LAS432 Revised Paper Week 6
LAS432 Revised Paper Week 6
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Date Created: 11/15/15
Psychological Effects When the words robotic surgery are presented when discussing options for surgical procedures most people begin to feel a sense of anxiety of the unknown and references to a world of science ction that is thought to only exist in planets beyond ours The patients seem frightened yet intrigued by the idea when first presented as an option for treatment by their trust physicians Doctors have been preforming complicated surgeries on the heart to simple surgery such as a hysterectomy that used to be complicated before the use of robotics Without a face and the ability to breathe the wellequipped the robot is controlled from a room with a physician assisting however not close up and actively participating in the surgery like we have known the doctors to be but rather they will be behind a window Patients who are not ready to accept this form for surgery will soon nd themselves alone at an emotional crossroads in their relationship with their doctor such as when questions about the surgery are answered in a video on the internet or in a webcast that will instruct the patient all about how the mechanical mechanism will replace a surgeon on the procedure and what expectations to have I am not sure that everyone who needs a procedure is willing to accept that the robot can successfully and harmlessly complete this task and patients are nervous they will be forced to accept this in the near future without an alternative treatment option Three decades ago many patients were apprehensive of the new aparoscopic procedures which became the introduction of robotics in surgery into our lives This ground breaking technology would take time and its positive outcomes would have to travel by word of mouth to ease the minds of those second guessing the new technology As the acceptance of the new technology continued to spread due to more and more patients agreeing to the procedures the creators of this idea had to continually improve and take it new and higher levels in testing Robotic assisted surgeries have been far more successful than patients expected as well have become the popular choice Data from the US shows that in 2009 there were 85000 prostate cancer procedures and 73000 of those men chose a robotic assisted surgery Parker T 2010 This high percentage would indicate that the psychological aspect of the choice is either resolved by the processes that are in place all over the country at hospital and surgery centers or that the psychological factor is not affecting men Taken the from the pages of a ction book about aien encounters robotic surgery has found its way in to hospitals around the world and becoming as ordinary as seeing your neighbor walk down the street walking their dog Procedures that once were complicated and posed a high risk of error have found a solution to that problem yet it seems have added other problems A patient s mental state can decline from a lengthy hospital stay after an operation and the preoperative anxiety levels can cause undue stress The computer based program that runs the mechanical arm during surgery where the physician is behind a glass compartment and controlling the robotic arm This is a state of the art tool for the physicians who have the knowledge to perform the surgery but perhaps not the dexterity due to health concerns of their own Patients still are leery of the robotic arm and frightened of malfunction possibilities This psychological warfare that the patient is experiencing before the procedure almost seems cruel Rather than leaving the patient to imagine or speculate what will happen in the operating room with the robotic assistance let them see the machine and become knowledgeable in the expectations before the scheduling of this procedure The results of the robotic assisted surgery is making medical history in the way of being less painful creating less scarring and ultimately reducing the time needed for recovery A traumatic experience can scare people for life and what is considered to be traumatic can be measured differently from person to person Many times a physician will call in specialists to evaluate the needs of additional care services and post and preoperative assessments It would seem bene cial that a psychologist be called to evaluate those who have expressed the uncertainty of robotic surgery to help put their minds at ease as well as express the unnecessary duress so that they are not undergoing the procedure mentally plagued by the possible side effects Many elderly patients that undergo a planned procedure have relationships with the physicians spanning over many years and they are trusting to be with them and be by their side and the idea that they are alone is difficult to digest Looking at the opposite side of the coin the younger patients are more knowledgeable in the way of technology and have grown up with in the era of technology constantly progressing and being at your ngertips The idea of robotic surgery is not so aggressively terrible and foreign since it has been all that a generation has been exposed to For many young or aged it is about convenience as well Patients have families and jobs to get back to and need to be assured that those aspects of their lives will be interrupted as least as possible and are embracing the healing times to get back to the everyday hassle and bustle of life The median is that patients are well informed and perhaps if more information was available in the various forms of pamphlets YouTube videos podcasts and surgeon consultations then the public would be prepared when approach with the news of their surgery being robotically assisted Sociological Effects quotEven though technologies are usually developed to meet a particular need or solve a speci c problem they often have secondary functions or unintended effects on our livesquot Sclove 1995 Winston 2012 People are asking for the robotic surgeries because many believe it is proven the superior option to any other procedure A published article in the Science Daily stated quotBut in this case hospitals have outsourced patient education content to the device manufacturer allowing industry to make claims that are unsubstantiated by the literature lt39s dishonest and it39s misleadingquot Perceptions is always the key when presenting new information about a product and when it comes to the manufacturer providing information about their equipment it would be assumed that all the information given would be biased based on their stake in its success The hospital however has the obligation to do what is right for the patient in terms of the information given about the surgical procedure and the equipment used but how anyone can be sure the information is true and accurate that is being discriminated to the patients Perhaps a third party that is neutral to the manufacturer and the hospitals relationship needs to conduct research independently to give the public a better of idea of what a patient could expect at the time of a procedure and the accuracy of the claims of success being consistently made According to Marty Makary MD MPH an associate professor of surgery at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the study s leader quotThe public regards a hospital s official website as an authoritative source of medical informationquot Institutions 2011 This would indicate that the information that is published on the website should be accurate factual and nonbiased so that the patients can make an informed choice and form valid questions if they have any based on the information provided Misguiding a patient due to a contractural agreement with equipment manufacturer is not only a physiological tactic but a moral and ethical violation as well Who decides on who is in need and the quali cations of a program based on need A needsbased system seems to be driven more by the hospitals than the patients The patients are being geared towards the robotic surgeries because of the smaller incisions and shorter hospital stay This could be seen as a way to forcing the public s hand in choices regarding surgeries whether the patient is comfortable or not when it is the patients to make and not the medical providers This is driven by various factors and the largest of those factors being insurance The costly stays at hospitals are draining the insurance companies and often further illness is developed while in the hospital The insurance companies are limiting payment to a certain number of days per procedure and not accounting for additional ailments that come up This is frustrating to the patient in the way that they are getting essentially discharged for the hospital when they should still be under medical care because the hospital is aware the insurance will not cover the additional days required for the stay If the patient returned to the hospital for a complication then the time clock will begin again It would seem that by supporting the costs of the robotic surgery although larger than a surgeon in the long run the faster healing times in a large number of patients then they will save on the other end with the post operation stay Dr Makary is also quoted as saying quotMore hospitals are buying the expensive new equipment and many use aggressive advertising to lure patients who want to be treated with what they think is the latest and greatest in medical technologyquot Institutions 2011 Curiosity often will lead us into temptation and in the case of robotics entering the surgical room it is our inherit yearing to want to experience what is different as well as groundbreaking espectially when it pertains to technology The article goes on the say quotNew doesn t always mean betterquot Institutions 2011 Pioneering new medical treatments is not an easy task nor is the wide spread acceptance of such when generations of a society have established a connection to When the shared public opion is one of approval a new technique that infringes on that status will be challenged Another issue presenting itself is the loss of jobs for some physicians who may not be able to gain their credentials in operating the computer software that controls the robotic arm in surgery If a physician has been successfully completing surgeries for any length of time should they be now forced into the wave of the future by hospitals only allowing the surgeons with the advanced credentials to perform surgery on patients This could be implemented and what would that do to the surgeons who have spent tens of thousands on training and an extensive education to have the medical degree but will now be required to learn to operate this technology Much like the teaching profession insurance profession and many others there are requirements for continued education mandated by the government This should be the same for physicians of all practices of medicine Research clinical studies and experience often changes the perspective or the procedure regarding the way that particular situations are handled and this could be very bene cial in the world of medicine Technology medicine politics and the world in general are forever changing and evolving into a more advanced society so by keeping up with the times doctors could help reverse the psychological effect of anxiety may have on a patient from just dimply not knowing what to expect because they have been educated and can answer the questions being asked New technology is often top notch and top dollar With the economy in such a recession and much of the world at poverty levels or below how will the robotic assisted surgery help those in need Will surgeries that bene t be held only for the rich and powerful that can pay while the rest of the world is subject to more invasive and error prone procedures The smaller incisions and the shorter healing times are the bene ts and it would seem discriminatory and inhumane to not offer this to everyone regardless of nancial status all over the world Why should one suffer a lengthy hospital stay andor a horrible scar if it is not absolutely necessary Equality in healthcare is a political issue but is also affects us socially and has driven many to feel as though their loved ones have died due to the lack of quality healthcare received and that socially effects a class of people into not wanting or not being proactive in getting treatment when needed increasing the mortality rate of the lower middle and higher class people being adversely in uenced by circumstances beyond their control The question is also raised by whether or not the robotic surgery will be covered by all insurance plans Would the government regulate that their state provided programs will not pay for this type of surgery and if so that is a form of discrimination Many would argue that it is that health care opportunities are not the same for those at poverty level and private insurance companies insure the healthy and the rich These factors could cause a larger divide in the countries social economic statuses based on the available types of surgery robotic or laborinstensive This type of choice should solely belong to the patient or legal guardian of the patient based on the circumstances and information regarding their personal conditions not the monetary value and complex political issues that will no doubt plague this continued problem One s social status should not dictate the treatment they deserve or that is available to them A uni ed global healthcare system is what is needed in order to provide the adequate care to those in third world countries and the humanity is in the saving of lives and giving quality to all rather than handpicking by unattainable cost the people countries and social classes that will bene t from a medical breakthrough in technology References 1 John Hopkins Medical Institutions 2011 May 18 Hospitals misleading patients about bene ts of robotic surgery study suggests Science Daily Retrieved April 6 2012 from httpwwwsciencedaiycomreeases2011051 105 18092040htm 2 Belmont Wadsworth GroupThompson Learning Sclove Richard E 1995 Democracy and Technology Guilford Publishing New York NY 3 BenMessaoudC KharraziH MacDormanKF 2011 Facilitators and Barriers to Adopting RoboticAssisted Surgery Contextualizing the Uni ed Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology Retrieved from httpwwwposoneorga rticeinfo3Adoi 2F1013712Fjournapone0016395 PopePakerT2010 s Robotic Prostate Surgery Really Better Retrieved from httpweblogsnytimescom20100214isroboticprostatesurgery reallybetter Winston M and Edelbach R 2007 Society Ethics and Technology Publisher Clark Baxter Boston MA Winston Morton E and Ralph D Edelbach E 2012 Society Ethics and Technology
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