Organizational Behavior Chapter 11 Notes
Organizational Behavior Chapter 11 Notes
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Date Created: 11/14/15
Chapter 11 – Organizational Behavior Author: Robbins, & Judge (2011) Chapter 11 – Organizational Behavior Week 1 Chapter Learning Objectives 1. Identify the main functions of communication. 2. Describe the communication process and distinguish between formal and informal communication. 3. Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication with examples. 4. Contrast oral, written, and nonverbal communication. 5. Compare and contrast formal communication networks and the grapevine. 6. Analyze the advantages and challenges of electronic communication. 7. Show how channel richness underlies the choice of communication channel. 8. Identify common barriers to effective communication. 9. Show how to overcome the potential problems in crosscultural communication. Functions of Communication Communication The transference and understanding of meaning Communication Functions Control member behavior Foster motivation for what is to be done Provide a release for emotional expression Provide information needed to make decisions Communication Process The steps between a source and a receiver that result in the transference and understanding of meaning Key Parts of Communication Process: The Sender – initiates message Encoding – translating thought to message The Message – what is communicated The Channel – the medium the message travels through Chapter 11 – Organizational Behavior Author: Robbins, & Judge (2011) Decoding – the receiver’s action in making sense of the message The Receiver – person who gets the message Noise – things that interfere with the message Feedback – a return message regarding the initial communication Communication Channels Channel: The medium selected by the sender through which the message travels to the receiver Types of Channels Formal Channels: Are established by the organization and transmit messages that are related to the professional activities of members Informal Channels: Used to transmit personal or social messages in the organization. These informal channels are spontaneous and emerge as a response to individual choices Direction of Communication Interpersonal Communication: o Oral Communication o Advantages: Speed and feedback o Disadvantage: Distortion of the message o Written Communication o Advantages: Tangible and verifiable o Disadvantages: Timeconsuming and lacks feedback o Nonverbal Communication o Advantages: Supports other communications and provides observable expression of emotions and feelings o Disadvantage: Misperception of body language or gestures can influence receiver’s interpretation of message Nonverbal Communication Styles: o Body Movement o Unconscious motions that provide meaning o Shows extent of interest in another and relative perceived status differences o Intonations and Voice Emphasis o The way something is said can change meaning Chapter 11 – Organizational Behavior Author: Robbins, & Judge (2011) o Facial Expressions o Show emotion o Physical Distance between Sender and Receiver o Depends on cultural norms o Can express interest or status Three Common Formal SmallGroup Networks o Chain: Rigidly follows the chain of command o Wheel: Relies on a central figure to act as the conduit for all communication Team with a strong leader o All Channel: All group members communicate actively with each other Selfmanaged teams o Small Group Network Effectiveness o Small group effectiveness depends on the desired outcome variable The Grapevine Three Main Grapevine Characteristics 1. Informal, not controlled by management 2. Perceived by most employees as being more believable and reliable than formal communications 3. Largely used to serve the selfinterests of those who use it Results from: Desire for information about important situations Ambiguous conditions Conditions that cause anxiety Insightful to managers Serves employee’s social needs Reducing Rumors 1. Announce timetables for making important decisions Chapter 11 – Organizational Behavior Author: Robbins, & Judge (2011) 2. Explain decisions and behaviors that may appear inconsistent or secretive 3. Emphasize the downside, as well as the upside, of current decisions and future plans 4. Openly discuss worstcase possibilities—they are almost never as anxietyprovoking as the unspoken fantasy Electronic Communications: Email Email: 1. Advantages: [quickly written, sent, and stored; low cost for distribution] 2. Disadvantages: Messages are easily and commonly misinterpreted Not appropriate for sending negative messages Overused and overloading readers Removes inhibitions and can cause emotional responses and flaming Difficult to “get” emotional state understood – emoticons Nonprivate: email is often monitored and may be forwarded to anyone Electronic Comms: Instant/Text Messaging Forms of “real time” communication of short messages that often use portable communication devices Explosive growth in business use Fast and inexpensive means of communication Can be intrusive and distracting Easily “hacked” with weak security Can be seen as too informal Instant Messaging Immediate email sent to receiver’s desktop or device Text Messages Short messages typically sent to cell phones or other handheld devices Electronic Comms: Networking Software Chapter 11 – Organizational Behavior Author: Robbins, & Judge (2011) Linked systems organically spread throughout the nation and world that can be accessed by a PC Includes: Social networks like MySpace and Facebook ® ® ® Professional networks like Zoominfo and Ziggs ® Corporate networks such as IBM’s BluePages Key Points: These are public spaces – anyone can see what you post Can be used for job application screening Avoid “over stimulating” your contacts Electronic Comms: Blogs and Videoconferencing Blogs: websites about a single person (or entity) that are typically updated daily. A popular, but potentially dangerous activity: Employees may post harmful information Such comments may be cause for dismissal No First Amendment rights protection Can be against company policy to post in a blog during company time and on company equipment/connections Videoconferencing: uses live audio and video Internet streaming to create virtual meetings. Now uses inexpensive webcams and laptops in place of formal videoconferencing rooms Knowledge Management The process of organizing and distributing an organization’s collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time Important because: Intellectual assets are as critical as physical assets. When individuals leave, their knowledge and experience goes with them. A KM system reduces redundancy and makes the organization more efficient. Chapter 11 – Organizational Behavior Author: Robbins, & Judge (2011) Requires an organizational culture that values sharing of information Choice of Communication Channel The model of “media richness” helps explain an individual’s choice of communication channel Channels vary in their capacity to convey information A “rich” channel is one that can: Handle multiple cues simultaneously Facilitate rapid feedback Be very personal Choice depends on whether the message is routine Highperforming managers tend to be very mediasensitive Media Richness Model Barriers to Effective Communication Filtering A sender’s manipulation of information so that it will be seen more favorably by the receiver Selective Perception People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes Information Overload A condition in which information inflow exceeds an individual’s processing capacity Emotions How a receiver feels at the time a message is received will influence how the message is interpreted More Barriers to Effective Communication Language Words have different meanings to different people Communication Apprehension Chapter 11 – Organizational Behavior Author: Robbins, & Judge (2011) Undue tension and anxiety about oral communication, written communication, or both Gender Differences Men tend to talk to emphasize status while women talk to create connections Politically Correct “PC” Communication Communication so concerned with being inoffensive that meaning and simplicity are lost or free expression is hampered Certain words do stereotype, intimidate, and insult In a highly diverse workforce this is problematic: o “Garbage” becomes “postconsumer waste materials” o “Quotas” become “educational equity” o “Women” become “people of gender” Such nonstandard sanitizing of potentially offensive words can reduce the clarity of messages Global Implications Crosscultural factors increase communication difficulties Cultural Barriers: o Semantics: some words aren’t translatable o Word Connotations: some words imply multiple meanings beyond their definitions o Tone Differences: the acceptable level of formality of language o Perception Differences: language affects worldview Cultural Context: o The importance of social context to meaning o Lowcontext cultures (like the US) rely on words for meaning o Highcontext cultures gain meaning from the whole situation Body Language Issues All of these common U.S. hand signs are offensive somewhere in the world. A Cultural Guide Chapter 11 – Organizational Behavior Author: Robbins, & Judge (2011) To reduce your chance of making a faux pas in another culture, err on the side of caution by: o Assuming differences until similarity is proven o Emphasizing description rather than interpretation or evaluation o Practicing empathy in communication o Treating your interpretations as a working hypothesis Summary and Managerial Implications The less employees are uncertain, the greater their satisfaction; good communication reduces uncertainty! Communication is improved by: o Choosing the correct channel o Being a good listener o Using feedback Potential for misunderstanding in electronic communication is higher than for traditional modes There are many barriers to international communication that must be overcome
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