Hindu terms Rels 2403
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Tang on Saturday November 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Rels 2403 at University of Oklahoma taught by Charles A. Kimball in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Comparative Religion in Religious Studies at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 11/14/15
agni fire ahimsa non violence from ghandi - associated with Ghandi - because he was able to kick british out of india without violence no harm to living things artha Simply put, artha can be loosely translated as wealth and power, and according to the goals of Hinduism, it's ok to want these two things. In fact, the pursuit of them is considered noble since a person needs them in order to raise a family and keep a household. This is especially true for those who exist in the upper classes, or castes, of Hindu society. For them, artha, or wealth, is sought after in order to fulfill one's destiny. In other words, some were made to be rulers and kings; others were made to be beggars. Those who were made to be kings have every right to seek wealth and power. It's not just a noble goal; it's their duty and the best way to keep society in balance. If they are born into the upper ranks of Hindu society, then by all means, they can seek wealth. Unfortunately, the opposite is true for those in the lower castes of Hindu society. Although it is permissible for them to seek to provide for their families, they should not seek wealth as a means to move on up the social ladder. On the contrary, it is incumbent upon them to accept their low station in life as part of their duty or dharma. Although this idea of one's predestined role or duty is very foreign to those of us in the West, it's a huge part of the Hindu faith. In fact, this idea of duty, or dharma, is actually the next goal. atman soul avatara vishu's avatara – Krishna Bhagavadgita holy book from one god, Krishna, that says war is good bhakti community service; doing good to other people Brahman Brahman, in the Upanishads (Indian sacred writings), the supreme existence or absolute reality. Though a variety of views are expressed in the Upanishads, they concur in the definition of brahman as eternal, conscious, irreducible, infinite, omnipresent, and the spiritual core of the universe of finiteness and change. Marked differences in interpretation of brahman characterize the various schools of Vedanta, the system of Hindu philosophy based on the writings of the Upanishads. - top of caste system Darsan sanskrit word that means vision or view and is most commonly used in the context of Hindu worship. It can also be defined as an apparition, or a glimpse. Dharma/dharma 'duty', 'virtue', 'morality', even 'religion' and it refers to the power which upholds the universe and society. Since the goal of dharma is probably the most alien to our Western paradigm, we'll spend a bit more time on it. To simplify, dharma means duty. It's sort of a set of standards by which a person should live. However, dharma can be very circumstantial and very personal. In other words, each person's dharma is different. Since this is rather confusing, let's use a tangible example. Most faiths hold to the idea that murder is wrong. Across the board, it's usually a no-no and would go against dharma. However, sometimes murder may be necessary for the greater good. For instance, what if a ruler kills a few people in order to avoid an all-out war? Although this is a rather violent argument on the use of personal dharma, it's a famous one taken right from the pages of the ancient Hindu story about dharma, known as the Bhagavad Gita. In this Hindu classic, a ruler's crown is challenged by rebellion. Since the ruler knew murder was wrong, he put down his weapons and refused to kill the rebels. However, the god Vishnu appeared and told him it was his personal duty, or dharma, to kill his enemies in order to protect his people and bring peace to his lands. Yes, senseless murder would go against the universal idea of dharma, but in this story, it was the honorable ruler's personal duty, or dharma, to kill. By killing he was fulfilling his dharma or duty. Dharma is very central to the Hindu belief system Granth scripture Guru Nanak - born in 1469 - first statement after his prophetic communion with God was "There is no Hindu, nor any Mussalman." This is an announcement of supreme significance it declared not only the brotherhood of man and the fatherhood of God, but also his clear and primary interest not in any metaphysical doctrine but only in man and his fate. It means love your neighbour as yourself. - He dined and lived with men of the lowest castes and classes Considering the then prevailing cultural practices and traditions, this was something socially and religiously unheard of in those days of rigid Hindu caste system sanctioned by the scriptures and the religiously approved notions of untouchability and pollution. It is a matter of great significance that at the very beginning of his mission, the Guru's first companion was a low caste Muslim. The offerings he received during his tours, were distributed among the poor. - He spent twenty five years of his life preaching from place to place. Many of his hymns were composed during this period. They represent answers to the major religious and social problems of the day and cogent responses to the situations and incidents that he came across. http://www.sikh-history.com/sikhhist/gurus/nanak1.html jnana-marga The Bhagavadgita ("Song of the Lord"; c. 100 ce), an extremely influential Hindu text, presents three paths to salvation: the karma-marga ("path of ritual action" or "path of duties"), the disinterested discharge of ritual and social obligations; the jnana-marga ("path of knowledge"),the use of meditative concentration preceded by long and systematic ethical and contemplative training (Yoga) to gain a supraintellectual insight into one's identity with brahman;and the bhakti-marga ("path of devotion"), love for a personal God. These ways are regarded as suited to various types of people, but they are interactive and potentially available to all. kama The first permissible goal is kama. To put it simply, kama is pleasure, and it refers to the desires of the mind and the physical body. It is the human desire for passion and emotion. In other words, it's ok to love; it's ok to experience attraction and desire. In fact, the Hindu's god of love is actually named Kama. From this name comes the famous and very ancient Hindu guide to the physical expression of love known as the Kamasutra. Although kama, or pleasure, is a permissible goal, a spiritually maturing Hindu will realize it is not the end all to life. There is more to strive for. Karma Karma is a concept in Hinduism which explains causality through a system where beneficial effects are derived from past beneficial actions and harmful effects from past harmful actions, creating a system of actions and reactions throughout a soul's reincarnated lives forming a cycle of rebirth. krishna WHO: He is the speaker of the Bhagavad-gita, which is recognized throughout the world as one of mankind's greatest books of wisdom and poetry. The personification of Krishna in stories, paintings and Deities is not an idea invented by human beings naively creating a God in their own image. WHEN: According to Bhagavata Purana, Krishna was born to Devaki and her husband, Vasudeva, on 18 July 3228 BC. . When Mother Earth became upset about all the sin been going on Earth she thought of seeking help Lord Vishnu. mahatma gandhi Mahatma Gandhi was the primary leader of India's independence movement and also the architect of a form of non-violent civil disobedience that would influence the world. Born into a privileged caste, Gandhi was fortunate to receive a comprehensive education Gandhi suffered six known assassination attempts during the course of his life. Godse was the person responsible for the eventual assassination of Gandhi in January 1948, Mahavira Mahavira was likely a contemporary of Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha), and he challenged the authority of early Vedic Hinduism's faith in the practice of animal sacrifices, thereby breaking away from tradition. Mahavira's later life was an example of rigorous asceticism. He formed his own monastic community, which subsequently divided into different schools. The two major schools of Jainism, Śvetāmbaras and Digambaras respectively, dispute much about the life of Mahavira, but share a great deal of common ground concerning his teachings. Mantra Ancient chants Mantras are words or phrases that are chanted out loud or internally as objects of meditation. Often these mantras are associated with particular Buddhist figures, whose qualities can be cultivated by the repetition of the relevant mantra. Mantra (Sanskrit मंत्र) means a sacred utterance, numinous sound, or a syllable, word, phonemes, or group of words believed by some to have psychological and spiritual power. Maya - means "that which is not" (i.e. illusion). - It refers to accepting the temporary as having lasting value, and looking for enduring happiness in this world. - Through cultivating the quality of goodness the soul may rise to transcendence and escape the clutches of maya. moksha salvation means emancipation, liberation or release. In the soteriological and eschatological sense, it connotes freedom from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth. Puja the act of showing reverence to a god, a spirit, or another aspect of the divine through invocations, prayers, songs, and rituals. An essential part of puja for the Hindu devotee is making a spiritual connection with the divine. sannyasa life stage of renunciation within the Hindu philosophy of four age-based life stages known as ashramas, with the first three being Brahmacharya (bachelor student), Grihastha (householder) and Vanaprastha (forest dweller, retired). being a virgin all your life and meditating towards higher purpose - its a verb siva Shiva's role is to destroy the universe in order to re-create it. Hindus believe his powers of destruction and recreation are used even now to destroy the illusions and imperfections of this world, paving the way for beneficial change. According to Hindu belief, this destruction is not arbitrary, but constructive. Shiva is therefore seen as the source of both good and evil and is regarded as the one who combines many contradictory elements. Shiva is known to have untamed passion, which leads him to extremes in behaviour. Sometimes he is an ascetic, abstaining from all wordly pleasures. At others he is a hedonist. It is Shiva's relationship with his wife, Parvati which brings him balance. Their union allows him to be an ascetic and a lover, but within the bounds of marriage. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/hinduism/deities/shiva.shtml Upanishads a collection of texts which contain some of the central philosophical concepts of Hinduism, some of which are shared with Buddhism and Jainism. Written in Sanskrit, the Indo-Aryan form of writing, the Upanishads sought to go a step further than the Vedas, which mainly dealt with ritual and worship. Wanting to dig deeper, this period was characterized by a desire to actually understand the nature of knowledge and the reason for ritual. In other words, these early Hindus were no longer satisfied with the answer, 'Because we've always done it this way' or 'Because I said so!' They wanted more. However, it's important not to misconstrue this questioning as a rejection of the sacred Veda teachings. They were still honored and revered as from the divine. In fact, the new Upanishad writings are considered appendages - not replacements - of the sacred Vedas. Varnasrama-dharma The purpose of the Varnasrama social system is to provide a structure which allows people to work according to their natural tendencies and to organize society so that everyone, regardless of their position, makes spiritual advancement. The practical application of the Varnasrama system is to divide the society according to four occupational and four spiritual orders of life. The Varnasrama system recognizes the natural talents and abilities of each person and provides work according to a persons qualities. There are four qualities of work, the brahmanas are the intellectual and priestly class, the ksatriyas are the government, the military and the administrative classes, the vaisyas are farmers and businessmen, and the sudras are workers. Vedas Throughout time, people of faith have elevated certain texts to positions of inspired power and reverence. We see it as Jews hold to the Torah, while Muslims elevate the teachings of the Quran. Like these faiths, Hinduism has their own sacred texts known collectively as the Vedas. Today we'll take a look at these sacred Hindu texts. As we do this, some of us from the more Western frame of mind may find some of the names and different nuances of the texts a bit confusing. To make things as simple as possible, I'll try to link the different texts to familiar things within our paradigm. Your job will be to keep these two main things in mind. First, the Vedas are broken down into four collections. Second, the Rig-Veda is usually considered the most important of the four Veda collections. Vishnu WHO IS HE: Vishnu is the second god in the Hindu triumvirate (orTrimurti). The triumvirate consists of three gods who are responsible for the creation, upkeep and destruction of the world. The other two gods are Brahma and Shiva. Brahma is the creator of the universe and Shiva is the destroyer. HOW: The Puranabharati, an ancient text, describes these as the dashavatara, or the ten avatars of Vishnu. Among the ten described, nine have occurred in the past and one will take place in the future as Lord Kalki, at the end of Kali Yuga, (the fourth and final stage in the cycle of yugas that the world goes through). WHO IS THE INCARNATION: Vishnu is said to descend in form of an avatar to restore cosmic order. The list of Dashavatara varies across sects and regions. The standard list is: Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Narasimha, Vamana, Parashurama, Rama, Krishna, Buddha and Kalki. WHAT: It has also been suggested that Vishnu's blue colour is something of a euphemism for swarthiness, and that the god might be affiliated with the darker-skinned races of India. Certainly, the name Krishna literally translates as 'Dark' or 'Black'. Yuga/Kali Yuga Wife of Shiva final impossible to reach salvation because everything is falling apart...final form of apocalypse Notes: monks renounce physical possessions
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