma • Clinical Traditions (French) -Stable functioning personality -Dysfunctional, problematic, or pathological Larger theories • Behaviorism – How we responded to Environment • Psychoanalysis – How we resolved Certain conflicts in our life Psychoanalysis To resolve conflicts over our "erogenous zones" • Freud believed we had -oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital • At each stage we have to resolve the conflict between the I'd and superego • Anal Retentive vs. Anal Explosive Newer Takes • American Tradition – Focused on Character vs. personality – Character: Moral aspects of behavior • Experimental Tradition – Galton • Don’t think in the abstract! • Measurable Combination of features Gordon Allport • Moved American Psychologists away form the study of “character” • Personality: Objective self – Behaviorist slant: outside stimulirring strategies to respond to Trait Theory • Personality is a robust collection of relatively stable Traits (discrete qualities) that guide our actions. -Previous theories relied more on state level interpretations or actions based solely "in the moment" Allport • He came to Psychology by way of social work • He believed he we detailed the discrete traits Personality we would be able to improve upon them of • What makes a criminal personality? Outline • Personality Psychology • Social Psychology – Experimental Impact – Social Judgments • Conclusions Personality vs. Social • Personality Psychologists are detailing all of the way we Are individuals -different, unique, special • Social Psychologists wanted to see why so Many of us act the same Sociology • Up until the 1900’s people only discussed group behavior in terms of the whole just pieces of the wholeheir individuality and • Some Psychologists were not happy with this interpretation -What happens to an individual when they are part of a group? -Social psychology Group Behavior • Why do people in groups do things they would never do alone? -Rioting, lynching, war crimes • What is it about the group that controls Social Instincts • When we join a group we become part of a larger “social organism” -Lose control over our automatic process -easily influenced -the organism has its own unique and discreet traits • One man’s anger becomes the group’s riot Social Instincts • Bekhterev • energy transfer – In a crowd we imitate the actions of others • Deindividuation • We behave differently when we change our focus from the Self to the Group • Uniforms • Darren brown • "Remote control" Introspection’s Legacy • Recall that in an Wund’t style lab, participants were placed in As sterile environment as possible -alone no distractions -people, light, color, noise • Should we be interested in if people change behavior When observed? Individual vs. Group • Triplett • in competitionyclists performed faster when placed • Faster performance on boring task • Rotor wheel • Greater pain tolerance when an audience in present • Social facilitation • Social rivalry Individual vs. Group • The group does not ALWAYS improve performance • memorization or attention resources we perform worse with an audience • Often times we will push responsibilities off in a group setting • Social loafing Decision Making • The group can affect our perception – Making judgments on whether a Light moves or not • Solomon Ashe -line judgement task • Social Conformity -let the group decide for us Social and Personality • It quickly became clear that these are two halves of the same coin Often someone stable personality traits determines how they will respond to the environment • Authoritarian personalities – Make decisions That seem counterintuitive Social Judgments • Our explicit judgments are often the product of the group, and do not correspond to our real internal feelings -racism in hotel bookings You vs. Me • When we judge other’s behavior -internal attributions • When we explain out own behavior -external attributions • Fundamental attribution error Dissonance • Festinger – Cognitive dissonance beliefs do not line upscomfort if our actions and our -we have a need to stay cognitively consistent Outline • Personality Psychology • Social Psychology • Conclusions New ways of thinking • By relying on experimental evidence and the scientific method, Psychology exploded in the areas of study And a several theories on human cognition and behavior • While big traditions form Psychology’s core, More and more splintering is going on New Areas • We no longer need to study the entire human psyche Developmental, cognitive, personality, social • Each can explain part of psychology and do not feel the need to explain all of psychology U.S. • With the ravages of WWI and WWII on the horizon, the geography and history of the United States puts it in unique position to begin dominating Psychology in all of its fields Social Progress • Psychology is striving to make itself an applied field as well as theoretical Testing • Women and minorities are beginning to make strides and the new view points contribute to the diversification of Psychology. Chapter 6 Mental Health and the Start of Clinical Psychology Outline • Historical Look on Mental Health • What changed? • Four types of Knowledge • Different causes to abnormal psychology • Types of treatment • Psychiatry vs. Psychology History of Mental Health • Up until this point we have focused on our understanding of Psychology changed over time – Focusing on the typical Pre-1800s • Prior to the 19 century very little was written or discussed about people with mental health problems • Even more materialistic thinkers drew a line at the abnormal – Curses, possession, witchcraft – It was a YOU problem Relatively rare Outline • Historical Look on Mental Health • What changed? • Four types of Knowledge • Different causes to abnormal psychology • Types of treatment • Psychiatry vs. Psychology What changed? • Why do we see a continuous spike in attention to mental health in the 1800s? • One word: cities • Urbanization from industrialization created a threefold problem – Sex, drugs, and alienation What did they do before then? • In an agrarian society family took care of members with mental health problems – “Out of sight…” • Alternatively left to fend for themselves – Not be able to survive – Would inevitable commit some form of crime • Purely legal problem Sex! • As populations grew more dense the rate of STDs rose as well • Top issue was syphilis – Neurosyphilis • Infection eats the spinal cord and even the brain Drugs! • Chemicals we consider illicit narcotics today were readily available – Prescription & over the counter • Heroin, Cocaine, and Opium were thought to help dozens of different maladies or just to “relax” • Withdrawal, Abuse, Tolerance – Physical symptoms Stress Alienation… • The rise of cities brought about a never before seen problem: • Alienation: Devastating pressure of city – Lack of identity, endless “rat race” • Reaction in the literature – Karl Marx to Mark Twain Outline • Historical Look on Mental Health • What changed? • Four types of Knowledge • Different causes to abnormal psychology • Types of treatment • Psychiatry vs. Psychology Folk • Mental problems have had a long history of being negatively portrayed • Rare folk remedies – Plants or herbs • Mental deficiencies and crime were often seen as one in the same Folk • Often mental health problems were considered a moral problem • Overtime mental problems were de-mystified – The “forbidden” seen as normal • Sex • Slowly, even now, people began to see mental health in terms of a medical condition Idealogical • Religious doctrine often placed very negative prescription on the mentally unsound • If you deviated from the norm – Good, righteous and moral • This highly reinforced folk beliefs that did not want any part in helping the “afflicted” Legal • As industrialized nations influenced citizens social lives more and more we see governments ever increasingly involved with mental health – Education • Separating and improving education Legal • What you see if a very slow reactionary path – Governments did not know what to do • Heck, no one knew what to do! • Punishment – Interact after a crime has been committed • Isolation – Asylums and Sterilization • Treatment – Medications and therapy • Integration and Prevention – Social programs and early intervention Scientific • Researchers developed categorical sets detailing the symptoms of mental health disorders – History of empirical data – No one could agree on a standard! Empirical data? • As we learned more about the brain we had an extensive past to look into – Madness (insanity, lunacy) • Withdrawn – “low” – Lack of movement or speech • Overactive – “hyper” – Hallucinations, delusions of grandeur • Very valuable later in how we look at schizophrenia – Not very helpful if you are blacksmith in the 1700s Nothing is Standardized • Each physician who studied mental health problems devised their own classifications based on who they saw and how they interpreted it Neurosis vs. Hysteria • Neurosis: overwhelming anxiety and avoidant behavior • Hysteria: Psychological and physical complaints without a clear cause • How do you classify someone who has panic attacks in public? Awareness does not equal progress • Many well known disorders today can trace their identification back hundreds if not thousands of years • Mood disorders – MDD • Eating disorders – Anorexia nervosa and bulimia • Substance abuse – Physical results of long term alcohol abuse • Having a name did not improve treatment Why is it so difficult? • Physical ailments are, comparatively, infinitely easier to identify and distinguish • How do you fix a broken bone? • Treat infections? Outline • Historical Look on Mental Health • What changed? • Four types of Knowledge • Different causes to abnormal psychology • Types of treatment • Psychiatry vs. Psychology Different Causes • Over time different researchers have focused on different elements to explain mental disorders – Brain – Nervous System – Heredity – Society Brain • By the 19 century it is commonly accepted that the brain is the root of all mental functioning – If there is a problem go to the source! • Clinical-pathological modal – Any mental deficiency should have a physical counterpart Localization of Function • Phineas Gauge – Brain & Personality • Broca – “Third frontal convolution of the frontal cortex” • Wernicke – Strokes could lead to certain aphasia What’s the issue? • The brain does not rely on independently functioning parts • We need everything working – Consciousness • Reductionists: Took a complex system and tried to explain in with a simplified system Nervous System • Other researchers determined it must be the brains inability to properly communicate with the body • “Check the lines!” • Relaxation therapies became the rage – Let the nerves get back in their proper state Relaxation Therapy • The “spa” becomes fashionable – Conjunction with the beginnings of “vacations” • You do sometimes see positive results – Alienation = stress – Subjective well-being is an important piece in mental health • Taking a severe bi-polar individual to a hot spring? Hereditary • In trying to look at more preventable methods, others turned to looking into family history • Degeneration: Generational reduction in physical and mental attributes – Strong evidence to support these theories Social-Hygiene • Just like you would amputate a gangrenous limb, we must remove the mentally incapable from procreating – Eugenics without the positives Social Causes • As social progressivism became bigger, a greater focus on societal problems was undertaken • People only suffer from mental health problems when placed in extraordinary circumstances Who was right? • All of these approaches held some form of truth that we use today • “Antithesis Stress modal” – Genetic predisposition + a stressful life event • We can see the results – Neurotransmitters Outline • Historical Look on Mental Health • What changed? • Four types of Knowledge • Different causes to abnormal psychology • Types of treatment • Psychiatry vs. Psychology Types of Treatment • Various historical approaches have tried to “fix” people with mental health problems – Early treatments • Experimental • Moral • Mental “Experimental” • I mean this is a negative term and not in an empirical sense • Medical doctors were allowed to try whatever they thought would work • “Cleanliness” – Cold baths • Purging – Laxatives or bloodletting • Indiscriminate drugs – Heroin to “calm you down” Moral • The main proponents of Moral treatments were in reaction to the neglect found in most asylums – Calls for human treatments • Dorothea Dix – Separation of the severely handicapped • Vincenzo Chiarugi Moral Therapy • Others came from a theoretical position: Mental illness as the result of a serious misfortune – Believed society played the biggest role in mental health disorders • By experiencing compassion and trust and learning basic life skills patients could overcome their problems Mental Therapies • Perhaps the most used and most influential is “talk therapy” • The relationship between patient and therapist was paramount – Find was the root cause was and work with the patient to overcome that cause • Introspective Mental Therapies • Often, the therapies were much more fanciful • Mesmer thought that hypnotism would remove “blocks” to positive mental energies • “Hypnology” thought that by placing the patient in a state of rest where – More open to suggestion – Transfer energy from the therapist Who has had the longest impact? • Empirical – We no know that certain drugs greatly help with certain disorders • Lithium and the manic symptoms of bi-polar disorder • Moral – “Unconditional positive regard” in a therapy environment • Mental – Talk therapy is a cornerstone of modern clinical treatments Outline • Historical Look on Mental Health • What changed? • Four types of Knowledge • Different causes to abnormal psychology • Types of treatment • Psychiatry vs. Psychology Psychiatry vs. Psychology • As we have seen, Psychology had a long, hard road in finding its place in the scientific community and differentiating itself as its own discipline – Experimental Psychology • Clinical Psychology had an even tougher road Why did clinicians have it so hard? • Physicians (medical community) thought it was their sole place to diagnose and treat mental health problems – Psychiatrists • Legal climate supported this argument – Licensing Boards – Created to protect society – Served as an excluding barrier Lightner Whitmer • Responsible for creating the field of Clinical Psychology • Studied under Wundt • Personified a growing argument from Psychologists – Psychologists were now the ones chiding another field Lightner Whitmer • Worked with children – Speech delay – Learning problems – Hyperactive – Motor problems • Used the scientific method to test and see if treatments were working – Experimental methods Whitner’s 3 rules • 1: Be free of idle speculation – Only use observable behaviors • 2: Cause not harm with our methods – Emotional, Psychological, or Physical • 3: Work closely with other professionals – Medical, Teachers, Parents, & Community Other accomplishments • Whitner was the first to describe – Autistic behaviors – Dyslexia • He created a new way for Psychologists to work by tying looking at mental health issues with the University system • – – – – • -People wanted to be psychoanalyzed -"psyched" • -O.s.s and hitler -envious, aggressive, megalomaniacal -brutality and suicide • Of almost mystical power to reveal the unconscious -student interest -"certificate mills" -cross-platform mixing • -an increasing problem for the science in factiples • -she epitomized the second generation of psychoanalysis the way her father did the first • -you -different wordshild the same way you treat an adult -different methods -different understanding • -an unconscious reaction to help one avoid ego threatening issues • -perfect for treatment Defense mechanism: repression, regression, projection, reaction formation, sublimation • -if you were a normal, we can make you normal • if you feel normal, we can make you feel even better • As we have discussed, clinical psychology was invariably locked in a turf battle with M.Ds over who can treat patients – • • Increase in competition • Psychologists demanding the same legitimacy to treat patients • What they wanted : psychoanalysis was recognized as a legitimate therapy • traditional medical practice • • -depressions and SSRIs • – -focus patients on their conscious thoughts and implementing strategies to alter maladaptive • -the scientific method that had helped behaviorism weather passing of time, buried psychoanalysis -clinical vs. experimental approach -hard evidence • – – – • -undefinable qualities -love, self-determination – Long term values and ideals of humanity and not the short term rewards • -humans are conscious = awareness -we are conscious =aware that we are aware • • -behaviorism > objective present -??? > subjective consciousness? -psychoanalysis > unreadable unconscious • • theIndividuality, responsibility, freedom • It was an optimistic approach to science • Borrowed from gestaltists Perception to unconscious • De emphasized the unconscious • Not the simple sum of their parts and environment • • Safety and creativity • Third force in psychology • – – • He took people he thought were self actualized and then used them to construct his definition • • Righting the ship Refocused the field of psychology on looking at subjective consciousness as a legitimate field of study ‣ Clinical, social, cognitive, developmental • • ‣ theory theory on human consciousnessitional
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