Pad 520 Week 7 assignment 3
Pad 520 Week 7 assignment 3
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Date Created: 11/14/15
Week 7 Assignment 3 Assignment 3 Prescribing Policies PAD 520 Policy Analysis and Program Evaluation Mitchell S Zellner Dr Shelley Taylor February 22 2015 1 Determine the following before deciding a prescription a Maximize effectiveness at the least cost Problems of this type involve variable costs and variable effectiveness For instance the choice of a most favorable budget to make the most of the accomplishment of agency objectives is a type III problem The reaction to type III problems is called variablecostvariableeffectiveness examination b Maximize effectiveness at a fixed cost of 10000 When maximum acceptable budgetary expenditure aims at xed costs the motto is to maximize effectiveness within the limits of existing resources For instance given a xed budget of 10000 million for both of two programs a health policy forecaster will recommend the option that results in answer to type I problems c Achieve a fixedeffectiveness level of 6000 units of service at a fixed cost of 20000 Problems of this type engross EQUAL costs as well as equivalent effectiveness This is the situation which pertains Type IV problems which are xed cost and effectiveness analysis are particularly not easy to solve Analysts are not only restricted by the requirement that costs not exceed a certain level but are also restricted by the limitation that options satisfy a xed level of effectiveness d Maximize net benefits assuming that each unit of service has a market price of 10 Type 2 problems are the one which are apparent Problems of this type engage equal effectiveness and variable costs When the point of valued outcomes is xed like here its 10 the aim is to lessen costs e Maximize the ration of benefits to costs assuming that each unit of service has a market price of 10 Problems of this type involve variable costs and variable effectiveness For instance the choice of a most favorable budget to make the most of the accomplishment of agency objectives is a type III problem The reaction to type III problems is called variablecostvariableeffectiveness examination 2 Determine which of the two main programs Program I and Program 11 should be selected under each of these criteria Justify your position A Program 2 will work out as it gives most adequate policy is one that maximize the ratio of effectiveness in respect to the costs Program 1 as already explained when the estimates are xed in respect to cost this program gives best output Also over here program 1 would be very effective as here the most adequate policy is one that make the most of the realization of objectives while enduring within the limits of xed expenditure Program 1 would be very much suited in response to type II problems is called equaleffectiveness analysis for the reason that analysts compute up to alternatives that diverge in costs but whose effectiveness is equal Here the most suf cient policy is one that minimizes costs while achieve xed levels of effectiveness Program 2 will work out as it gives most adequate policy is one that maximize the ratio of effectiveness in respect to the costs 3 Describe the conditions under Which each criterion may be an adequate measure of the achievement of objectives Type III problems Problems of this type involve variable costs as well as variable effectiveness For instance the choice of a most favorable budget to make the most of the attainment of objectives is a type III problem The response to type III problems is called variablecostvariableeffectiveness analysis for the reason that costs and effectiveness are free to uctuate Here the most satisfactory policy is one that brings out the ratio of effectiveness to expenditure 4 Determine the assumptions that govern estimates of the value of time lost driving indicating which assumptions if any are more tenable than others Justify your position The biggest restraints in everyone39s living are time To accumulate time in modern world mainly of people use online services in place of stay personally Suppositions 1 Travelling all the way through personal motor vehicle saves a lot time but in my position it saves time but produce more and more pollution in the city and responsible for the rising demand of Gasoline in the city Wolff 2011 2 Travelling all the way through a public transportation system like Bus takes too a large amount of time as this services takes stoppages at a variety of stops in theirjourney to board passengers on the bus In my position I have the same opinion with the reason understood as a lot time is exhausted while we choose a Bus for go Wolff 2011 5 Determine the best way to estimate the value of time Justify your position To approximate value of time we calculate comparative time to the travel in case of Car Train and Bus The three services are examined for cost and time necessities Wolff 2011 The results achieved were exactly as per the ndings anticipated For example we can without dif culty read and write a book while travelling in a train but an individual cannot read whilst driving their own car Researches make use of a dataset of 170 drivers at diverse prices of gasoline and distance travelled Wolff 2011 It was establish that people are prepared to pay higher service incriminate to save their time from long stay eagerness to pay to keep away from waiting at the high priced gas station consequential in a VOT approximation of approximately 78 of the gross wage rate Wolff 2011 6 Determine the best way to estimate the cost of a gallon of gasoline Justify your position Cost of gasoline is determined on the basis of a number of factors Crude gasoline is rst imported and ecstatic to the re neries After paying the input cost to the re ner its cost price is considered on the basis of comprehensive prices of crude oil Wolff 2011 Cost of the gallon of gasoline can be calculated with the help of fuel saving The charge of the gasoline must be determined on the basis of on the whole expenditure to the nation and its surroundings Wolff 2011 7 Determine the more reliable method to estimate driving speeds and miles per gallon by using a official statistics on highway traffic from the Environmental Protection Agency or by using b engineering studies of the efficiency of gasoline engines by the Department of Energy Discuss any consequences of using one source rather than another Justify your position If we evaluate the fuel economy of two speeds then it is obviously visible that at 55 mph fuel ef ciency of the cars is approximately 30 miles per gallon while for 65mph fuel economy is approximately 25 miles per gallon PRESCRIBING POLICIES 6 Fuel economy of cars at diverse Speeds cec So it is understandable to opt 55 miles per hour preferable than 65 miles per hour The lesser speed limit is projected to produce the rate of large drop in traf c fatalities 2013 We can set aside a small number of years of life relatively than 40 years 8 Estimate the value of a life saved Justify your position The effects of health environmental and safety involvement on mortality danger are most accurately differentiated as shift of individuals endurance curves The nancial value to an individual of a alter in her survival curve depends on the scale and timing of changes in her humanity risk Any shift in a survival curve implies predictable numbers of both lifeyears gained and lives saved in a particular time period Therefore the value of the shift can be illustrated by the corresponding average value per lifeyear saved VSLY or value per life saved VSL the assortment between these actions is arbitrary 9 Determine which policy is preferable a the 55mph speed limit or b the 65mph limit Justify your position If we evaluate the fuel economy of two speeds then it is obviously visible that at 55 mph fuel ef ciency of the cars is approximately 30 miles per gallon while for 65mph fuel economy is approximately 25 miles per gallon PRESCRIBING POLICIES 6 Fuel economy of cars at diverse Speeds cec So it is understandable to opt 55 miles per hour preferable than 65 miles per hour But there are hypothetical reasons to consider that the effect of the 65 mph limit will be felt transversely the entire highway system I implementing the 55 mph limit on the interstate highways obligatory a considerable amount of highway patrol wherewithal the new 65 mph perimeter allows highway patrols to shift these resources to other security activities and other highwayssome thing they desires to do ii the new 65 mph limit might generate a shift of traf c from countryside roads to rural interstates References Dunn W N 2012 Public policy analysis 5th ed Upper Saddle River NJ Pearson Education Inc Baurn H M Wells J K Lund A K Motor vehicle crash fatalities in the second year of the 65 MPH speed limits J Safety Res 2118 1990 Krugman P 1991 Increasing returns and economic geography Journal of Political Economy 99 483499 Learner E E Storper M 2001 The economic geography of the Internet age Journal of International Business Studies 32 4 641 665 Wolff E 2011 Spillovers Linakages and productivity growth in the US Economy 1957 to 2007 NBER Working 16864
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