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Com 240 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Nick Bahoric

Com 240 Exam 1 Study Guide Com 240

Nick Bahoric

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Covers all material on first exam
Intro to Organizational Comm
Ying Liu
Study Guide
COM 240
50 ?




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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nick Bahoric on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Com 240 at Michigan State University taught by Ying Liu in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Intro to Organizational Comm in Communication Studies at Michigan State University.

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Date Created: 03/30/16
COM 240 Exam 1 Review Guide   Definition of communication ­ Behaviors of human beings or their artifacts that result in messages being  received by one or more persons Definition of message ­ anything that a receiver associates as meaningful Key aspects of linear communication model ­ person encodes message>medium carries message (challenges to message  transmission i.e. interference) >person decodes message>person gives feedback Key aspects of transactional communication model ­ message initiators and receivers>past/present factors influencing message  encoding/receiving>levels of message exchange >meaning formed by message receiver ­ levels: 1. previous programming 2. self perceptions of sender and  receiver (level 1) 3. situational variables (level 2) 4. organizational factors (level  3) Basic tenants of communication ­ 1. You cannot “not communicate” 2. The message received is that counts, not  the one intended. 3. In every culture, conveying respect is critical 4. Respond to  feedback. 5. Credibility is based on perceptions of confidence, goodwill, and trust. 6.  Openness is based on perceptions of approachability and trust, and forthcomingness 7.  Cynicism among message receivers will negate your efforts. Four core leader communication competencies: initiating structure, facilitating work,  representing, relational dynamics ­ Initiating Structure (planning, allocating, setting goals and expectations,  sensemaking) ­ Facilitating Work (coaching, feedback, giving encouragement, self­management) ­ Representing (upward influence, networking, managing boundaries) ­ Relational Dynamics (openness, supportiveness, conflict management) S­M­C­R model ­ Early communication model ­ Source transmits a Message through a Channel to a Receiver ­ i.e. Supervisor (source) asking for volunteers to work on the  weekend (message) through an email (channel) to her employees (receivers) Transmission model of communication ­ Communication is a way of moving information from sources to receivers Constitutive model of communication ­ Communication seen as a process that produces and reproduces shared  meaning Frederick Taylor: communication contributions, principles of scientific management, the story of  Schmidt ­ com contributions: concentrates on micro level of org functioning (contrast to  Fayol). concerned with relationship between manager and employee and the control of  the individual at work ­ principles of scientific management (theory) ­ one best way to do every job, proper selection of workers, training  workers, inherent difference between management and workers (org managers  best suited for thinking, planning, and admin. tasks; workers for labor) ­ problems of uneven work and systematic soldiering eliminated ­ Schmidt:    Henri Fayol: centralization, scalar chain, bridge, end result principles, other… ­ Centralization: organizations will be most effective when central management  has control over decision­making and employee activities. ­ contingency factors such as firm size and personal characteristics  of managers and employees could influence the optimal level of centralization ­ Scalar chain: an organization should be arranged in a strict vertical hierarchy and that com  should be largely limited to this vertical flow ­ i.e. move up and down organizational chart ­Bridge: makes connections with individuals outside group ­End result principles: Max Weber: bureaucracy, innovation, authority; characteristics of bureaucracy; types of  innovation ­ Theory of bureaucracy: “ideal type theory” ­ doesn’t advocate a particular organizational form as best but  rather lays out the features of an abstract ­ or idealized­ organization of a given  type ­ Characteristics ­ clearly defined hierarchy, division of labor, centralization of decision making and power, they are relatively closed systems, importance of rules, functioning of authority (traditional,  charismatic, or relational­legal) ­ Types of innovation:  Types of Authority: legitimate/traditional, charismatic, rational/legal ­ legitimate/traditional ­ power based on long­standing beliefs about who should have  control and is often vested in particular positions within an organizational  hierarchy ­ ex. queen of England­has based on age old  traditions within British society ex. some organizations the president or head of board of directors may  have power based on tradition of authority rather than actual abilities,  actions or behaviors ­ charismatic ­ power based on an individual’s personality and ability to interact  with followers. this kind is highly unstable, as followers may become  disenchanted with the leader’s charismatic qualities ­ can be seen in the operation of many cult organizations in which a single individual draws in followers and demands obedience through the power of his or her personality ­ ex. political figures such as Obama or Palin and business leaders  like Steve Jobs have been described as having these ­ relational­legal ­ power based on the relational application of rules developed through a reliance on info  and expertise. power rests not in the individual but rather in the expertise and rationality that  have created a system of rules and norms Machine metaphor ­ Organizations are like machines; each part specializes in a certain function, each part can be easily replaced, and machines are predictable as there are rules that govern  the way a machine is built and how it operates Communication messages: task, innovation, maintenance; direction of communication flow ­ task, innovation, maintenance ­ Direction of com flow: ­ number of directions:  ­ vertically up and down organizational chart with  supervisors talking to subordinates and vice versa ­ horizontally with employees at the same level of the organization talking to each other ­ free­flowing in which all org members are  encouraged to talk with all other members   Elton Mayo & the Hawthorne Studies:  illumination experiment, interview study, bank wiring  room experiment ­ Illumination experiment: designed to determine the influence of lighting level on  worker productivity. ­ 2 groups of workers isolated. 1st group lighting held constant. 2nd  group lighting systematically lowered and raised. ­ No significant difference in productivity between two groups ­ Except when workers were working in near darkness, productivity  increased for both groups ­ Interview study: conduct a series of interviews with thousands of employees at the Hawthorne  plant. Although goal was to learn more about impact of working conditions on productivity, the  interviewers found workers more interested on talking about their feelings and attitudes. ­ major finding: many problems of worker­management cooperation were the results of  the emotionally based attitudes of the worker­management cooperation rather than of the  objective of the difficulties of the situation. ­Bank wiring and room experiment: final investigations involved non­experimental observations  of group of men in the bank wiring room. ­ Observations revealed men developed norms regarding proper level of productivity and exerted social pressure on each other to maintain that level. ­Slow workers were pressured to speed up, speedy workers to slow down. ­This social pressure existed in opposition to the organization’s formal goals. ­Mayo and colleagues concluded that the social group’s influence on worker behavior  exceeded the leverage exerted by the formal organizational power structure. Douglas McGregor:  Theory X and Theory Y ­ Theory X ­ dislike of work ­ workers must be coerced, controlled, directed ­ workers prefer to be directed ­ Theory Y ­ physical and mental effort in work is natural ­ self direction self control in the service of objectives to which they are committed Rensis Likert: management systems, formal versus informal, linking­pin ­ Management systems 1­4 ­ 1. Exploitative Authoritative ­ fear and punishment ­ downward communication only ­ An informal system where people don’t like ideas  develops to block management’s plans ­ 2. Benevolent Authoritative ­ condescending trust in employees ­ downward communication ­ upward com to managers ­ informal systems still bad ­ 3. Consultative ­ downward com much more accepted ­ upward com... ­ subordinates feel free to discuss feelings with bosses ­informal system… ­ 4. Participative ­ downward and upward com accepted ­ informal and informal systems work in uniform ­ Linking Pin…..? Chris Argyris: job design & the individual ­ unintended consequences occur when there is a gap between individual needs  and corporate demand for psychological success. ­ employees accept failure and struggle as inevitable. ­ the lowest in command have the highest potential. Frederik Herzberg: hygiene and motivator factors ­ people have hygiene needs and motivators...   Mary Parker Follett: law of the situation, circular behavior ­ Law of the situation: emphasis on working with people not over or under them  and not separating person from the situation. ­ Circular Behavior: emphasis on face to face com to solve problems and  discovery of how to make the order relate to the person and situation. Climate versus culture ­ Climate: physiological atmosphere or environment resulting from members’  perceptions and attitudes of selected events,activities and behaviors. ­ Culture: artifacts/values evolving from basic assumptions about human nature  relationships and the environment. ­ defines: what we pay attention to, what things we mean, how we  react emotionally, and what actions to take and when. Deal & Kennedy’s corporate culture: risks & feedback dimensions and four types of  organizational culture ­ Quick feedback, High risks: Tough guy/Macho ­ you’re only as good as your last success ­ important to buffer your “stars” ­ reward high stakes gamblers and encourage them to put  everything on the line ­ combative­ you can yell, scream, argue, but don’t cry ­ Slow feedback, High risks: Bet your Company ­ the impact of decisions on your company made today will not be  known for 10 years ­ emphasis on planning, checking details, caution ­ most visible ritual is business meeting ­ Quick feedback, Few risks: Work hard/ Play hard ­ reward the volume of sales ­ emphasis on endurance ­ service­type culture where customer service comes first ­ visible are rituals such as such…. ­ Slow feedback, Few risks: Process ­ few threats/reasons to change ­ emphasis on “pushing” the product, whether paper, tractors, or  people ­ highly visible status distinctions ­ most visible artifacts are memorandums and protecting behaviors Peters & Waterman: productivity through people, hands­on, value­driven, simultaneous loose­ tight properties (requisite variety, loose­tight properties), excellent cultures ­ Productivity through people ­ participatory forms of decision making ­ create opportunity for employees to invest time and energy in  organizational planning and goal setting ­ decentralize operations as much as possible to rely on employee  initiative ­ Hands­on, value­driven ­ plan the socialization of employees ­ cultivate the organizational culture that is desired ­ Simultaneous loose­tight properties ­ requisite variety: organizations’ internal structures and operations must match the  complexity of their external environments ­ loose­tight properties: clearly stated and reinforced objectives, but flexible rules that  allow people to follow those norms ­ Excellent cultures ­ … Schneider’s ASA model ­ Karl Weick: sensemaking, equivocality ­ Sensemaking ­ framing and reframing of experienced situations in order to get  meaning from events. ­ Equivocality ­ the unpredictability that is inherent in the information environment of an organization. ­ make sense to reduce ­ i.e. “go see the boss” individual attaches many logical or illogical explanations   for why he is to see the boss. Permeable boundaries ­ characteristic of system (assemblage of parts or components) components that  allow info and materials to flow in and out. some really open some more closed; all  require some degree to survive.  ­ refers to the system as a whole which must be open to its environment and to the components within the system. ­ i.e. human body: must be open to its environment to take in the air, food, and  water necessary for survival. must also be permeable to allow flow of materials among  organs and organ systems. ­ i.e. in our hospital: must be open to its larger environment so patients, info, and  resources can move into and out of the organization. must also be open to each other to  facilitate flow of people, info, and materials. Systems Metaphor ­ views organizations not as self­contained and self­sufficient machines but as  complex organisms that must interact with their environment to survive. Cultural Metaphor ­ takes an anthropological approach in understanding organizations as sites of  interlinked beliefs, values, behaviors, and artifacts. Anticipatory Socialization ­ socialization that occurs before entry into the organization. encompasses both  socialization to an occupation and socialization to an organization. ­ several aspects: learning about work in general, learning about a  particular occupation, and learning about a particular organizations.   Key aspects of the resume ­ 1. Identifying information: the first section of your resume should tell who you are  and help prospective employers reach you quickly. ­ 2. Job objective: this section summarizes the type of work you want to do and the career field in which you are interested. ­ 3. Education: most important qualification to offer employers. listed directly below objective statement ­ 4. Experience: for each work experience, list your position title, name or  organization worked for, and dates worked. follow with description of work performed. ­ 5. Additional skills: summarize your academic skills and work related skills ­ 6. Additional section headings: i.e. community outreach, honors and awards ­ 7. References: individuals who can attest to your qualifications. separate page Key aspects of the cover letter ­ purpose to tell employer what you can do and why qualified ­ find out employer’s needs, tell what you can do to meet them ­ consider experience, education, personal qualities ­ parts: name and contact info, date, contact and address, salutation, signature,  name typed, enclosure Key vocational socialization influences (5) ­ parents and family, school, media, part­time work, friends Vocational Socialization Theories: Psychological Decision Making (3), Social Causation, Intra­ Psychic, Social Learning theory  ­ Psychological Decision Making ­ Eli Ginzberg: argued that everyone goes through phases of self­ absorption. (0­11 fantasy choices, 11­17 tentative choices, 17+ realistic choices) ­ D.E. Super­ self­concept theory:  ­ vocational development is a reality testing exercise. ­ we test ourselves against the demands of the  outside world  ­ we aspire to be a self­concept ­ Holland­ The Psychology of Vocational Choice:  ­ most people can be categorized into 1 of 6 types:  realistic, intellectual, social, conventional, enterprising, and artistic ­ individuals search for environments and vocations  that will permit them to exercise their skills and abilities, to express their  attitudes and values, and to avoid disagreeable ones. ­ Social Causation ­ D.C. Miller and W.H. Form, Industrial Sociology ­ the choice of careers is determined by class background, despite the motivation of the  individual ­ Intrapsychic ­ Anne Roe, Psychology of Occupations ­ early childhood experiences determine later occupational choices. ­ vocational perception is limited to or expanded by such experiences. ­ strong Freudian orientation ­ Social Learning Theory ­ Albert Bandura ­ we learn about occupations from others ­ significant others influence us toward values and goals ­ we then test our self­concept against the knowledge we gain ­ we received feedback from others about our “self” as well Question Typology: open­closed, primary­secondary, neutral­directed, probe (3) ­ open­closed: yes or no ­ primary­secondary: initial question or follow up question ­ neutral­directed: give any answer or give directed answer ­ probes: informational, reflective, mirror, restatement, nudging   Funnel vs. Tunnel interview sequence ­ Funnel: begins with broad, open­ended questions and proceeds with more  restricted questions (cone). ­ Tunnel: series of similarly framed questions, either open or closed, which allow  for little probing (cylinder). Moderately Scheduled versus Non­Scheduled Interview ­ Moderately Scheduled: written major questions, arranged in order ­ Most appropriate when:  ­ there are established info objectives ­  you need freedom to explore EE answers ­ you are unsure of the range/direction of EE  answers ­ Advantages: ­ opportunity to probe into answers ­ easier to conduct, record answers, replicate ­ Disadvantages: ­ preparation ­ requires ER listening, probing skills ­ Non­Scheduled: few pre­planned questions, little organization ­ Most appropriate when: ­ information to be sought is extremely broad ­ EEs’ levels of info differ significantly ­ you have little preparation time ­ Advantages: ­ unlimited freedom to probe ­ adapt to different EEs ­Disadvantages: ­ requires highest ER skill level, recording answers, time limits, interviewer bias Interview Guide versus Schedule of Questions ­ Interview Guide: a carefully structured outline of topics and subtopics to be  covered during an interview. ­ Interview Schedule of Questions: detailed set of interview questions and  transition statements that mirror the specificity of the interview guide. Content and Relational Questions ­ Content on left side, Relational on top Positive Negative Irrelevant Positive confirm accededisconfirm Negative disagree repudiate disconfirm Irrelevant disconfirm disconfirm disconfirm Person­organization, person­job fit ­ Supplementary fit ­ job candidate possesses characteristics which are similar to  others in the environment. ­ Complementary fit ­ job candidate brings….characteristics to an environment which they have been lacking.   Central issues in interviewer­interviewee interactions ­ applicants assume they should play a positive questioning role ­ ER questioning power: directing, agendizing, remediating, and requesting than  EEs ­ nature of EE questions ­ persuasive versus information­ sharing nature of the interaction Job applicant interview talk­time associated with “success” ­ successful EEs: talk for 10 min or more ­ unsuccessful EEs: 10 min or less Factors associated with interviewee satisfaction in the job interview ­ quality and quantity of info from ER ­ ER’s level of interest ­ ER’s asking questions of EE ­ open­ended ­ structured interview ­ ….questions Factors associated with interviewee likelihood of accepting a job offer ­ job attributes ­ the ER ­ “warm”, businesslike, was well­organized, provided positive and  negative info about job, knowledgeable, info concurs, empathetic Questioning patterns in college interviews; first versus second interview ­ most interviews begin with a 5 min mondouse? ­ some studies suggest that ERs make up their mind about the EE in the first 2­3  minutes ­ EEs not able to talk about issues of substance until ER has decided ­ ⅔ of ER questions are close­ended or vague. ERs generally ask secondary  questions to get info ­ stick to question answer talk time. average ?   Important information for the interviewee to obtain in employment interview ­ type of (4) work, training, supervision, coworkers, climate/culture of organization,  advancement potential, working conditions, salary, job security, hours, extra benefits Criteria for evaluating job applicants ­ (pyramid) top to bottom: specific abilities, ambition, maturely directed energy,  ability to communicate, general intelligence and knowledge, integrity Behavioral description interview questioning format Situational interview questioning format Realistic job preview – 5 theories


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