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CSU / Biology / FW 104 / What is an interaction between two animals or species where one benefi

What is an interaction between two animals or species where one benefi

What is an interaction between two animals or species where one benefi


School: Colorado State University
Department: Biology
Course: Wildlife Ecology and Conservation (GT-SC2)
Professor: Nicole swarr
Term: Summer 2015
Cost: 50
Name: WildlifeStudyGuide.pdf
Description: This contains the material reviewed in class as well as the key topics covered. In order to succeed on the exam, please use in conjunction with all the materials available on Canvas.
Uploaded: 11/15/2015
11 Pages 41 Views 6 Unlocks

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Concept Vocabulary 

What is an interaction between two animals or species where one benefits and one is unaffected?

From your readings, which of the following is the most likely explanation for  how Burmese pythons have invaded the Florida everglades? a. they were introduced as a potential new game species

b. pet owners released them

c. they accidentally escaped from wild animal farms

d. they were introduced as a biological control

Burmese Pythons 

∙ Semi aquatic

∙ Released by owners

∙ Eastern diamond back and eastern indigo snake are susceptible to  being over run

∙ Over 17 tagged pythons have been rereleased into the park to try and  gain more knowledge

o Judas method – reveals information about whereabouts for other  snakes

The number one reason that species are going extinct is what?

∙ Chemical pheromones, dog tracking, and traps are being developed to  try and manage the snakes

∙ The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission now requires  eligible buyers of exotic pets that are deemed "reptiles of concern" to  purchase an annual state permit, to submit documentation of  experience in the care of such animals, and to have a computer chip  containing information about the owner implanted in each snake.

A nonessential experimental status for a species or population means that: a. it essentially has no legal protection

b. it is treated as threatened and allows for management flexibility c. has the same protection as a listed endangered species d. all of the above We also discuss several other topics like Create an analysis that uses critical thinking to assess the overall plausibility of the claim: “the conflict in bosnia is somebody else’s trouble. the u.s. should not intervene militarily.”

e. none of the above

The ocean’s unflushable toilet is called a?

Endangered Species Act 

∙ Look at posted ESA glossary, habitat programs, and handout  underneath Modules>Unit 3> Lecture Supplemental. Here is  information from class and the required readings but is NOT all that is  available on Canvas to be looked over. This is just what I thought was  the important basics based on all that 

∙ Rich natural heritage is of “esthetic, ecological, educational,  recreational, and scientific value to our Nation and its people.” ∙ To protect and recover imperiled species or subspecies and the  ecosystems upon which they depend

∙ FWS (fish and wildlife service) and NMFS (national marine fisheries  service) administer the ESA

o FWS – terrestrial and freshwater organisms

o MFS – marine wildlife

∙ Endangered – danger of extinction throughout all or significant portion  of its range

∙ Threatened – likely to become endangered in the forseeable future ∙ Evaluation If you want to learn more check out What are the types of media sources that allow us to express ourselves without any harsh backlash?

o 1. Damage to habitat

o 2. Overutilization of species for commercial, recreational,  scientific, or education purposes

o 3. Disease or predation

o 4. Inadequacy of existing protection

o 5. Natural or manmade factors that affect the continued  existence of the species

∙ take - to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture,  or collect or attempt to engage in any such conduct

∙ harm – act in which wildlife is killed or injured. May include habitat  modification or degradation where it kills or injures wildlife by  significantly impairing essential behavioral patterns, including  breeding, feeding, or sheltering

∙ plants are not protected from take

∙ states may have their own laws

∙ goal is to recover species If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between diamagnetic and paramagnetic?

∙ organizations can gain approval as long as it is proven to not likely  jeopardize the continued existence

∙ requires critical habitat-space necessary biologically or physically to  the survival of a species- be established when “prudent and  determinable”

o may be space not currently occupied by the species, but could  serve the necessary requirements for the species survival ∙ 2/3rds of federally listed species have habitat on private land ∙ landowners can develop land inhabited by endangered species through the development of an approved conservation plan (HCP) o assessment of likely impacts on species from action Don't forget about the age old question of In what year did the states legally prohibit the use of contraceptives between married people?

o steps that will be taken to avoid, minimize, mitigate the impacts o proof of funding to take such steps

∙ Safe Harbor Agreements – non-federal landowners who volunteer to aid in recovery of a listed species by improving or maintaining wildlife  habitat

o Landowners manage enrolled property to agreed baseline  conditions

o Documentation that is required as part of an application for an  incidental take permit

∙ Candidate Conservation Agreements – voluntary agreements between  landowners and other parties to reduce or remove threats to at-risk  species

o Design conservation measures and monitor effectiveness of plan  implementation

∙ Candidate Conservation Agreements with Assurances – non federal  landowners volunteer to conserve at risk species so ESA isn’t needed. o Landowners receive assurances that if species is covered by  CCAA, they just need to do what is in agreement and will receive  an enhancement of survival permit Don't forget about the age old question of Why are stereotypes used in the media?

o Agreement with participating property owners that if they  engage in certain conservation practices, they will not have to  implement additional conservation measures should the at-risk  species eventually be liste If you want to learn more check out What are the basic sensory processes?

Conservation Banks – permanently protected and managed lands as  mitigation for loss elsewhere of at risk species and their habitat - lands that  are permanently managed for threatened, endangered, or candidate species  to offset adverse impacts to these species that occurred elsewhere ∙

o Free market enterprise

o Benefits species so small isolated groups that are trying to  recover can have a grouped effect to improve efficiency and  success

∙ Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild  Fauna and Flora 

o 175 nation agreement to monitor trade and effects on species  endangerment

Tragedy of the Commons is best represented by which of the following? a. competitive exclusion

b. the red queen hypothesis

c. plastics pollution in the ocean

d. carrying capacity

e. commensalism

competitive exclusion – the inevitable elimination from a habitat of one of  two different species with identical needs for resources

Red Queen hypothesis - proposes that organisms must constantly adapt,  evolve, and proliferate not merely to gain reproductive advantage, but also  simply to survive while pitted against ever-evolving competition and habitats – you must run as fast as you can just to not fall behind  that sounds  exhausting

Carrying capacity – the limit that a habitat can hold to support a species. The SOCIAL carrying capacity is the number people want to exist in order to  reduce interactions and avoid conflict

Commensalism - interaction between 2 animals or species where one  benefits and one is unaffected

In the video, “Can the Oceans Keep Up With the Hunt”, they stated that  sustainable aquaculture needs to:

a. focus on herbivores

b. focus on carnivores

c. focus on omnivores

d. a&c

e. none of the above

The Endangered Species act give the ___________ the authority for  management.

a. Defenders of Wildlife

b. U.S. citizens

c. Federal Government

d. State Government

Regional disturbances might include which of the following? a. tree falls

b. floods

c. animal wallows/burrows

d. a&c

e. all of the above

The number one reason that species are going extinct is: a. rapidly evolving diseases

b. competition from introduced species

c. pollution

d. habitat loss

Which of the following is true about the current status of polar bears? a. they are classified as experimental/nonessential

b. they are classified as threatened

c. they are classifies as “under review”

d. they are classified as endangered

e. all of the above

The ocean’s unflushable toilet is called a  

a. gill net

b. gyre

c. hypoxic zone

d. point pollution

Gill net – form of passive capture that involves the fish swimming into a  stationary net that catches onto their gills

Gyre – the wind currents that create the unflushable toilet of trash in the  ocean – in these places plastic outnumbers plankton and is creating islands  of trash in the ocean

Hypoxic zone – area where there is little to no oxygen

Point pollution – pollution where the source can be directly pointed to ex. A  single pipe feeding into oceans

Non point source pollution –loss of wetlands, hypoxic zones, and  eutrophication can all result from pollution that comes from a variety of  sources that can not be pointed at ex. Surface run off

Which of the following is NOT a reptile?

a. salamander

b. lizard

c. turtle

d. snake

e. all of the above

Which of the following is not a reason why herps are difficult to study? A. herps are secretive

b. frog and toad calls all sound alike such that we need to capture them to  accurately identify different species

c. herps are quick, elusive, and wary of predators

d. many herps are nocturnal and difficult to find during the day e. all are reasons they are difficult to study

Which of the following is not a problem of plastics in ocean? a. entanglement

b. ingesting

c. ingestion chemical contaminants that are toxic

d. all are problems.

e. a&b

Net primary productivity -the total amount of energy produced through  photosynthesis minus


Anthropogenic – human caused disturbance in the habitat or well being of a  species

Natural – typhoons, hurricanes, avalanches

Discreet – one point in time

Continuous- occurs over long intervals

Deforestation – largest cause is cattle farming in Brazil

Which of following are recognized sources or pathways of invasive aquatic  species?

a. fish stocking

b. ballasts

c. aquarium trade

d. all of the above

Melting of the ice caps under global warming includes all of the following  repercussions except:

a. less access to ice holes by polar bears

b. increased oil and gas activity in North Alaska

c. more absorption of the sun’s energy by the ocean

d. changes in weather patterns

e. all of the above are potential issues

albeto – reflection of the suns rays from the ice caps back into the  

Grizzly beats move through food sources from the spring - young elk, trout,  moths, pine seeds

Grizzlies were fed garbage by tourists and then cut off and forced to start  eating elk again

Which of the following is not included in Grumbine dominant themes for  ecosystem management?

a. data collection and monitoring

b. human values

c. interagency cooperation

d. focusing on featured species populations

Grumbine’s Theories 


1. Viable populations

2. Native ecosystem types

3. Ecological processes maintained

4. Long time periods – enough to maintain and evolve

5. Accommodate human use and occupancy

10 Dominant Themes:

1. Hierarchical Context (systems/scale) – systems perspective, all levels must be able to work together

2. Ecological Boundaries – grizzlies management boundaries in Yellowstone  park

3. Ecological Integrity – protecting native diversity, conservation of viable  populations of native species, maintaining natural disturbance regimes,  reintroduction of native, extirpated species, representation of ecosystems  across natural ranges of variation

4. Data Collection

5. Monitoring – evaluation of the data collection

6. Adaptive Management – flexibility, scientific knowledge is provisional and  focuses on management

7. Interagency Cooperation – federal, state, local management 8. Organizational Change

9. Humans embedded in nature

10. Values

 Marine Wildlife 

 Primary productivity- the rate at which primary producers capture and  store energy in given interval

 Gross primary productivity – the total rate of photosynthesis for an  ecosystem during specified interval

 Net primary productivity – the rate of energy storage in plant tissues  minus metabolic activities that use energy  

 Photosynthesis & respiration

 Open oceans have one of the lowest production rates and estuaries  have one of the highest per square meter

 Open oceans cover 71% of Earth’s surface

 Pelagic and benthic zones

 One simple ocean zone classification is between the water and the  ocean floor

 Benthic is tied to the ocean floor- benthos species

 Nekton – pelagic species – water pelagic species

 Plankton  

 Float

∙ Zooplankton (small animals)

∙ Photoplankton (algae)

 Nekton

 Actively more the current

∙ Fish (vertebrates) invertebrase- squid

 Benthos –

 Sea floor

 Coral (stuck) or crab (moving)

 Conservation Issues 

 Point Source Pollution 

 Specific source identified – sewage

 Clean Water Act 1977

 Non Point Source Pollution 

 Unregulated runoff from land

 Sources?

 Fertilizers

 Gas, oil, antifreeze, pesticides

 Eutrophication

∙ Algae blooms

 Hypoxic zone – low oxygen

 Marine Debris 

 Illegal dumping or accidental loss

 80% of debris originates from onshore

 recreation and tourism

 75 tons of trash each week in LA

 Last

 Mylar balloon : centuries

 Plastic bag : centuries

 Aluminum can L 200-500 yrs

 Plastics

 90% of marine floating debris

 46000 pcs/sq mile

 gyres  

 wind currents create eddies that hold the debris

 6x more plastic than plankton

 plankton produce more o2 than all life on earth

 offshore

 entanglement

 swimming/feeding problems

 infections

 drowning mammals

 ingestion

 blockage

 false satiation

 toxins

 sea turtles

∙ believe plastic bags are jellyfish

 Legislation

 Marine Pollution – MARPOL 73/78

 Prevention of pollution from ships

 One of the most important international marine environmental  conventions

 Designed to minimize pollution of the seas, including dumping, oil  and exhaust pollution

 Signed in 1973 and updates in 1978

 As of May 2013, 152 states

 Problems still with international nature of mairtime shipping  London Convention

 Industrial nations agreed to ban ocean dumping of industrial wastes and radioactive wastes

∙ Cant take land wastes anymore and toss them to see

 International

 International Whaling Commission

∙ 1946 International concention

∙ Regulation of Whaling

∙ Conservation of whale stocks

∙ Orderly development of whaling industry

 International Union for Conservation of Nature ∙ 1948

∙ Red List of Threatened Species

 Marine Mammal Protection Act

∙ 1972

∙ all marine mammals in waters under US jurisdiction  Endangered Species Act



∙ Lay eggs, hard shell

∙ Scales, plates, shells

∙ Nails

∙ Ectothermic

∙ Lungs

∙ Miniture adults


∙ Have a larval stage

∙ Breathe through their skin

∙ Moist smooth skin

∙ Ectothermic

∙ Lungs/gills

∙ Lay soft gel-like eggs

∙ metamorphisis

∙ 1/3 are threatened

∙ half in decline

Boreal toad  

∙ high elevations in CO

∙ listed species in CO

∙ Chytrid fungus that interferes with respiration Cane Toad  

∙ High reproduction

∙ High toxicity

∙ Eat frogs and other animals

∙ Equivalent to the bull frog in the US

∙ Invasive species introduced as biological control Ornate Box Turtle

∙ Over collection for food, pet, biological supply houses

∙ Nebraska

Harlequin Frog species in Costa Rica

∙ 2/3s extinct

∙ disease and indirect effects from rising temperatures

∙ most species are moving up in altitude and north due to climate  change

Feral Swine

∙ destructive to soil and crops through rooting

∙ carry disease

∙ aggressive

∙ spreading rapidly

∙ possible source of food??

Introduced species – the intentional or unintentional escape, release,  discrimination, or placement of a species into an ecosystem as a result of  human activity  

Invasive species – an alien (non-native to the area, exotic) species whose  introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm to  human health

Feral species – previously domesticated animal – now roaming wild Indicator species – population can be examined as a means to monitor the  health of the ecosystem that they are in

Umbrella species – species whose well being affect other species and whose  downfall affect a large number of species as well

F – the tympanic membrane is a gland at the back of a toad’s head that  contains poisons that can be released when threatened. – actually is the  parotoid gland 

F – Herbicides sprayed on agricultural fields are an example of point – source  pollution

T – an avalanche is an example of a discreet disturbance.

F – a candidate (same as warranted but precluded) species is protected by  the Endangered Species Act to the same extent as a threatened species T – critical habitat may include areas not occupied by a species at the time of listing but that are deemed essential to its conservation

T – phytoplankton produce more oxygen than all other plant life on earth F – reptile must have terrestrial and aquatic habitats during their lifecycles T – hypoxic zones are areas where there is little to no oxygen T – any citizen can petition to list a species under the Endangered Species  Act

F-The critical habitat identified as necessary for polar bear recovery was  supported by the local community and a successful designation by the  USFWS

F – high toxicity in newts and its relation to garter snakes is representation of competitive exclusion

T – distinct subpopulations of invertebrate and vertebrates can be listed as  threatened/endangered

F- bleaching of coral reefs is caused by non-point source household products  in the ocean

T – animals outside the US are listed as endangered on the Endangered  Species Act

F – the definition of an introduced species includes reference to economic or  environmental harm to humans

F – Pika are one species that have been positively affected by climate change T – the tipping point for global warming is the point when anthropogenic  inputs of Carbon reach a level where the Earth as a system can no longer  regulate increased carbon and temperature levels

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