ITM 501 Arnn Module5 Case Study
ITM 501 Arnn Module5 Case Study
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Date Created: 11/15/15
Touro University International Patrick H Arnn ITM 501 Module Five Systems Development and Project Management Case Analysis Dr Caroline Howard All companies have a wealth of information that exists in the form of computer files endless paperwork employee experience or some other sort of data storage device If this information is collected sorted and used properly can reveal a wealth of business knowledge to the members of the company Business intelligence and data mining software are some of the commonly used applications that allow an organization to maximize its ability to store and share this kind of knowledge Computer hardware and system software are the medium in which many information technology programs take shape They must be managed and updated by technicians trained accordingly and therefore many companies develop an inhouse IT department for just this reason All of these components the hardware software and IT managers are tailored based on the particular system that is designed for a business The process used to create this system is essential to the success of an IT department and benefits that the company experiences from its implementation In order to understand the process of creating a well designed and functional information system it is important to become familiar with the systems development life cycle SDLC is the process by which an information system is developed using investigation analysis design implementation and maintenance Webopedia It is a method of problem solving for a particular organizational requirement and it is divided into several basic steps The first being to determine what the requirements are for the system This can be determined based on a company mission statement employee goals financial needs etc Whatever the case may be it is essential to accurately define the requirements of the system to ensure that it will deliver a quality product Secondly analysis must be done of the end user Will the system deliver its information in the form of a webpage or will it create text document ready for printing Whatever the case it is important to decide early on how the average user will access and use the system Next a blueprint of the system must be created This involves coming up with a basic architectural design for the system that includes hardware software people and data resources At this point the actual programming can begin This involves the writing of the actual code and the eventual debugging of the system Finally system testing must be implemented to ensure the system is returning the product that was originally intended by the outlined requirements Any discrepancies will lead to reattacking an earlier stage of the SDLC in order to make improvements All systems design processes follow the previously mentioned steps in one way or another but there are numerous methods that can achieve the desired product The different types of design processes are referred to as structured system analysis and design method SSADM One SSADM that is commonly used is the waterfall method With this approach the phases of the SDLC are followed one after the other to ensure a rigid design process The downfalls of a pure waterfall method are that once a phase has been completed it is not to be reattempted Wikipedia The participatory design method is rooted in actively involving the end users in the design process It focuses strongly on usability how effectively the end product can be operated by its users For a faster approach to systems design programmers will use what is known as the RAD method Rapid application development has the potential to deliver a product quickly however there is a downside in that perfect coding is not allows achieved and faults may be encountered with the final product Some examples of RAD systems that are used by Windows are Visual Basic and Delphi Webopedia Whatever design process is used it is important to choose one that aligns with the company s goals for the final product with respect to areas such as the timeline and overall product financing When it comes to the actual programming of the system a common method used is objectoriented programming This programming language is modeled around objects rather than actions and data rather than logic Basically objectoriented programming takes the perspective that the important part of designing a program is the actual objects being manipulated not the logic required to manipulate them Whatiscom Examples of what would be considered objects are people buildings office supplies and merchandise The object of people for example can be further categorized by names social security numbers age address etc This method of categorizing objects allows for easier data structuring and crossreferencing and is key to the objectoriented programming method Common examples of this type of programming are Java and C which are seen on many corporate networks and the internet To further understand the process of creating programs it is important to understand the language in which they are written The Unified Modeling language UML is a non proprietary language for object modeling Wikipedia This general purpose language includes standardized graphical notations that assist in creating an abstract model of a particular system It offers exibility in that it is extendable If a desired concept is not present the programmer can introduce it by defining a stereotype and thus allowing customization It has been accepted as an industry standard and this has allowed software developers to concentrate more on design and architecture for a system rather than on the actual code UML can be automatically transformed to other representations like the previously mentioned Java by use of a transformation language This allows for a wider spectrum of users to use it in conjunction with their programs of an alternate language When large programs are being constructed it is often very difficult to organize all off the program coding necessary in an easy to manipulate fashion It is therefore sometimes useful to use a computer program designed in managing program designs Computeraided software engineering CASE uses a computer to organize and control the development of software This allows designers to share a common view of their product and also helps to ensure a disciplined and well structured process Program designs often reuse code that what written for another program for a similar process CASE can assist in the use of previously written code and can therefore save time and money during the design process Whatiscom It is important to understand potential problems that can occur within a company s IT department According to a recent study three out of every ten IT projects fail One contributor to this is that not all companies treat their IT department as a fundamental core competence This improper management approach shows a lack of confidence and is detrimental to the company s ability to manage information Gaudin On the coding side of the process failure can occur in the form of bugs If a code is written with even the smallest error the results can be disastrous If code is being reused as previously mentioned and an error exists then multiple portions of the system could fail This will lead to setbacks in the system design life cycle and usually result in a more costly design bill Another potential problem is an inadequate user interface If the system being designed is not properly tested and manipulated so that is can be effectively managed by the end user then the desired results won t be achieved If a system can awlessly perform what is required but is not easy to use then is might as well not have even been made Overall these problems can be avoided by choosing the right type of SSADM for the project References Gaudin Sharon Study Many Major IT Projects Still Fail June 2003 Available httpitmanagementearthwebcomitresarticlephp2222391 Webopedia Available WWWWebopediacom Whatiscom Available WWWWhatiscom Wikipedia Available WWW Wikipediacom
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