a group of Chinese firms authorized by the imperial government to conduct commerce with foreigners.
An addictive narcotic drug made from a certain kind of poppy.
The hiring or kidnapping of poor Chinese workers to serve as cheap labor in places such as Cuba, Peru, or California
A vast uprising in China between 1850 and 1864, fueled by anti-Manchu hostility and Western religious ideas.
Indian soldiers trained and commanded by the British
a practice in India whereby a widow cremated herself on her dead husbands funeral pyre
The work of professional bandits or "thugs" who attacked and strangled travelers in India as part of a religious ritual.
Large Japanese conglomerates that each owned a diverse array of industries, businesses, banks, and resources.
A country controlled by an outside power claiming to provide security.
The combination of Russia, France, and Germany that pressured Japan to renounce the Liaodong peninsula in Manchura in 1895.
a 5,800 mile railroad stretching across Russia from east to west
scramble for concessions
the period from 1896-1899 during which European nations pressed China for special privileges, called concessions, that would allow them to exploit key regions of China.
Open Door policy
Proclaimed by the US in 1899, calling for free and equal trade with China and for the preservation of China's territorial integrity.
sent to Guangzhou (Canton) to halt the opium trade. Used drastic measures, seizing and destroying more than twenty thousand chests of British opium.
Led the vast uprising called the Taiping Rebellion. Anti-Manchu hostility and Western religious ideas. Went into a coma, and awoke thinking he was the brother of Jesus Christ, and began "Society of God Worshippers", banning alcohol, opium, foot binding, adultery, and gambling.
put in motion a series of "self strengthening" movements
protege of Zeng.
former emperor Xianfeng's concubines & bore him a son. After Xianfeng's death she used her status as the childs mother to become China's regent and effective ruler. Known as Empress Dowager
Gopal Krishna Gokhale
moderate educator and political leader, called for the greater Indian autonomy within the British Empire
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
a noted mathematician and radical nationalist whom the British at one point deported for sedition - pressed for full independence.
Commodore of the American steam ship that first landed in Japan with a letter calling for open trade relations.
a passionate young Japanese patriot who tried to hide on one of Perry's ships to study Americans first hand - declared that the samurai's loyalty should be to the emperor not to the shogun. Beheaded for this.
given the title Meiji meaning "enlightened rule" pursued selective adaptation to Western culture
led the samurai revolt against Meiji emperor in order for the samurais to keep their swords. Committed seppuku, the samurai suicide ritual and became a romantic symbol for the bygone era.
Emperor Gia Long
founded the Nguyen dynasty - sought French assistance to help his forces in the Tay-Son Rebellion in Vietnam, allowed French catholic missionaries into the country
Emporor Tu Duc
angered by a French priest's alleged involvement in a plot to overthrow him, he executed thousands of Vietnamese Catholics and several dozen Catholic priests.