Com 240 Exam 1 Study Guide
Com 240 Exam 1 Study Guide Com 240
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verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nick Bahoric on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Com 240 at Michigan State University taught by Ying Liu in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Intro to Organizational Comm in Communication Studies at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
COM 240 Exam 1 Review Guide Definition of communication Behaviors of human beings or their artifacts that result in messages being received by one or more persons Definition of message anything that a receiver associates as meaningful Key aspects of linear communication model person encodes message>medium carries message (challenges to message transmission i.e. interference) >person decodes message>person gives feedback Key aspects of transactional communication model message initiators and receivers>past/present factors influencing message encoding/receiving>levels of message exchange >meaning formed by message receiver levels: 1. previous programming 2. self perceptions of sender and receiver (level 1) 3. situational variables (level 2) 4. organizational factors (level 3) Basic tenants of communication 1. You cannot “not communicate” 2. The message received is that counts, not the one intended. 3. In every culture, conveying respect is critical 4. Respond to feedback. 5. Credibility is based on perceptions of confidence, goodwill, and trust. 6. Openness is based on perceptions of approachability and trust, and forthcomingness 7. Cynicism among message receivers will negate your efforts. Four core leader communication competencies: initiating structure, facilitating work, representing, relational dynamics Initiating Structure (planning, allocating, setting goals and expectations, sensemaking) Facilitating Work (coaching, feedback, giving encouragement, selfmanagement) Representing (upward influence, networking, managing boundaries) Relational Dynamics (openness, supportiveness, conflict management) SMCR model Early communication model Source transmits a Message through a Channel to a Receiver i.e. Supervisor (source) asking for volunteers to work on the weekend (message) through an email (channel) to her employees (receivers) Transmission model of communication Communication is a way of moving information from sources to receivers Constitutive model of communication Communication seen as a process that produces and reproduces shared meaning Frederick Taylor: communication contributions, principles of scientific management, the story of Schmidt com contributions: concentrates on micro level of org functioning (contrast to Fayol). concerned with relationship between manager and employee and the control of the individual at work principles of scientific management (theory) one best way to do every job, proper selection of workers, training workers, inherent difference between management and workers (org managers best suited for thinking, planning, and admin. tasks; workers for labor) problems of uneven work and systematic soldiering eliminated Schmidt: Henri Fayol: centralization, scalar chain, bridge, end result principles, other… Centralization: organizations will be most effective when central management has control over decisionmaking and employee activities. contingency factors such as firm size and personal characteristics of managers and employees could influence the optimal level of centralization Scalar chain: an organization should be arranged in a strict vertical hierarchy and that com should be largely limited to this vertical flow i.e. move up and down organizational chart Bridge: makes connections with individuals outside group End result principles: Max Weber: bureaucracy, innovation, authority; characteristics of bureaucracy; types of innovation Theory of bureaucracy: “ideal type theory” doesn’t advocate a particular organizational form as best but rather lays out the features of an abstract or idealized organization of a given type Characteristics clearly defined hierarchy, division of labor, centralization of decision making and power, they are relatively closed systems, importance of rules, functioning of authority (traditional, charismatic, or relationallegal) Types of innovation: Types of Authority: legitimate/traditional, charismatic, rational/legal legitimate/traditional power based on longstanding beliefs about who should have control and is often vested in particular positions within an organizational hierarchy ex. queen of Englandhas based on age old traditions within British society ex. some organizations the president or head of board of directors may have power based on tradition of authority rather than actual abilities, actions or behaviors charismatic power based on an individual’s personality and ability to interact with followers. this kind is highly unstable, as followers may become disenchanted with the leader’s charismatic qualities can be seen in the operation of many cult organizations in which a single individual draws in followers and demands obedience through the power of his or her personality ex. political figures such as Obama or Palin and business leaders like Steve Jobs have been described as having these relationallegal power based on the relational application of rules developed through a reliance on info and expertise. power rests not in the individual but rather in the expertise and rationality that have created a system of rules and norms Machine metaphor Organizations are like machines; each part specializes in a certain function, each part can be easily replaced, and machines are predictable as there are rules that govern the way a machine is built and how it operates Communication messages: task, innovation, maintenance; direction of communication flow task, innovation, maintenance Direction of com flow: number of directions: vertically up and down organizational chart with supervisors talking to subordinates and vice versa horizontally with employees at the same level of the organization talking to each other freeflowing in which all org members are encouraged to talk with all other members Elton Mayo & the Hawthorne Studies: illumination experiment, interview study, bank wiring room experiment Illumination experiment: designed to determine the influence of lighting level on worker productivity. 2 groups of workers isolated. 1st group lighting held constant. 2nd group lighting systematically lowered and raised. No significant difference in productivity between two groups Except when workers were working in near darkness, productivity increased for both groups Interview study: conduct a series of interviews with thousands of employees at the Hawthorne plant. Although goal was to learn more about impact of working conditions on productivity, the interviewers found workers more interested on talking about their feelings and attitudes. major finding: many problems of workermanagement cooperation were the results of the emotionally based attitudes of the workermanagement cooperation rather than of the objective of the difficulties of the situation. Bank wiring and room experiment: final investigations involved nonexperimental observations of group of men in the bank wiring room. Observations revealed men developed norms regarding proper level of productivity and exerted social pressure on each other to maintain that level. Slow workers were pressured to speed up, speedy workers to slow down. This social pressure existed in opposition to the organization’s formal goals. Mayo and colleagues concluded that the social group’s influence on worker behavior exceeded the leverage exerted by the formal organizational power structure. Douglas McGregor: Theory X and Theory Y Theory X dislike of work workers must be coerced, controlled, directed workers prefer to be directed Theory Y physical and mental effort in work is natural self direction self control in the service of objectives to which they are committed Rensis Likert: management systems, formal versus informal, linkingpin Management systems 14 1. Exploitative Authoritative fear and punishment downward communication only An informal system where people don’t like ideas develops to block management’s plans 2. Benevolent Authoritative condescending trust in employees downward communication upward com to managers informal systems still bad 3. Consultative downward com much more accepted upward com... subordinates feel free to discuss feelings with bosses informal system… 4. Participative downward and upward com accepted informal and informal systems work in uniform Linking Pin…..? Chris Argyris: job design & the individual unintended consequences occur when there is a gap between individual needs and corporate demand for psychological success. employees accept failure and struggle as inevitable. the lowest in command have the highest potential. Frederik Herzberg: hygiene and motivator factors people have hygiene needs and motivators... Mary Parker Follett: law of the situation, circular behavior Law of the situation: emphasis on working with people not over or under them and not separating person from the situation. Circular Behavior: emphasis on face to face com to solve problems and discovery of how to make the order relate to the person and situation. Climate versus culture Climate: physiological atmosphere or environment resulting from members’ perceptions and attitudes of selected events,activities and behaviors. Culture: artifacts/values evolving from basic assumptions about human nature relationships and the environment. defines: what we pay attention to, what things we mean, how we react emotionally, and what actions to take and when. Deal & Kennedy’s corporate culture: risks & feedback dimensions and four types of organizational culture Quick feedback, High risks: Tough guy/Macho you’re only as good as your last success important to buffer your “stars” reward high stakes gamblers and encourage them to put everything on the line combative you can yell, scream, argue, but don’t cry Slow feedback, High risks: Bet your Company the impact of decisions on your company made today will not be known for 10 years emphasis on planning, checking details, caution most visible ritual is business meeting Quick feedback, Few risks: Work hard/ Play hard reward the volume of sales emphasis on endurance servicetype culture where customer service comes first visible are rituals such as such…. Slow feedback, Few risks: Process few threats/reasons to change emphasis on “pushing” the product, whether paper, tractors, or people highly visible status distinctions most visible artifacts are memorandums and protecting behaviors Peters & Waterman: productivity through people, handson, valuedriven, simultaneous loose tight properties (requisite variety, loosetight properties), excellent cultures Productivity through people participatory forms of decision making create opportunity for employees to invest time and energy in organizational planning and goal setting decentralize operations as much as possible to rely on employee initiative Handson, valuedriven plan the socialization of employees cultivate the organizational culture that is desired Simultaneous loosetight properties requisite variety: organizations’ internal structures and operations must match the complexity of their external environments loosetight properties: clearly stated and reinforced objectives, but flexible rules that allow people to follow those norms Excellent cultures … Schneider’s ASA model Karl Weick: sensemaking, equivocality Sensemaking framing and reframing of experienced situations in order to get meaning from events. Equivocality the unpredictability that is inherent in the information environment of an organization. make sense to reduce i.e. “go see the boss” individual attaches many logical or illogical explanations for why he is to see the boss. Permeable boundaries characteristic of system (assemblage of parts or components) components that allow info and materials to flow in and out. some really open some more closed; all require some degree to survive. refers to the system as a whole which must be open to its environment and to the components within the system. i.e. human body: must be open to its environment to take in the air, food, and water necessary for survival. must also be permeable to allow flow of materials among organs and organ systems. i.e. in our hospital: must be open to its larger environment so patients, info, and resources can move into and out of the organization. must also be open to each other to facilitate flow of people, info, and materials. Systems Metaphor views organizations not as selfcontained and selfsufficient machines but as complex organisms that must interact with their environment to survive. Cultural Metaphor takes an anthropological approach in understanding organizations as sites of interlinked beliefs, values, behaviors, and artifacts. Anticipatory Socialization socialization that occurs before entry into the organization. encompasses both socialization to an occupation and socialization to an organization. several aspects: learning about work in general, learning about a particular occupation, and learning about a particular organizations. Key aspects of the resume 1. Identifying information: the first section of your resume should tell who you are and help prospective employers reach you quickly. 2. Job objective: this section summarizes the type of work you want to do and the career field in which you are interested. 3. Education: most important qualification to offer employers. listed directly below objective statement 4. Experience: for each work experience, list your position title, name or organization worked for, and dates worked. follow with description of work performed. 5. Additional skills: summarize your academic skills and work related skills 6. Additional section headings: i.e. community outreach, honors and awards 7. References: individuals who can attest to your qualifications. separate page Key aspects of the cover letter purpose to tell employer what you can do and why qualified find out employer’s needs, tell what you can do to meet them consider experience, education, personal qualities parts: name and contact info, date, contact and address, salutation, signature, name typed, enclosure Key vocational socialization influences (5) parents and family, school, media, parttime work, friends Vocational Socialization Theories: Psychological Decision Making (3), Social Causation, Intra Psychic, Social Learning theory Psychological Decision Making Eli Ginzberg: argued that everyone goes through phases of self absorption. (011 fantasy choices, 1117 tentative choices, 17+ realistic choices) D.E. Super selfconcept theory: vocational development is a reality testing exercise. we test ourselves against the demands of the outside world we aspire to be a selfconcept Holland The Psychology of Vocational Choice: most people can be categorized into 1 of 6 types: realistic, intellectual, social, conventional, enterprising, and artistic individuals search for environments and vocations that will permit them to exercise their skills and abilities, to express their attitudes and values, and to avoid disagreeable ones. Social Causation D.C. Miller and W.H. Form, Industrial Sociology the choice of careers is determined by class background, despite the motivation of the individual Intrapsychic Anne Roe, Psychology of Occupations early childhood experiences determine later occupational choices. vocational perception is limited to or expanded by such experiences. strong Freudian orientation Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura we learn about occupations from others significant others influence us toward values and goals we then test our selfconcept against the knowledge we gain we received feedback from others about our “self” as well Question Typology: openclosed, primarysecondary, neutraldirected, probe (3) openclosed: yes or no primarysecondary: initial question or follow up question neutraldirected: give any answer or give directed answer probes: informational, reflective, mirror, restatement, nudging Funnel vs. Tunnel interview sequence Funnel: begins with broad, openended questions and proceeds with more restricted questions (cone). Tunnel: series of similarly framed questions, either open or closed, which allow for little probing (cylinder). Moderately Scheduled versus NonScheduled Interview Moderately Scheduled: written major questions, arranged in order Most appropriate when: there are established info objectives you need freedom to explore EE answers you are unsure of the range/direction of EE answers Advantages: opportunity to probe into answers easier to conduct, record answers, replicate Disadvantages: preparation requires ER listening, probing skills NonScheduled: few preplanned questions, little organization Most appropriate when: information to be sought is extremely broad EEs’ levels of info differ significantly you have little preparation time Advantages: unlimited freedom to probe adapt to different EEs Disadvantages: requires highest ER skill level, recording answers, time limits, interviewer bias Interview Guide versus Schedule of Questions Interview Guide: a carefully structured outline of topics and subtopics to be covered during an interview. Interview Schedule of Questions: detailed set of interview questions and transition statements that mirror the specificity of the interview guide. Content and Relational Questions Content on left side, Relational on top Positive Negative Irrelevant Positive confirm accededisconfirm Negative disagree repudiate disconfirm Irrelevant disconfirm disconfirm disconfirm Personorganization, personjob fit Supplementary fit job candidate possesses characteristics which are similar to others in the environment. Complementary fit job candidate brings….characteristics to an environment which they have been lacking. Central issues in interviewerinterviewee interactions applicants assume they should play a positive questioning role ER questioning power: directing, agendizing, remediating, and requesting than EEs nature of EE questions persuasive versus information sharing nature of the interaction Job applicant interview talktime associated with “success” successful EEs: talk for 10 min or more unsuccessful EEs: 10 min or less Factors associated with interviewee satisfaction in the job interview quality and quantity of info from ER ER’s level of interest ER’s asking questions of EE openended structured interview ….questions Factors associated with interviewee likelihood of accepting a job offer job attributes the ER “warm”, businesslike, was wellorganized, provided positive and negative info about job, knowledgeable, info concurs, empathetic Questioning patterns in college interviews; first versus second interview most interviews begin with a 5 min mondouse? some studies suggest that ERs make up their mind about the EE in the first 23 minutes EEs not able to talk about issues of substance until ER has decided ⅔ of ER questions are closeended or vague. ERs generally ask secondary questions to get info stick to question answer talk time. average ? Important information for the interviewee to obtain in employment interview type of (4) work, training, supervision, coworkers, climate/culture of organization, advancement potential, working conditions, salary, job security, hours, extra benefits Criteria for evaluating job applicants (pyramid) top to bottom: specific abilities, ambition, maturely directed energy, ability to communicate, general intelligence and knowledge, integrity Behavioral description interview questioning format Situational interview questioning format Realistic job preview – 5 theories
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