WildlifeStudyGuide.pdf FW 104
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mikaela Maldonado on Saturday November 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to FW 104 at Colorado State University taught by Nicole K M Vieira; Ann L Randall ; Tyler Ryde Swarr in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 172 views. For similar materials see Wildlife Ecology and Conservation (GT-SC2) in Animal Science and Zoology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 11/14/15
Concept Vocabulary From your readings, which of the following is the most likely explanation for how Burmese pythons have invaded the Florida everglades? a. they were introduced as a potential new game species b. pet owners released them c. they accidentally escaped from wild animal farms d. they were introduced as a biological control Burmese Pythons Semi aquatic Released by owners Eastern diamond back and eastern indigo snake are susceptible to being over run Over 17 tagged pythons have been rereleased into the park to try and gain more knowledge o Judas method – reveals information about whereabouts for other snakes Chemical pheromones, dog tracking, and traps are being developed to try and manage the snakes The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission now requires eligible buyers of exotic pets that are deemed "reptiles of concern" to purchase an annual state permit, to submit documentation of experience in the care of such animals, and to have a computer chip containing information about the owner implanted in each snake. A nonessential experimental status for a species or population means that: a. it essentially has no legal protection b. it is treated as threatened and allows for management flexibility c. has the same protection as a listed endangered species d. all of the above e. none of the above Endangered Species Act Look at posted ESA glossary, habitat programs, and handout underneath Modules>Unit 3> Lecture Supplemental. Here is information from class and the required readings but is NOT all that is available on Canvas to be looked over. This is just what I thought was the important basics based on all that Rich natural heritage is of “esthetic, ecological, educational, recreational, and scientific value to our Nation and its people.” To protect and recover imperiled species or subspecies and the ecosystems upon which they depend FWS (fish and wildlife service) and NMFS (national marine fisheries service) administer the ESA o FWS – terrestrial and freshwater organisms o MFS – marine wildlife Endangered – danger of extinction throughout all or significant portion of its range Threatened – likely to become endangered in the forseeable future Evaluation o 1. Damage to habitat o 2. Overutilization of species for commercial, recreational, scientific, or education purposes o 3. Disease or predation o 4. Inadequacy of existing protection o 5. Natural or manmade factors that affect the continued existence of the species take - to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect or attempt to engage in any such conduct harm – act in which wildlife is killed or injured. May include habitat modification or degradation where it kills or injures wildlife by significantly impairing essential behavioral patterns, including breeding, feeding, or sheltering plants are not protected from take states may have their own laws goal is to recover species organizations can gain approval as long as it is proven to not likely jeopardize the continued existence requires critical habitat-space necessary biologically or physically to the survival of a species- be established when “prudent and determinable” o may be space not currently occupied by the species, but could serve the necessary requirements for the species survival 2/3rds of federally listed species have habitat on private land landowners can develop land inhabited by endangered species through the development of an approved conservation plan (HCP) o assessment of likely impacts on species from action o steps that will be taken to avoid, minimize, mitigate the impacts o proof of funding to take such steps Safe Harbor Agreements – non-federal landowners who volunteer to aid in recovery of a listed species by improving or maintaining wildlife habitat o Landowners manage enrolled property to agreed baseline conditions o Documentation that is required as part of an application for an incidental take permit Candidate Conservation Agreements – voluntary agreements between landowners and other parties to reduce or remove threats to at-risk species o Design conservation measures and monitor effectiveness of plan implementation Candidate Conservation Agreements with Assurances – non federal landowners volunteer to conserve at risk species so ESA isn’t needed. o Landowners receive assurances that if species is covered by CCAA, they just need to do what is in agreement and will receive an enhancement of survival permit o Agreement with participating property owners that if they engage in certain conservation practices, they will not have to implement additional conservation measures should the at-risk species eventually be liste Conservation Banks – permanently protected and managed lands as mitigation for loss elsewhere of at risk species and their habitat - lands that are permanently managed for threatened, endangered, or candidate species to offset adverse impacts to these species that occurred elsewhere o Free market enterprise o Benefits species so small isolated groups that are trying to recover can have a grouped effect to improve efficiency and success Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora o 175 nation agreement to monitor trade and effects on species endangerment Tragedy of the Commons is best represented by which of the following? a. competitive exclusion b. the red queen hypothesis c. plastics pollution in the ocean d. carrying capacity e. commensalism competitive exclusion – the inevitable elimination from a habitat of one of two different species with identical needs for resources Red Queen hypothesis - proposes that organisms must constantly adapt, evolve, and proliferate not merely to gain reproductive advantage, but also simply to survive while pitted against ever-evolving competition and habitats – you must run as fast as you can just to not fall behind that sounds exhausting Carrying capacity – the limit that a habitat can hold to support a species. The SOCIAL carrying capacity is the number people want to exist in order to reduce interactions and avoid conflict Commensalism - interaction between 2 animals or species where one benefits and one is unaffected In the video, “Can the Oceans Keep Up With the Hunt”, they stated that sustainable aquaculture needs to: a. focus on herbivores b. focus on carnivores c. focus on omnivores d. a&c e. none of the above The Endangered Species act give the ___________ the authority for management. a. Defenders of Wildlife b. U.S. citizens c. Federal Government d. State Government Regional disturbances might include which of the following? a. tree falls b. floods c. animal wallows/burrows d. a&c e. all of the above The number one reason that species are going extinct is: a. rapidly evolving diseases b. competition from introduced species c. pollution d. habitat loss Which of the following is true about the current status of polar bears? a. they are classified as experimental/nonessential b. they are classified as threatened c. they are classifies as “under review” d. they are classified as endangered e. all of the above The ocean’s unflushable toilet is called a a. gill net b. gyre c. hypoxic zone d. point pollution Gill net – form of passive capture that involves the fish swimming into a stationary net that catches onto their gills Gyre – the wind currents that create the unflushable toilet of trash in the ocean – in these places plastic outnumbers plankton and is creating islands of trash in the ocean Hypoxic zone – area where there is little to no oxygen Point pollution – pollution where the source can be directly pointed to ex. A single pipe feeding into oceans Non point source pollution –loss of wetlands, hypoxic zones, and eutrophication can all result from pollution that comes from a variety of sources that can not be pointed at ex. Surface run off Which of the following is NOT a reptile? a. salamander b. lizard c. turtle d. snake e. all of the above Which of the following is not a reason why herps are difficult to study? A. herps are secretive b. frog and toad calls all sound alike such that we need to capture them to accurately identify different species c. herps are quick, elusive, and wary of predators d. many herps are nocturnal and difficult to find during the day e. all are reasons they are difficult to study Which of the following is not a problem of plastics in ocean? a. entanglement b. ingesting c. ingestion chemical contaminants that are toxic d. all are problems. e. a&b Net primary productivity -the total amount of energy produced through photosynthesis minus Disturbances Anthropogenic – human caused disturbance in the habitat or well being of a species Natural – typhoons, hurricanes, avalanches Discreet – one point in time Continuous- occurs over long intervals Deforestation – largest cause is cattle farming in Brazil Which of following are recognized sources or pathways of invasive aquatic species? a. fish stocking b. ballasts c. aquarium trade d. all of the above Melting of the ice caps under global warming includes all of the following repercussions except: a. less access to ice holes by polar bears b. increased oil and gas activity in North Alaska c. more absorption of the sun’s energy by the ocean d. changes in weather patterns e. all of the above are potential issues albeto – reflection of the suns rays from the ice caps back into the Grizzly beats move through food sources from the spring - young elk, trout, moths, pine seeds Grizzlies were fed garbage by tourists and then cut off and forced to start eating elk again Which of the following is not included in Grumbine dominant themes for ecosystem management? a. data collection and monitoring b. human values c. interagency cooperation d. focusing on featured species populations Grumbine’s Theories Goals: 1. Viable populations 2. Native ecosystem types 3. Ecological processes maintained 4. Long time periods – enough to maintain and evolve 5. Accommodate human use and occupancy 10 Dominant Themes: 1. Hierarchical Context (systems/scale) – systems perspective, all levels must be able to work together 2. Ecological Boundaries – grizzlies management boundaries in Yellowstone park 3. Ecological Integrity – protecting native diversity, conservation of viable populations of native species, maintaining natural disturbance regimes, reintroduction of native, extirpated species, representation of ecosystems across natural ranges of variation 4. Data Collection 5. Monitoring – evaluation of the data collection 6. Adaptive Management – flexibility, scientific knowledge is provisional and focuses on management 7. Interagency Cooperation – federal, state, local management 8. Organizational Change 9. Humans embedded in nature 10. Values Marine Wildlife Primary productivity- the rate at which primary producers capture and store energy in given interval Gross primary productivity – the total rate of photosynthesis for an ecosystem during specified interval Net primary productivity – the rate of energy storage in plant tissues minus metabolic activities that use energy Photosynthesis & respiration Open oceans have one of the lowest production rates and estuaries have one of the highest per square meter Open oceans cover 71% of Earth’s surface Pelagic and benthic zones One simple ocean zone classification is between the water and the ocean floor Benthic is tied to the ocean floor- benthos species Nekton – pelagic species – water pelagic species Plankton Float Zooplankton (small animals) Photoplankton (algae) Nekton Actively more the current Fish (vertebrates) invertebrase- squid Benthos – Sea floor Coral (stuck) or crab (moving) Conservation Issues Point Source Pollution Specific source identified – sewage Clean Water Act 1977 Non Point Source Pollution Unregulated runoff from land Sources? Fertilizers Gas, oil, antifreeze, pesticides Eutrophication Algae blooms Hypoxic zone – low oxygen Marine Debris Illegal dumping or accidental loss 80% of debris originates from onshore recreation and tourism 75 tons of trash each week in LA Last Mylar balloon : centuries Plastic bag : centuries Aluminum can L 200-500 yrs Plastics 90% of marine floating debris 46000 pcs/sq mile gyres wind currents create eddies that hold the debris 6x more plastic than plankton plankton produce more o2 than all life on earth offshore entanglement swimming/feeding problems infections drowning mammals ingestion blockage false satiation toxins sea turtles believe plastic bags are jellyfish Legislation Marine Pollution – MARPOL 73/78 Prevention of pollution from ships One of the most important international marine environmental conventions Designed to minimize pollution of the seas, including dumping, oil and exhaust pollution Signed in 1973 and updates in 1978 As of May 2013, 152 states Problems still with international nature of mairtime shipping London Convention Industrial nations agreed to ban ocean dumping of industrial wastes and radioactive wastes Cant take land wastes anymore and toss them to see International International Whaling Commission 1946 International concention Regulation of Whaling Conservation of whale stocks Orderly development of whaling industry International Union for Conservation of Nature 1948 Red List of Threatened Species Marine Mammal Protection Act 1972 all marine mammals in waters under US jurisdiction Endangered Species Act NOAA and USFWS Reptile Lay eggs, hard shell Scales, plates, shells Nails Ectothermic Lungs Miniture adults Amphibian Have a larval stage Breathe through their skin Moist smooth skin Ectothermic Lungs/gills Lay soft gel-like eggs metamorphisis 1/3 are threatened half in decline Boreal toad high elevations in CO listed species in CO Chytrid fungus that interferes with respiration Cane Toad High reproduction High toxicity Eat frogs and other animals Equivalent to the bull frog in the US Invasive species introduced as biological control Ornate Box Turtle Over collection for food, pet, biological supply houses Nebraska Harlequin Frog species in Costa Rica 2/3s extinct disease and indirect effects from rising temperatures most species are moving up in altitude and north due to climate change Feral Swine destructive to soil and crops through rooting carry disease aggressive spreading rapidly possible source of food?? Introduced species – the intentional or unintentional escape, release, discrimination, or placement of a species into an ecosystem as a result of human activity Invasive species – an alien (non-native to the area, exotic) species whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm to human health Feral species – previously domesticated animal – now roaming wild Indicator species – population can be examined as a means to monitor the health of the ecosystem that they are in Umbrella species – species whose well being affect other species and whose downfall affect a large number of species as well F – the tympanic membrane is a gland at the back of a toad’s head that contains poisons that can be released when threatened. – actually is the parotoid gland F – Herbicides sprayed on agricultural fields are an example of point – source pollution T – an avalanche is an example of a discreet disturbance. F – a candidate (same as warranted but precluded) species is protected by the Endangered Species Act to the same extent as a threatened species T – critical habitat may include areas not occupied by a species at the time of listing but that are deemed essential to its conservation T – phytoplankton produce more oxygen than all other plant life on earth F – reptile must have terrestrial and aquatic habitats during their lifecycles T – hypoxic zones are areas where there is little to no oxygen T – any citizen can petition to list a species under the Endangered Species Act F-The critical habitat identified as necessary for polar bear recovery was supported by the local community and a successful designation by the USFWS F – high toxicity in newts and its relation to garter snakes is representation of competitive exclusion T – distinct subpopulations of invertebrate and vertebrates can be listed as threatened/endangered F- bleaching of coral reefs is caused by non-point source household products in the ocean T – animals outside the US are listed as endangered on the Endangered Species Act F – the definition of an introduced species includes reference to economic or environmental harm to humans F – Pika are one species that have been positively affected by climate change T – the tipping point for global warming is the point when anthropogenic inputs of Carbon reach a level where the Earth as a system can no longer regulate increased carbon and temperature levels
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