Islam terms Rels 2403
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Tang on Saturday November 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Rels 2403 at University of Oklahoma taught by Charles A. Kimball in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see Comparative Religion in Religious Studies at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 11/14/15
Allah God of Abraham, one of the names for God, arabic word for god, there is no god but god and cannot be compared to anything else. Ali cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, and fourth of the "rightly guided" (rāshidūn) caliphs, as the first four successors of Muhammad are called. Reigning from 656 to 661, he was the first imam (leader) of Shīʿism in all its forms. The question of his right to the caliphate (the political-religious structure comprising the community of Muslims and its territories that emerged after the death of Muhammad) resulted in the only major split in Islam, into the Sunni and Shīʿite branches. Ayatollah Those who carry the title are experts in Islamic studies verse in the Quran Hadith Muhammad, guide on how to live life, very detailed (fav food, etc) Unlike the Koran, which is believed to be the words of Allah given to Muhammad, the Hadith is believed to be a collection of sayings or utterances of Muhammad. Qu’ran holy scripture of the Islamic tradition, continuation of the Bible the texts are considered by the Islamic faith to be the word of Allah revealed to the Prophet Muhammad. It's believed this revelation occurred around the year 610 CE near the city of Mecca. Divided into 114 chapters, known in Islam as Surahs, the Koran actually has no chronological order. In other words, unlike the Christian Bible, which begins with creation then continues to move throughout history, the Koran is arranged according to the lengths of the Surahs, specifically from longest to shortest. Holding the most esteemed place of all Islamic texts, the Koran continually stresses that Allah is the only god. It asserts that he alone is absolute and everlasting. Adding to this, Muslims, or followers of Islam, believe the Koran is an Earthly copy of actual tablets residing in heaven. Like Allah, they maintain these tablets are eternal, without beginning or end. They are the final revelation of Allah. For this reason, the Koran is sometimes referred to as the 'Well-Preserved Book.' Rashidun the first four caliphs of the Islāmic community, known in Muslim history as the orthodox or patriarchal caliphs: Abū Bakr (reigned 632-634), ʿUmar (reigned 634-644), ʿUthmān (reigned 644-656), and ʿAlī (reigned 656-661). The 29-year rule of the Rashidun was Islām's first experience without the leadership of the Prophet Muḥammad. His example, however, in both private and public life, came to be regarded as the norm (sunnah) for his successors, and a large and influential body of anṣār (companions of the Prophet) kept close watch on the caliphs to insure their strict adherence to divine revelation (the Qurʾān) and the sunnah. The Rashidun thus assumed all of Muḥammad's duties except the prophetic: as imams, they led the congregation in prayer at the mosque; as khaṭībs, they delivered the Friday sermons; and as umarāʾ al-muʾminīn ("commanders of the faithful"), they commanded the army. Hajj Religion: Islam Earliest pilgrimage on record: 629 CE Frequency:Once a year Duration: 5 days Annual participants: Over 3 million Following in the footsteps of:Abraham and Muhammad One of the five pillars of Islam is that each believer is called, at least once in their lives, to make the Hajj, the annual pilgrimage that starts and ends in the holy city of Mecca located in today's Saudi Arabia. The journey recreates Muhammad's own path as the native son returned to his tribal home as the leader of a vibrant new religion. Unlike other sacred sites, Mecca is closed off to believers of other faiths: only Muslims are permitted on the Hajj. rasul Messenger while all Messengers are Prophets, not all Prophets are Messengers. All prophets are MEN. salat Salat is the obligatory Muslim prayers, performed five times each day by Muslims. It is the second Pillar of Islam. The second pillar of Islam is the necessity of prayer - prayer five times each day. These five times are: dawn before the sun rises, noon, afternoon, evening, and at night. Muslims must wash themselves before prayer and recite their prayers while facing Mecca. The prayers are meant to remind Muslims of their submission to God's will and also their reliance on God's mercy. sawm (Ramadan) Holy month, fast throughout the month from sun up to sun down The fourth pillar of Islam is ritual fasting, where the adherent to Islam denies himself food and water during certain times of the year and certain times of the day. The fasting is obligatory during the holy month of Ramadan, where from dawn until dusk, Muslims may not eat or drink anything. Fasting is meant to focus the mind on matters of spirituality and on Allah, and the pangs of hunger remind one of the true suffering that goes on in the world. The fasts are broken each day when the sun goes down, and obligatory fasting ends after Ramadan is complete. hijrah flight, migration, year 622= year 1 in Islam the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, later renamed by him to Medina, in the year 622 CE. ijma' Ijmāʿ, ( Arabic: "agreeing upon" or "consensus") the universal and infallible agreement of the Muslim community, especially of Muslim scholars, on any Islamic principle, at any time. In Muslim history ijmāʿ has always had reference to consensuses reached in the past, near or remote, and never to contemporaneous agreement. It is thus a part of traditional authority and has from an early date represented the Muslim community's acknowledgment of the authority of the beliefs and practices of Muhammad's city of Medina. Ijmāʿ also has come to operate as a principle of toleration of different traditions within Islam. It thus allows, for example, the four legal schools (madhhabs) equal authority and has probably validated many non-Muslim practices taken into Islam by converts. In modern Muslim usage, ijmāʿ has lost its association with traditional authority and appears as a democratic institution and an instrument of reform. shahadah The first, known as the Shahada, is a formal declaration of faith, where the Muslim professes there is only one God, Allah, and that Mohammed was God's messenger or prophet. The statement is usually recited during the daily prayers and is a key part of a person's formal conversion to the Islamic faith. shari'ah the fundamental religious concept of Islam, namely its law, systematized during the 2nd and 3rd centuries of the Muslim era (8th-9th centuries ce). Total and unqualified submission to the will of Allah (God) is the fundamental tenet of Islam: Islamic law is therefore the expression of Allah's command for Muslim society and, in application, constitutes a system of duties that are incumbent upon a Muslim by virtue of his religious belief. Known as the Sharīʿah (literally, "the path leading to the watering place"), the law constitutes a divinely ordained path of conduct that guides Muslims toward a practical expression of religious conviction in this world and the goal of divine favour in the world to come. Islamist views emphasize the implementation of Sharia (Islamic law); of pan-Islamic political unity; and of the selective removal of non-Muslim, particularly Western military, economic, political, social, or cultural influences in the Muslim world that they believe to be incompatible with Islam. Shi'ia (Shi'ite) With many of the Muslims, or followers of Islam, feeling that a new leader should be chosen by majority opinion, a fringe minority group felt that the successor should come directly from Muhammad's family. This fringe group came to be known as the Shiite. They believed Muhammad's son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib, known in many textbooks as simply Ali, should be their new leader. For our purposes, and to make this a bit more digestible, it'll help us to remember he was the Shiites' choice for leader by linking the 'I' in 'Ali' to the 'I' in 'Shiite.' Jihad an Islamic term referring to the religious duty of Muslims to maintain the religion. In Arabic, the word jihād is a noun meaning "to strive, to apply oneself, to struggle, to persevere". Sunni Abu Bakr & Sunnis Unfortunately for the For proponents of Ali, the majority of Muslims felt family ties to the Prophet Muhammad were not a prerequisite for leadership. On the contrary, the majority felt his replacement should be named by vote, not family lineage. This group that favored the majority opinion choosing Muhammad's successor were known as the Sunni, and like the Shiites they had their own man in mind. However, it was not Ali. It was Muhammad's close companion, a man named Abu Bakr, that the Sunnis wanted to see at the helm. Again, to keep the two straight in our more Western minds, I usually link the 'U' in 'Abu' to the 'U' in 'Sunni.' Sadly for the minority Shiites, the Sunni won out and Abu Bakr became the leader of Islam, known as the Caliph. However, this did not settle the conflict in the mind of the Shiites and violence and war began to torment Islam. In fact, several of the first Caliphs met violent deaths at the hands of those who opposed their validity as leaders of Islam. Ka'bah The center of their worship was the city of Mecca, at a site known as the Kabba. It was here that over 300 statues and other idols were kept for worship by the various Arab tribes. Mecca was, even at a time before Islam, a center for Arab worship and devotion, as well as a place of religious pilgrimage known as the Hajj. The tradition and superstition around the Kabba in Mecca was already centuries old before the time of Islam, and many of the pagans believed it represented the connection between Heaven and Earth - not surprising given that at the center of the Kabba was a meteorite of unknown age that had fallen from the sky. Mecca/Medina As was the case during the life of Mohammed, Mecca remains the holiest city in the Islamic world, and it is the duty of every devout and able-bodied Muslim to travel to Mecca at least once in their lifetime. The act of pilgrimage is one of supreme devotion and provides the believer with a sense of spiritual satisfaction that few rites can. Medina is the second holiest site in Islam. "Medina" means the "City of the Prophet," is in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia. It was to Medina city that Muhammad fled when he was initially driven out of Mecca, and the place where he attracted his first followers. Medina currently has a population of about 600,000 people and is the home of "The Prophet's Mosque."In 622, Medina became the seat of Muhammad's growing movement after the Hijra. In 622 Muhammad was invited to come and live in Yathrib (the old name of Medina) and act as a sort of governor. Medina in those times was a divided city. Different clans and religions were eternally quarrelling and bickering and Muhammad brought unity to the city. All parties agreed to a pact drawn up by Muhammad and his followers. He invited all people in the city to follow the new religion of Islam. However, he had trouble convincing the Jewish population (which was actually quite large) that Islam was the true version of Judaism. In the ten years following the Hijra, Medina formed the base from which Muhammad attacked and was attacked and it was from here that he marched on Makkah, becoming its ruler without battle. Even when Islamic rule was established Medina remained for some years the most important city of Islam and the de facto capital of the Caliphate. sufi/Sufism Stated very plainly, Sufism is defined by many as the mystical sect of Islam, believed by most to have originated sometime during the 8th century. If you can remember this, you'll also be in pretty good shape to answer the most commonly asked question on the topic of Sufism. To add to your knowledge, Sufism is considered an offshoot of Islam because it upholds the validity of Islam's holy texts, known as the Koran. Like Orthodox Muslims, Sufism believes the Koran to be the direct words of Allah spoken to the Prophet Muhammad. However, with this similarity, there are also some pretty big differences. Sufism Differences Being very hard to understand by our more Western mindset, Sufism is the belief that all humans can gain spiritual liberty through revelations about and from God. Being very mystical, it doesn't rely on intellectual proof or logical reasoning. It's more the vague idea that contemplation and meditation can lead one to God. It's the idea that God is still in the business of revealing Himself to individuals. This concept places Sufism in direct contradiction to Orthodox Islam, which, like we mentioned earlier, firmly holds that Allah gave his complete and final revelation to the Prophet Muhammad. Adding to the chasm between Orthodox Islam and Sufism, many early Sufis, or followers of Sufism, began incorporating the practice of Christian monasticism, or simply becoming monks, into their faith. This is in direct violation of the Islamic sacred Hadith texts, which are believed to be the actual teachings of the Prophet Muhammad. In the collection of the Hadith, Muhammad specifically warns against the practice of monasticism. Making the gap even greater, many of the more liberal Sufis allowed other faiths to meld with their own. For instance, being very mystical, many Sufis adopted the Buddhist concept that all humans are part of a cosmic universal truth. In other words, some followers of Sufism began to teach that there isn't really just one god. Instead, they began to worship more of a god-like force that they believed all humans could be a part of through meditation and prayer. Unfortunately for Sufi and Muslim relations, this flew (and still flies) directly in the face of the Muslim belief that Allah and Allah alone is God. Being so opposed to this concept, many Sufis throughout history have been accused of blasphemy, or speaking against sacred things, by Orthodox Muslims. So serious is this charge that some Sufis have been killed for these beliefs. With all these differences in mind, it's not too difficult to see why many Orthodox Muslims deny Sufism as the mystical sect of their faith. Despite this, Sufism still has a presence in the East as well as the West. Taliban WHAT: The Taliban is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist group that ruled Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when a U.S.-led invasion toppled the regime for providing refuge to al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden. Taliban is an ultraconservative political and religious faction that emerged in Afghanistan in the mid-1990s following the withdrawal of Soviet troops, the collapse of Afghanistan's communist regime, and the subsequent breakdown in civil order. The faction took its name from its membership, which consisted largely of students trained in madrasahs (Islamic religious schools) that had been established for Afghan refugees in the 1980s in northern Pakistan. masjid (mosque) word meaning 'place for prostration', and were used by the early Muslims for houses of worship, even for other religions. Today the Arabic 'masjid', and the English 'mosque' are used exclusively for religious houses in Islam. mi'raj two parts of a Night Journey (Arabic: Lailat al-Mi'rāj, Persian: Shab-e-Me`raj) that, according to Islamic tradition, the prophet of Islam, Muhammad took during a single night around the year 621. ummah Arabic word meaning "nation" or "community". It is distinguished from Sha'b (Arabic: شعب) which means a nation with common ancestry or geography. Thus, it can be said to be a supra- national community with a common history. zakat Almsgiving, or charity to those who need it, is the third pillar of Islam. It is considered to be the personal responsibility of all who have to give to those who have not and to ease economic hardships, inequality and suffering. If one is wealthy, money can be given; if not, other deeds and actions can take the place of monetary assistance. Like other faiths, Islam looks favorably on those who do good deeds and works within the community. The zakat is an alms tax, required of every adult Muslim with sufficient means. In many ways it resembles the modern welfare state, in which the "haves" are taxed to help the "have-nots." For most of Islam's history, the tax was enforced by the state. Today it is mostly left up to the individual, except in Saudi Arabia where religious law (Sharia) is strictly adhered to. The rate of zakat is 2.5 percent, not of income, but of the value of all of one's possessions. Five categories of goods are taxed: grains; fruit; camels; cattle; sheep and goats; gold and silver; and movable goods. The recipients of the tax are the poor, debtors, slaves seeking to buy their freedom, volunteers in jihad, pilgrims, and the collectors of the tax. Along with the zakat, both the Quran and the Hadith emphasize the importance of voluntary almsgiving (sadaqa) to the needy. In Shia Islam, an additional one-fifth tax (khums) must be paid to the Hidden Imam and his representatives for the benefit of orphans, the poor, travelers, and the imams. Muhammad ibn Abdullah God's Messenger 4 caliphates successors Mohammed was born into a world of polytheism and tribal disunity in the year of 570 CE in the city of Mecca. He lost both parents by the time he was six years old and was raised by one of his uncles. At the age of 12, Mohammed entered the family business, the caravan trade, and was off on what many believe were journeys to the outside world, including Syria, where he had contact with Christians, Jews, a host of other faiths, and peoples from all over the world who came to the region to trade. By the age of 25, Mohammed was married for the first time to a wealthy woman of 40 years of age, Khadijah, who was also in the caravan trade. Though he would marry an additional 10 times in his lifetime, it was through Khadijah's influence that Mohammed was exposed to a group of Arabs known as the Hanefites . What made this tribe unique was the fact they rejected idol worship and polytheism in favor of monotheism. Their religion was not fully formed - rather, they were influenced by both Judaism and Christianity - and they would often retreat to the solitude of caves for prayer and intense meditation, hoping to find a path to the one true God. It can be safely assumed that this tribe, along with the teachings of Judaism and Christianity, had a strong impact on Mohammed as he searched for his own answers to life and to God. By 610 CE, tradition tells us he had his first vision while meditating in a cave. Upon reporting this vision to Khadijah and the extended family, it was declared by the Hanefite elders that the vision was from God - the one true God, Allah. Mohammed was subsequently declared a prophet and embraced by his community as the last prophet in a long line dating back to the time of Noah. At first, few listened to Mohammed's teachings outside of his immediate group. As you can imagine, those engaging in idol worship held fast to their beliefs. But Mohammed persisted. For three years, he traveled and ministered to the population of Mecca and surrounding cities. His life was often threatened by those who did not warm to his message. But Mohammed persevered, and in 621 CE, during the annual Hajj, Arab tribes from Medina happened upon Mohammed and were so impressed with his teachings that they also recognized him as a prophet and joined his new religion. Still, these conversions were few, and Mecca proved to be an unwelcoming place for someone preaching the destruction of polytheism. After a year in the city, Mohammed fled with a small group of converts to Medina, where he was welcomed as both a prophet and political leader. He proved to be an effective leader, helping enrich his small group of followers by raiding the caravans of the polytheists, which was seen as a justifiable action until these groups submitted to the religion of Allah, at which time the raids would stop. The city of Mecca responded to these raids by sending 1,000 soldiers to punish the Muslims of Medina. In 624 CE, much to the chagrin of the Meccan leadership, the Muslims defeated their army, and the victory was used to strengthen Mohammed's position as a religious leader. It was also at this time that Mohammed changed the geographical orientation of Muslim prayers from Jerusalem to Mecca. But why? There were many reasons for the change, including the fact that the Jews had rejected Mohammed's claim to prophethood, as had the Christians. What is more, the Kabba was the center of Arab devotion. It may have been a misguided devotion before the arrival of Mohammed, or so the Muslims believed, but it was in Mecca that they believed God made Himself known, where their last prophet was born, and where he would spend the last days of his life.
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