NTC 409 complete
NTC 409 complete
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Running head: STANDARDS 1 NTC/409 GLOBAL NETWORK ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN WEEK 1 DQ 1 As a network architect, you will be responsible for the logical and physical design of the network. Describe the differences between logical design and physical design. How does creating the logical design help the architect with the physical design? How the data flows through the network from one device to the next, is the logical design. It does not specify the technologies or standards to use unless there is a requirement needed in the network design. It focuses on the needs of the network, such as high speed access and considers things such as network growth and usage, cost, IP address blocks, and security. The actual interfaces and physical cables are not shown on the logical design diagrams, which gives us the true meaning of the term logical. The foundation for security which provides the framework stages needed for security is provided by a good logical design. Scalable security services should involve the servers, routers, switches, workstations and other devices on each layer using the network. The logical design provides information which will help capture, configure, and manage the complex essential parts that control the performance and capabilities of the network. Physical network design is the physical way the computers are set up and connected to the network including a diagram of the actual way the network will look. The actual layout of the physical part of the network includes the cables, hubs, routers, and switches, and workstations, and segments and host that appear on the actual layout. How they are presented, is the difference between logical and physical design of a network. The logical design is the one that shows the data flow, and the physical design shows the devices, and connections of the network. The same network is defined by the logical and physical networks working together. Fitzgerald, J., Dennis, A., & Durcikova, A. (2012). Business Data Communications and Networking (11th ed.). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database. DQ 2 Describe a scenario where the traditional network design might be more favorable than a buildingblock approach. What are the risks when using the traditional network design model? Better suited for a structured environment a traditional network design is expensive and time consuming. It is designed for a network with little traffic and only does what it is designed to do, and takes time to develop, up to two years. A structured systems design and analysis process is followed like used to build application systems. There are four steps taken to design the network end user needs, and applications are determined, the amount of data traffic is estimated, and circuits needed to support traffic are designed, cost estimates are obtained, and the network is implemented a year or two later. Because the technology of networking devices, computers, and the circuits change quickly, the amount of traffic is growing rapidly, and over the last 10 years the costs has change. For many networks today the traditional design approach is less appropriate. A simpler approach to network design, many organizations use is the building block approach. There are three phases, needs analysis, technology design, and cost assessment. After completing the cost assessment, the design process cycle repeats through the three phases again, and each phase is refined. Until a final design is made this cycle repeats through the three design phases. Reference: Fitzgerald, J., & Dennis, A. (2012). Business Data Communications and Networking. (11th ed.). Indianapolis, IN: Wiley. DQ 3 OPTIONAL DQ 1 What are the major roles of a network manager in today’s business environment? What soft skills do you think a network manager must have? How do automated monitoring tools play a role in reducing network management costs A network manager’s job is to install and maintain the organization’s computer network. They have to ensure the staff is properly trained and have the skills needed to provide technical support for the network. So if a problem comes up with the network the network manager will need to have a recovery plan in place to minimize the down time to the network. Some of the soft skills that a network manager needs to have are the ability to think quickly on their feet. This comes in handy in case the network goes down the companies’ way of doing business may not cost them as much. They also need to be able to manage people properly, so the best people are in the best position to help avoid problems. If problems do, occur the right person will be available to help minimize the down time to the network. Network management cost is reduced by automating and distributing decision making processes using automated monitoring tools. The use of network resources is optimized, and reliability of services is improved while decreasing downtime, which cuts management cost. This makes it possible for network operators to focus more on business logic and less on low level device configuration. INDIVIDUAL WK 1 Switches, Routers, and Gateways WEEK 2 DQ 1 How does QoS play a role in integrated networks that have both voice and data traffic in a LAN and in a WAN? What are some other strategies that can be implemented to reduce latency issues with voice data? Quality of service (QoS) is the ability of a network to provide better service to selected network traffic, on an integrated network. The quality of the service needs to be at an equal level to provide a practical alternative to a public switch telephone network (PTSN). Voice traffic is sensitive to bandwidth issues and will cause problems if there are delays in the packets this is known as a jitter. To prevent jitter, less than 150 millisecond transmission times, is recommended. Voice packets must be given high priority for signaling and audio channels, over other network traffic for VoIP to guarantee highquality transmission. It is important to ensure that when priority is provided for one or more flows it does not make other flows fail. To reduce latency issues, there must be enough bandwidth to support voice and data. Creating classifications and set up voice in a separate VLAN to avoid network congestion with the data. It is easier to classify the data by creating a VLAN for voice, and it will reduce network congestion. A way to reduce latency on the network with voice is by having fixed size cells. By allowing packets to flow smoothly among the network without any delay in the packet being sent or received latency, will be reduced. A lost packet will cause an issue with the quality of the voice that is being sent and received. Cisco. (n.d.). Quality of Service for Voice over IP. Retrieved from http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios/solutions_docs/qos_solutions/QoSVoIP/QoSV oIP.html DQ 2 Explain the difference between analog and digital transmissions. What are some issues that analog signals might have that are solved by using digital transmissions? What requirements might you see with analog signals that are not relevant to digital signals? Analog format is information transmitted by modulating a continuous transmission signal. Computers require modems to transmit signals over communication lines, such as telephone lines that carry analog signals to turn signals from digital analog. The signals must be turned back into digital form at the receiving end. A continuous signal that varies in amplitude, phase, or another property in proportion to an attribute of a variable is used by analog signals. The transmission of data is a signal used every day in the form of cellular devices, music, power lines, and telephones, which also means using antennas, satellites, and wires. In analog waves, things like air conditioners, fluorescent lights, and magnetic fields can add noise as the waves travel across a wire. This noise is electrical or electromagnetic energy, and it degrades the signal. There are devices that can transform analog signal to digital and back, most methods to do this are inaccurate. An exact transfer of data over a point to multipoint or point to point transmission standard such as optical fibers, copper wires, storage media, or wireless communications media, is a digital transmission. Transferred data is represented as an electromagnetic signal, such as a microwave, and messages are transferred discretely. A digital modulation method is how they are always represented. Digital signals are discrete waveforms and analog signals are not. Because the signal is uniform and not altered in amplitude, or shape it is an advantage of digital over analog. Rodriguez, E. (2012). Analog Devices. Retrieved from http://www.skullbox.net/dva.php WK 2 Individual Forecasting and Monitoring Tools Paper Switches, Routers, and Gateways A switch is sometimes known as a switching hub, and it works at layer 2 of the OSI model it uses either the same cable or a different cable. They are used to connect devices together on a computer network. A switch will only send messages to devices that need it or sends it a request rather than broadcasting the message out of its ports like a hub. A router is very similar to a switch except it works on the network layer 3. A router connects a local network to other local networks. A router uses a feature that chooses the best route between networks. The router does this by knowing its location, so the packets find their destination. The best possible route is identified using a routing table that maintains the available routes and their conditions. It also performs other critical functions for efficient network operation. To connect to a DSL or cable modem for broadband Internet service routers have a WAN Port. A LAN can easily be created by users using the integrated switch. Gateways are more complex than routers or switches, and like a router it operates on the network layer but, gateways can also operate on the application layer. Also called protocol converters, gateways can operate at any network layer. Because it communicates using more than one protocol, a gateway is more complex than a router or switch. Gateways only process messages that are specifically addressed to them, so they can route the messages to the appropriate networks. Gateways use a combination of hardware and software to link two different types of networks by converting different protocols. Gateways translate one network layer protocol into another, open sessions between application programs, and translate data link layer protocols, overcoming both software and hardware incompatibilities. A switch that is part of the data link layer or layer 2 is Ethernet considered a layer 2 switch. The layer 2 switch and the layer 3 switch both operate the same way, except the way messages are switched based on their IP address or network layers address. Instead of routers both switches can be used for faster transmission and each switch has more active ports than routers. Two or more network components are connected using routers operating on the same or different data link protocols but the same network protocols on the network layer. Because a router operates on the network link layer, the data link layer needs to be able to identify that the incoming messages are addressed to the routers data link layer before the message is sent to the data link layer and processed correctly. The router builds a new data link layer packet and processes the message and transmits it to the other network. References: Fitzgerald, J., & Dennis, A. (2012). Business Data Communications and Networking. (11th ed.). Indianapolis, IN: Wiley. Learning Team Riordan Manufacturing WAN Project Part I Create a 1 to 2page project outline using outline format (roman numbers/letters) that assigns tasks for the following assignments to each team member: Riordan Manufacturing WAN Project Part I Team A th Riordan Manufacturing Part II – Due March 10 , 2014 I. Create a new project model in OPNET® OpenIT (or VISIO) for the existing Riordan manufacturing WAN. Name your new model “Team A” and replace the X with your team identifier. a. San Jose, CA i. MSVisio Current Network Layout () b. Albany, GA i. MSVisio Current Network Layout () c. Pontiac, MI i. MSVisio Current Network Layout () d. Hangzhou, China i. MSVisio Current Network Layout () Riordan Manufacturing WAN Project Part III – Due March 17 , 2014 th II. Write a 45 page paper based on your analysis of the existing WAN for Riordan Manufacturing that describes: the existing WAN, the weaknesses in the WAN, and your proposed upgrade to the WAN. a. Introduction () b. Network Analysis (Existing WAN i. San Jose, CA () ii. Albany, GA () iii. Pontiac, MI () iv. Hangzhou, China () c. Weaknesses () d. Proposed Upgrades () e. Conclusion () Riordan Manufacturing WAN Project Part IV – Due March 24 , 2014 th III. Make all appropriate changes to the WAN model for Riordan Manufacturing submitted in Week Three. a. San Jose, CA i. MSVisio Upgraded Network Layout () b. Albany, GA i. MSVisio Upgraded Network Layout () c. Pontiac, MI i. MSVisio Upgraded Network Layout () d. Hangzhou, China i. MSVisio Upgraded Network Layout () WEEK 3 DQ 1 What role do the international standards for networking play in globalization? In your opinion, are the proprietary versions of some of these standards used by some networking and telecomm vendors a good or a bad thing? Explain your answer Networking standards are important internationally because they act as a formal document that establishes criteria for how processes are to be done. It is important to use the same standards for networking this allows the trade of goods to be done regardless of location. This also allows people in any country to see and access online merchants in other countries. These standards set what everyone will be able to do and how everything should work. Standards are used for a reason, and they help with issues that may arise. The three types of standards the proprietary, which is the original standard. It was set so organizations or individuals can develop a new network based technology, for their sole purpose. The main issue with this is that it is excluded from the development process. Open is available to any who wants to use it instead of the closelyguarded secret of one organization. DeFacto is the most commonly used standard type. Because it is used constantly across several different platforms, it is accepted by consumers and software and hardware developers. I believe it depends on the size of the company before deciding which version would be best for them to use. A large company has the IT people to fix any problems to occur so the proprietary version may be best. DQ 2 What different roles do the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the WiFi Alliance play in wireless networking technologies? Why is there a need for both organizations instead of one? WiFi® is a registered trademark owned by the WiFi Alliance it gives wireless networking/wireless local area network (WLAN) an easy to understand name. IEEE and the WiFi Alliance are two of the associations and agencies involved in establishing standards, rules, laws, etc. specify the policies and technology associated with wireless networking devices. (IEEE) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers is a professional association that creates electronics, and electrical related technologies whose goal is to develop industry standards. IEEE 802.11 is the standards group created and maintained by the IEEE dealing with wireless networking. WiFi Alliance / WiFi CERTIFIED is a trade organization whose main roles are to support wireless networking, and compatibility by a certification program among assorted wireless networking devices. It tests equipment to certify that it is reasonably interoperable. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) sets the boundaries the IEEE uses to develop standards. Compatibility, regulation, and standardization services are provided for WLAN technologies by these three organizations within the United States. Some of the benefits to the consumer when there are regulations in place are less interference from surrounding networks, easier to purchase devices from different vendors that are interoperable, and consumers can buy products with confidence that they will be interoperable at some level, and fewer manhours are required for compatibility testing. The second link below has a lot of great information. Http://www.lmi.net/wpcontent/uploads/Optimizing_802.11n.pdf http://faculty.ccri.edu/jbernardini/JBWebsite/ETEK1500/1500Notes/BookCWNA 4thEditionChapter_1.pdf INDIVIDUAL Identify 3 to 5 technology or telecom standards organizations and the role they play in the industry. Choose one organization to look into in more depth. Write a 3 to 4page paper on a pending standard that your ch osen organization is working on. Standards In the business world, standards have become a must in most businesses. Standards are required for different kinds of hardware and software, to work together regardless of the vendor. When an email is sent a different standard must be used on each of the layers of the TCP/IP layer must be used to send the message, but the same standard is used by the sender and receiver of the message. There are two different classifications they are De Facto that means "by tradition" or "by facts" they are commonly used by organizations around the world. An example of DE Facto standards is System Network Architecture (SNA). The other is De Jure that means "according to law or regulation" they have been properly designed to fit the needs of data communication, and are approved by international organizations. The industry that can be impacted more by standards is the information and communication technology industry ("The Network Standards Types of Network Standards ", 2012). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) The IEEE is headquartered in New York City, it has about 425,000 members in about 160 countries, about half of them in the United States, it is dedicated to advancing technological innovation and excellence. A U.S.based society IEEE publishes a variety of standards for data communications. The 802 Committees The 802 committees are a subgroup of the IEEE to ensure lowcost interfaces they began developing network specifications in 1980. In the United States, these specifications are passed on to the ANSI for approval and standardization and to the ISO. After starting the 802 project, the IEEE knew a single network standard would not be enough. They realized it could not account for the miscellaneous hardware and developing architectures. The society established committees that cover the wide range of subjects responsible for defining standards in different networking areas. The 802 Committees are: •802.1 Internetworking. •802.2 Logical Link Control (LLC). •802.3 CSMA/CD Network (Ethernet). •802.4 Token Bus Network. •802.7 Broadband Technical Advisory Group. •802.8 FiberOptic Technical Advisory Group. •802.9 Integrated Voice/Data Networks. •802.10 Network Security. •802.11 Wireless Network. •802.12 Demand Priority Access Network (100VGAnyLAN). •802.13 Cable TV Access Method and Physical Layer Specification ("The Network Standards Types of Network Standards ", 2012 Pending Standard of IEEE Pending standards are called projects until they are approved. IEEE projects have a prefixing P to the name of the intended standard. A project that is still a draft but has not produced a standard or draft protocol but is tracked by vendors is referred to by P in its name. IEEE P1905 •802.5 Token Ring Network. •802.6 Metropolitan Area Network (MAN). IEEE P1905 is a group that is working on the "convergent digital home network". This will incorporate P1901 communication with other 802.x standards for arbitrary IP based communications with the network, devices, such as meters, vehicles, and the building where charging devices draw power. The ultimate goal of this standard will be to integrate IEEE 1901 to other home network technologies. Defining an abstraction layer is the purpose of this standard. Allowing common network setup with heterogeneous network technologies, with the same experience from each user when adding a device to the network, and when setting an encryption key and seamless transparent interface switching. It allows intelligent network interface selection for delivery of packets that provide improved coverage performance, improved data rate on the poorest link, improved network capacity, improved network reliability and quality of service (QoS), and support for endtoend quality of service (QoS) for different traffic classes. It also allows realtime mapping of connection links and interfaces for each traffic class/stream, green energy management and ANQP parameters on multiple Aps are synchronized. Summary To facilitate the interoperability of network technologies networking standards are important. There is no common ground for manufacturers of networking products to build their systems without standards. So heterogeneous networks can communicate with one another effectively standards are needed. Without standards emails could not be sent, and communication among users would not be possible. References: IEEE Project P1905.1a. (2014). Retrieved from http://standards.ieee.org/develop/project/1905.1a.html The Network Standards Types of Network Standards. (2012). Retrieved from http://greatinformer.blogspot.com/2012/11/thenetworkstandardstypesofnetwork.html Learning Team Riordan Manufacturing WAN Project Part II Create a new project model in OPNET® OpenIT (or VISIO) for the existing Riordan manufacturing WAN. Name your new model “Team_X” and replace the X with your team identifier. ALBANY, GA. Michigan China Main Headquarters – San Jose WEEK 4 DQ 1 What are the advantages of a fiber network over a wired network? What are the disadvantages? What would be some considerations when choosing one over the other in a specific LAN environment? What protocols would most likely be implemented in each? There are many advantages of having a fiber network over a wired one. It provides more bandwidth is provided with fiber than copper, and it has consistent performance up to 10 Gbps. It carries more information with greater fidelity than copper wire. Data can move at higher speeds and greater distances, and there is very little signal loss during transmission because the signal is made of light. With fiber networks instead of having wiring closets with equipment throughout the building, your electronics and hardware can be put in one central location. The converters enable the use of existing hardware and provide seamless links. Fiber is immune to many environmental factors that affect copper cable. Fiber is less susceptible to temperature fluctuations than copper and fiber can be submerged in water. The lower costs and production of media converters are making copper to fiber migration much easier. Fiber is thin, lightweight, and more durable than copper cable. Because the core is glass, no electric current can flow through causing electrometric interference or radiofrequency interference. When choosing one over the other, it would depend on many things. The first would be cost fiber, components, and hardware is steadily decreasing, but because of the skill needed installation costs are higher than copper. You also have to consider in the long run fiber will be cheaper because it costs less to maintain, has less downtime, and requires less networking hardware. Both fiber and copper fall under the 802.3 Ethernet standard developed by the IEEE. DQ 2 What are the areas that must be considered if a company is considering implementing wireless in their LAN? How would you secure a wireless LAN? How does a wireless LAN function differently from a wired LAN? Before installing a wireless network, survey the site the building materials used in the building may create problems. Some materials, such as adobe, cinder blocks, brick, stucco, or rock walls are dense and can weaken the strength of the wireless signal. The number of access points needed to ensure a fast, reliable connection can be increased. Things that hold water, like elevator shafts, bathrooms, and pipes can limit the range of wireless signals. the number of wlan access points needed must be determined, and the amount of power necessary to support them, typically 15 watts. Power injectors can be placed anywhere along the line within 100 meters because the requirements differ for each business. Eliminating the need for external AC Adapter power supply will provide greater flexibility. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is an obsolete protocol and should be avoided to secure a wireless LAN. Better alternatives to help safeguard against hackers are WPA (WiFi Protected Access) and WPA2. Access points should be configured to use the strongest available AES 256 bit encryption for increased protection. The functions of a wireless LAN and a wired LAN do not differ much because they both can do the same thing. They both use Ethernet, but each uses a different Ethernet adapter. Rasmussen, S. (2010). 10 Tips for Planning a Wireless Network. Retrieved from http://www.smallbusinesscomputing.com/webmaster/article.php/3917391/10Tipsfor PlanningaWirelessNetwork.htm OPTIONAL DQ 2 Explain how 4G technology differs from the previous generation of cell technology. What are some of the functionalities that 3G or 4G provide that were not available previously? The next generation of wireless technologies the “G” stands for Generation. Each one is supposed to be more reliable, more secure, and faster. Reliability is the hardest obstacle to overcome. Faster data transfer speeds became available with 3G, for multi media use at least 200 kilobits per second, and for wireless transmissions it is the standard. A 1Gps, Gigabit per second transfer rate is promised, but it is a challenge to get a true 4G connection. Until the next generation is released, a true 4G may not be available. To use the G terminology, there are standards each Generation must meet. Most of the wireless technology we know this generation set the standards. The third generation introduced more Smartphone technology, and email, picture sharing, video downloading, and web browsing. About 2 Megabits per second is what 3G should be capable of handling. The speed and standards of 4G technology needs to be at least 100 Megabits per second and up to 1 Gigabit per second. Sharing the network resources gives more support for simultaneous connections on the cell. 4G phones revert to the 3G standards outside of the covered areas. 4G is a little faster than 3G at this time. 2G, 3G, 4G, 4G LTE – What are They?. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.whatsag.com/ DQ 3 List the existing wireless protocols commonly in use today. What are the bandwidth capacities of each? In what other ways do they differ? What encryption types are available? There are a few different wireless protocols that are in use today. 802.11a has a data rate up to 54Mbps and operates at the frequency of 5GHz. 802.11a is very well suited for office use because it has a less commonly used frequency than other protocols. 802.11b has a data rate of 11Mbps and operates at a frequency of 2.4GHz. 802.11b is a standard for WANs and is often called WIFI it can have a lot of interference because this protocol uses the same frequency as a number of common household electronics. 802.11g has data rate up to 54Mbps and operates on the frequency 2.4MHz. 802.11g is used to transmit over shorter distances at a higher speed but like 802.11b operates on the same frequency of many household devices. 802.11n has a data rate up to 54 Mbits to 600 Mbits and operates on both 2.4 and 5GHz. This protocol is an improvement on all of the other 802.11 protocols by adding a multiple input and output or (MIMO), transmitters, and antennas. http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/standards/80211wirelesslanstandards study.html Individual LAN model McBride Financial has hired a consulting firm to help with the LAN design on two of its offices. Abram LaBelle met with Hugh McBride and a transcript of the conversation can be found in the Client Projects section of Smith Systems Consulting's intranet site. SEPARATE FILE Learning Team Riordan Manufacturing WAN Project Part 3 Write a 45 page paper based on your analysis of the existing WAN for Riordan Manufacturing that describes = the existing WAN. ∙ the weaknesses in the WAN. your proposed upgrade to the WAN. Week 5 Learning Team Riordan Manufacturing WAN Project Part IV Make all appropriate changes to the WAN model for Riordan Manufacturing submitted in Week Three. Import the screen shot files into one or more Word documents. Riordan Manufacturing Part IV Team A Riordan Manufacturing WAN Overview San Jose, CA – LAN Albany, GA – LAN Pontiac, MI – LAN China Headquarters – LAN
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