PAD 520 Week 8 Assignment 4
PAD 520 Week 8 Assignment 4
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Date Created: 11/14/15
PAD 520 Assignment 4 Policy Outcomes Dr Shelley Taylor Mitchell S Zellner March 2 2015 Program Expenditure This is the kind of expenditure in policy making which falls under planned category It is very important that right methods are implemented in budgeting the same as cutting on the same is harmful for the economic Governance Equality of Educational Opportunity Every individual in the region of Governance should have equal right of education irrespective of any factor Energy Consumption Consumption of energy in the region should be monitored and billed accordingly Poverty is the state of lacking such essentials as money food water clothing and shelter The American economist Mollie Orshansky defined poverty as being deprived of quotthose goods and services and pleasures which others around us take for grantedquot Poverty is a global problem but there is much debate regarding how to define poverty and how to remedy it in its various forms Poverty affects both isolated individuals and larger groups of people It is especially common in developing countries that have yet to establish governmental social programs civil services and human rights standards However poverty also exists in developed countries Bill Mulford 2008 Poverty is an old Problem Poverty is an ancient problem the plight of the poor and the duty of others to help care for them is discussed at length in the holy books of most world religions The poor have traditionally been categorized as either deserving or undeserving The deserving poor were those who warranted sympathy and aid including orphans widows the disabled and the elderly and infirm These are people who might now be classed as the structural poor those who lack political power and resources and are dependent on others for survival The undeserving were those able bodied people without employment Such individuals are often stereotyped by society as lazy or irresponsible and these attitudes result in social programs designed to aid the structural poor The distinctions between the two categories tend to blur during economically difficult periods when many able bodied people may find themselves unemployed Kirk Mann 1993 Measures of Poverty Poverty is generally measured in terms of absolute and relative poverty Absolute poverty measures the number of people living below the poverty line which is the minimum determined income an individual needs to survive adequately to have enough money for food clothing shelter and other necessities Relative poverty measures one39s income against the average income of the population There is no set standard for determining relative poverty but it is generally considered to be anything less than 50 percent of the median income According to the United Nations definition anyone living on less than one US dollar per day is in a state of extreme poverty As of 2005 14 billion people lived in extreme poverty worldwide Abbas J Ali 2003 Social factors which Contribute to Poverty There are several factors that may contribute to poverty Democratic systems of government are positively correlated with lower rates of poverty Wealthy democracies tend to have populations with longer life eXpectancies better schools and healthier agricultural output than countries that do not have democratically elected governments However democracies are hardly immune from poverty Economic recessions war food shortages natural disasters and other misfortunes befall all countries and these factors can drive people into poverty Even in democratic countries however wealth is distributed unevenly For example in the Australia the richest 1 percent of the population controls about 34 percent of privately held wealth The richest 20 percent of the population owns about 85 percent of the wealth About 12 percent of the Australia population lives in poverty Results of Poverty The results of poverty are far reaching and often devastating Those living in absolute poverty may suffer poor health resulting from greater eXposure to disease lack of medicine and proper health care hunger or even starvation Increased alcohol and drug abuse and homelessness are common results of poverty Poor cities suffer an increase in violence An estimated 18 million people die due to poverty related causes every year Eleven million impoverished children worldwide die before the age of five every year Situation in Other countries Food prices worldwide climbed steadily in 2010 and 2011 contributing to rioting and unrest in many parts of the world In Tunisia and Egypt high food prices contributed to anti govemment protests that quickly toppled longstanding autocratic regimes in January and February 2011 High food prices push struggling populations into desperate poverty The World Bank announced in April 2011 that the prices of many staple food items had skyrocketed between the first quarter of 2010 and the first quarter of 2011 Maize prices were up 74 percent wheat prices were up 69 percent and soy bean prices were up 55 percent According to the World Bank 44 million people had been forced into poverty by rising food prices since June 2010 and if prices continued to rise even between 10 and 30 percent tens of millions more people could fall below the poverty line Brazil39s newly elected president Dilma Rousseff 1947 made the fight against poverty her top priority in 2011 She announced in June that the government would expand its social welfare program with the goal of lifting millions of Brazilians out of poverty by 2014 Census figures from 2010 showed that more than 16 million Brazilians live in extreme poverty even as the country as a whole has enjoyed a booming economy for the past several years Social Development Minister Tereza Campello told BBC reporters that Brazil intends to be the first developing country to reach the UN39s Millennium Development Goals The greater the cost of an alternative the less likely it is that the alternative will be pursued The enforcement of the maximum speed limit 55 mph increases the costs of exceeding the speed limit The mileage death rate fell from 43 to 36 deaths per 100 million miles after the implementation of the 55mph speed limit The 55 mph speed limit National Speed Law of 1973 has definitely successful in saving lives The 55 mph speed limit National Speed Law of 1973 has definitely successful in saving lives The mileage death rate fell from 43 to 36 deaths per 100 million miles after the implementation of the 55mph speed limit The enforcement of the maximum speed limit 55 mph increases the costs of exceeding the speed limit The greater the cost of an alternative the less likely it is that the alternative will be pursued References Bill Mulford Diana Kendall John Ewington Bill Edmunds Lawrie Kendall Halia Silins 2008 quotSuccessful principalship of high performance schools in high poverty communitiesquot Journal of Educational Administration Vol 46 Iss 4 pp461 480 Kirk Mann 1993 quotSUPERMEN WOMEN AND PENSIONERS THE POLITICS OF SUPERANNUATION REFORMquot International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy Vol 13 Iss 7 pp29 62 Abbas J Ali 2003 quotFROM ECONOMY TO MILITARIZATION THE END OF THE NATION STATEquot Competitiveness Review An International Business Journal incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness Vol 13 Iss 1 pp1 vi Alfred M Dockery 2000 quotRegional unemployment rate differentials and mobility of the unemployed An analysis of the FaCS longitudinal data setquot International Journal of Manpower Vol 21 Iss 5 pp400 424 WL Grichting 1984 quotTHE MEANING OF SOCIAL POLICY AND SOCIAL STRUCTUREquot International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy Vol 4 Iss 4 pp16 37
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