hist 2112 final wolf
hist 2112 final wolf
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Date Created: 11/15/15
HIST 2112- Wolf Why We Fight When: 1942-1945 Where: United States—government at first, then general public. Who: Directed by Frank Capra What: Why We Fight is a series of seven propaganda films commissioned by the United States government during World War II to demonstrate to American soldiers the reason for U.S. involvement in the war. Later on they were also shown to the general U.S. public to persuade them to support American involvement in the war. Historical Sign: It was one of the first forms of propaganda that was used to convince soldiers that war was necessary. The series was a creative form of propaganda and probably led to modern day propaganda. Lend-Lease Act When: 1941-1945 Where: All over the world—The US to allied powers Who: US & Allied powers What: program under which the United States of America supplied the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, China, France and other Allied nations with vast amounts of war material between 1941 and 1945 in return for, in the case of Britain, military bases in Newfoundland, Bermuda, and the British West Indies. Historical Sign: This program is seen as a decisive step away from American non-interventionism since the end of World War I and towards international involvement. In sharp contrast to the American loans to the Allies in World War I, there were no provisions for postwar repayments. However, some historians are of the opinion that it was an attempt to bolster Britain and the other allies as a buffer to prevent the necessity of America becoming involved against Nazi Germany. Critical factor in eventual success of Allies in WW2, especially int he early years when US was not directly involved and bulk of the fighting fell on the British commonwealth and, later, the Soviet Union. In 1943-44 about 1/4 of all British munitions came through this. It was also a critical factor that brought the U.S. into the war, especially on the European front. Hitler cited the Lend-Lease program when he declared war on the US. Second front in Europe When: 1943-1944 Where: Western Europe Who: Stalin, FDR, Churchill What: The Soviet Union pressed the Allies to open a second front in Europe - that is, one in addition to the Eastern Front. The 'second front' was the opened with the Normandy landings in 1944. The three (Stalin, FDR, Churchill) met at a conference; after lengthy discussions it was agreed that the Allies would mount a major offensive in the spring of 1944. Historical Sign: This helped relieve some of the pressure off the Red Army and allowed steady progress into Germany. Roos assured Stalin that second front would open in 1942 (informal agreement) but there was a two year delay that caused great resentment by Russia, thus damaging the relationship between the allies. The Germans, meanwhile, were more spread out, and stretched out as far as they could be. War Powers Act 1941 Who: Signed into law by FDR. When: December 18, 1941 (less than two weeks after Pearl Harbor). Where: US What: An American emergency law that increased Federal power during World War II - gave FDR unprecedented authority. Historical Sig: Some provisions of the Hatch Act of 1939 were also suspended which reduced naturalization standards for aliens within the U.S. Armed Forces. In addition, it created methods for war-related production contracting along with adjusting several other aspects of government affairs. The Second War Powers Act repealed the confidentiality of census data, allowing the FBI to use this information to round up Japanese-Americans. Double-V Campaign Who: Coined by the Pittsburg Courier to describe black attitudes (especially those expressed by the NAACP and CORE) When: February 1942 Where: Nation wide as well as fighting aboard What:A phrase that came to symbolize black attitudes during the war: victory at home and at war. Victory over Germany and Japan abroad accompanied by victor over segregation at home. Historical Sig: Showed the different ideas about what symbols of national solidarity meant. Containment Who: American diplomat George Kennen to the Truman administration concerning SovietsWhen: 1946 Where: The Long Telegram was from Moscow What: A policy in which the US committed itself to preventing any further expansion of Soviet power based on a telegram (The Long Telegram) by George Kennan stating the Russians could not be dealt with like a normal government and dislodged from control of Europe. Also said only the US had the ability to stop them. Historical Sig: Led to the Truman Doctrine. Truman Doctrine Who: Harry S. Truman When: 1947 Where: Addressed to US congress primarily done to deal with western Europe - which was financially unstable. What: A program of aid to foreign countries - particularly Greece and Turkey - threatened by communism. Historical Sig: Speech suggested that the US had assumed a permanent global responsibility and it set a presdent for American assistance to anticommunist regimes through the world, no matter how undemocratic, and for the creation of a set of global military alliances directed against the Soviet Union. There soon followed the creation of national security bodies immune from democratic oversight, such as the Atomic Energy Commission, National Security Council, and Central Intelligence Agency CIA), to gather intelligence and conduct secret miliary operations abroad. “Duck and Cover” Who: Written by Raymond J. Mauer and directed by Anthony When: Shown in 1950s. Where: Made in New York and shown nation-wide What: A civil defense film (sometimes also characterized as a social guidance film or propaganda) produced in 1951 (but first shown publicly in January 1952) by the United States federal government's civil defense branch shortly after the Soviet Union began nuclear testing. It was widely shown in schools as the cornerstone of the government's "duck and cover" public awareness campaign. The movie states that nuclear war could happen at any time without warning, and U.S. citizens should keep this constantly in mind and be ever ready. Historical Sig: All I have is that it increased anxiety and show the fear and anxiety built up around the idea of the Soviets having nuclear weapons. Joseph McCarthy Who: Joseph McCarthy When: 1950s Where: United States - he was a senator from Wisconsin, though. What: A key anti-commuist crusader. McCarthy was a little known Republican who attracted attention when he said he was holding the names of over 200 communists. Through this, was able to begin a wave of hysteria. He was successful because he inspired fear in fellow senators because he could ruin their careers, told a series of untruths, focused on home and thus focused people's fears, and presented gave a simple solution to a complicated problem.. This went on for some time before he pushed too (by accusing some top ranking army people of being communist) and it lead to backlash. Historical Sig: He's probably the distant relative to some teapartier. Or worse: Glenn Beck or Rush Limbaugh. But honestly, I'm not entirely sure - he probably helped to highlight the fears and anxieties of communists living amongst Americans at the time. GI Bill When: 1944 Where: Congress Who: Effected soldiers (including Indians who very few of had the opportunity previously), veterans, educators. Signed into law by Truman What: a.k.a Servicemen’s Readjustment Act. One of the farthest reaching pieces of social legislation in American history. Aimed at rewarding members of the armed forces for their service and preventing the widespread unemployment and economic disruption that followed WW1. Profoundly shaped postwar society by offering benefits like health care, college tuition assistance, home mortgages, job training, and loans to start a business or purchase a farm. Historical Sign.: By 1946, over 1 million veterans were attending college under its provisions, making up half of total college enrollment. Almost 4 million would receive home mortgages, spurring the postwar suburban housing boom. Also led to a push for the Full Employment Bill (seeking to do the same for the entire economy as the GI Bill and said gov was responsible for making sure all Americans had jobs if economy failed to do so). This showed most Americans embraced the idea that the government should play a major role in maintaining employment and a high standard of living. Led to the pumping of a lot of government money into education at various levels. College became more widely available to people in general -- even more fueled after the USSR’s launching of Sputnik in 1957, the first satellite successfully put into space. Large-scale federal funding of university research. Also shows racial discrimination against black veterans. While GI Bill itself contained no racial discrimination in offering benefits, local authorities administering them allowed black veterans to use education benefits only at segregated colleges which limited their job training to unskilled work and low-wage service jobs as well as limiting loans for farm purchases to white veterans. The Beats When: 1950s Where: New York, San Francisco, and college towns like Madison, Wisconsin and Ann Arbor Michigan. Who: Novelist and poets like Jack Kerouac (wrote On The Road), Allen Ginsberg (wrote Howl), and William S. Burroughs (Naked Lunch). What: A group of writers who railed against mainstream culture. Term was coined by Kerouac (who was a BAMF) to be a play on "beaten down" and "beatified" (saintlike). These individuals rejected mainstream values like work ethic, materialism (the "desperate materialism"), and conformity of the suburban middle class, as well as the militarization of American life by the Cold War. Instead, they celebrated impulsive action, immediate pleasure (often enhanced by drugs), and sexual experimentation. Despite Cold War slogans, they insisted, personal and political repression, not freedom, were the hallmarks of American society. Also, tended to romanticize and glorify the lives of minorities and the poor. Very inspired by Jazz.Awesome quote by Kerouac? "They danced down the streets like dingledodies, and I shambled after as I've been doing all my life after people who interest me, because the only people for me are the mad ones, the ones who are mad to live, mad to talk, mad to be saved, desirous of everything at the same time, the ones who never yawn or say a commonplace thing, but burn, burn, burn like fabulous yellow roman candles exploding like spiders across the stars and in the middle you see the blue centerlight pop and everybody goes 'Awww!'" Historical Sign.: Shows that many people (esp young people) rejected the era's middleclass culture. Stokely Carmichael When:1941-1998 (1966) Where: Worked in the American south. Later moved to Guinea-Conakry. Who: a.k.a Kwame Ture What: A black activist active in the 1960s American Civil Rights Movement. He rose to prominence first as a leader of the SNCC and later as the "Honorary Prime Minister" of the Black Panther Party. Initially an integrationist, Carmichael later became affiliated with black nationalist and Pan-Africanist movements. He popularized the term "Black Power". Historical Sign.: Gave a "Black Power" speech, using the phrase to urge black pride and socio- economic independence: “It is a call for black people in this country to unite, to recognize their heritage, to build a sense of community. It is a call for black people to define their own goals, to lead their own organizations.” While Black Power was not a new concept, Carmichael's speech brought it into the spotlight and it became a rallying cry for young African Americans across the country. According to Stokely Carmichael: "Black Power meant black people coming together to form a political force and either electing representatives or forcing their representatives to speak their needs [rather than relying on established parties]" American Indian Movement When: Founded in 1968 Where: US Who: Was founded in 1968 by Dennis Banks, George Mitchell, Herb Powless, Clyde Bellecourt, Harold Goodsky, Eddie Benton-Banai, and a number of others in Minneapolis' Native American community. Russell Means was another early leader. What: Staged protests demanding greater tribal self-government and the restoration of economic resources guaranteed in treaties. Was formed to address various issues concerning the Native American community including poverty, housing, treaty issues, and police harassment. Historical Sign.: Along with it and protests like that of Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay, was able to highlight land that was seized from and win greater control over education and economic development on reservations. Brought land claims suits, demanding and receiving monetary settlements for past dispossession. Made it awesome to identify as Native American and the number of Americans identifying themselves as Indians doubled between 1970 and 1990. National Organization for Women When: 1966 Where: National organization. Who: Founded by Betty Frieden (president) and other feminists What: an organization that pushed for abortion rights, nondiscrimination in the workplace, and other forms of equality for women like equal opportunity in jobs, education, and political participation. Also attacked the "false image of women" spread by the mass media. Historical Sign.: Contributed to the women's liberation movement, which inspired a major expansion of the idea of freedom by insisting that it should be applied to the most intimate realms of life. Introduced the terms "sexism" and "sexual politics" and the phrase "the personal is political" into public debate. Insisted that sexual relations, conditions of marriage, and standards of beauty were as much "political" questions as the war, civil rights, and the class tensions. Counterculture When: 1960’s, started as rejection of US in Vietnam. Where: all across America Who: college students and numerous young workers What: “Hippie” youth cultures who rejected the values and behavior of their elders. They rejected respectable normal ways in clothing, language, sexual behavior, work ethic, and traditional family. They redefined freedom as a rejection of all authority. They were committed to both communalism and individualism, they had a sense of play and Historical Sign: Called for release from education and work, rules of behavior, and military. Established independent neighborhoods, rock festivals, and sexual freedom. This revolution led to the rise of other movements such as the second wave of feminism, the Feminine Mystique. Equal employment rights and pay for women. Acid Tests Who: Ken Kesey What: a series of psychedelic parties held by Ken Kesey in the San Francisco Bay Area during the mid 1960s, centered entirely around the use, experimentation, and advocacy of LSD, also known as "acid." When: mid-1960s Where: California Significance: May have helped start the use of drugs in mainstream culture, as it became the “cool” thing to do. White Panther Party When: 1968 Where: United States—most active in Detroit and Ann Arbor. Who: (See below) What: The White Panthers were a far left, anti-racist, White American political collective founded in 1968 by Lawrence Plamondon, Leni Sinclair, and John Sinclair. It was started in response to an interview where Huey P. Newton, co-founder of the Black Panther Party, was asked what white people could do to support the Black Panthers. Newton replied that they could form a White Panther Party. The group took the name and dedicated its energies to "cultural revolution." Sinclair made every effort to ensure that the White Panthers were not mistaken for a white supremacist group, responding to such claims with "quite the contrary." The party worked with many ethnic minority rights groups in the Rainbow Coalition. Historical Sign: Two major legal decisions were directly influenced by the role of the WPP. First was when the Supreme Court ruled warrantless wiretapping was unlawful under the U.S. Constitution, even in the case where national security, as defined by the executive branch, was in danger. The White Panthers had been charged with conspiring to destroy government property and evidence used to convict Plamondon was acquired through wiretaps not submitted to judicial approval. The case U.S. vs. U.S. District Court (1972), commonly known as the Keith Case, held that the Fourth Amendment shielded private speech from surveillance unless a warrant had been granted, and that the “warrant procedure would not frustrate the legitimate purposes of domestic security searches.” Second being when the Michigan Supreme Court ruled in the People v. Sinclair (1972), that Michigan’s classification of marijuana was unconstitutional, in effect decriminalizing possession until a new law conforming to the ruling was passed by the Michigan Legislature a week later. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution When: August 1964 Where: congress Who: President Lyndon B Johnson What: North Vietnamese vessels encountered an American ship on a spy mission off its coast. President Johnson claimed that the north Vietnamese had fired on the American vessel and that we were a victim of aggression. In response to this incident, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin resolution authorizing the president to take “all necessary measures to repel armed attack” in Vietnam. After Johnson’s reelection, the National Security recommended the US begin air strikes against North Vietnam and send ground troops to the south. When the Viet Cong attacked an American air base in South Vietnam in February 1965, Johnson put the plan into effect. Historical Sign: Lead to US involvement in Vietnam War. By 1968, American troops exceeded half a million and the war had become more and more brutal. This is the nearest the US ever came to a formal declaration of war. Over 40 years later, National Security released documents that made it clear that no North Vietnam attack had actually happened. New Politics When: developed in late 1940s early 1950s Where: developed in California Who: John F. Kennedy in Election of 1960 What: Charisma, style, personality were used in election over what the issues and platforms. Used modern media such as television and held television debates. He also used professional media consultants. Kennedy took New Politics to a new level with family money and superb TV image. Historical Sign: This caused a decline in the role of party organizations at a national level, because the massive costs of these campaigns bypassed party organizations Great Society When: coined in 1965 Where: President Johnson’s State of the Union address Who: President Johnson What: Proposals for government action to promote the general welfare. The most action taken since the New Deal. It provided health services to the poor and elderly in the new Medicaid and Medicare programs and poured federal funds into education and urban development. Developed new departments such as Department of Transportation, Equal Employment Opportunity Commissions and a national public broadcasting network. The Great Society was a response to prosperity, not depression like the New Deal. Historical Sign: Greatly expanded the powers of the federal government, and they completed and extended the social agenda that had been held up by congress since 1938. But not National health care. Warren Court When:1953-1969 Where: US Supreme Court Who: Under the rule of Chief Justice Earl Warren What: decided landmark cases such as Brown v. Board of Education (school desegregation) Gideon v Wainwright (1963) – right to counsel (attorney) Griswold v Connecticut (1965) – use of contraceptives is protected by constitution Loving v Virginia (1967) – overturned laws against interracial marriage 2 cases prohibited state-sponsored prayer in schools struck down southern laws that wanted to destroy civil rights organizations by forcing them to publish their membership lists, they upheld the citizens right to criticize their government in New York Times v Sullivan, and overturned many Jim Crow laws. Historical Sign: It expanded the constitutional definition of individual rights. This court provided fuel for conservatives who would mount grassroots reactions in 1977. Great Society Who: LBJ What: The Great Society was a set of domestic programs proposed or enacted in the United States on the initiative of President Lyndon B. Johnson. Two main goals of the Great Society social reforms were the elimination of poverty and racial injustice. New major spending programs that addressed education, medical care, urban problems, and transportation were launched during this period. The Great Society in scope and sweep resembled the New Deal domestic agenda of Franklin D. Roosevelt, but differed sharply in types of programs enacted. When: 1960s Where: USA Significance: Johnson's success depended on his skills of persuasion, coupled with the Democratic landslide in the 1964 election that brought in many new liberals to Congress. Anti-war Democrats complained that spending on the Vietnam War choked off the Great Society. While some of the programs have been eliminated or had their funding reduced, many of them, including Medicare, Medicaid, and federal education funding, continue to the present. The Great Society's programs expanded under the administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. Southern strategy Who: Republican party What: a Republican Party method of winning Southern states in the latter decades of the 20th century and first decade of the 21st century by exploiting opposition among the once segregationist South to the cultural upheaval of New Left, Vietnam protests, the hippie culture, gun control, abortion and to desegregation and the Civil Rights and Women's movements. When: late 20th century Where: USA Significance: Pandered to the deep-rooted stereotypes that existed in the South. Nixon’s adoption of this showed a landslide victory in southern states in the 1972 election. Earth Day When: Every year—founded in 1970; Where: All around the world. Who: Everyone who loves Earth! What: Earth Day is a day designed to inspire awareness and appreciation for the Earth's environment. It was founded by U.S. Senator Gaylord Nelson as an environmental teach-in held on April 22, 1970 and is celebrated in more than 175 countries every year. Hist Sign: Was the basis of all environmental reform. (****USELESS TRIVIA**** Also, Earth Day 2010 was when James Cameron’s Avatar was released onto DVD/Blu-Ray—and in three days Avatar broke a record for most blu-rays sold—a record previously held by The Dark Knight; TDK broke 600k BRs sold, and that took months. Avatar did >600k in three days). New Right When: late 1960s - 1970s Where: States Who: Conservatives What: Strong “New Right” grassroots organizations, e.g., think tanks like the Heritage Foundation and the American Enterprise Institute. Promoted individualism & free-market. Opposed affirmative action, the welfare state, changing gender and sexual values. Attracted the middle class who felt forgotten. Hist Sign: Pioneered use of computerized mailing lists. Gaddis on Reagan and the Cold War When: 2005 Where: In his book, “The Cold War: A New History” Who: John Gaddis What: Gaddis argues that Reagan did win the Cold War. Although, not single handedly; he attributes the win also to Gorbachev’s rise, as well. Hist Sign: Umm, The Cold War is over? And we won? (According to Gaddis?) Deudney & Ikenberry on Reagan and the Cold War When: 1992 Where: “Who Won the Cold War” Who: Daniel Deudney & John Ikenberry What: Articles where D&I say that Reagan lost the CW. He argues that the collapse of the war caught everyone by surprise, and it was in no way attributed to Reagan’s policies and actions. They say that “there is almost universal agreement that the root cause of the Cold War’s abrupt end was the grave domestic failure of communism.” Hist Sign: Their article really shows the benefits of censorship (assuming one believes that the CW ended for their reasons) and the concept of “we learn what we’re taught.” It can be a sense of jingoism that America shows, if indeed, D&I are correct. Regardless, the issue is greatly debatable on either side. Immigration Act of 1965 Who: proposed by United States Representative Emanuel Celler of New York, co-sponsored by United States Senator Philip Hart of Michigan , and heavily supported by United States Senator Ted Kennedy of Massachusetts - all Democrats. What: abolished the National Origins Formula that had been in place in the United States since the Immigration Act of 1924. When: 1965-Present Where: United States Significance: Changed the entire demographic of the United States as it reopened its doors for immigration. Immigration doubled between 1965 and 1970, and doubled again between 1970 and 1990. The most dramatic effect was to shift immigration from Europe to Asia. World Trade Organization Who: About 153 nations What: an international organization designed by its founders to supervise and liberalize international trade. The organization officially commenced on January 1, 1995 under the Marrakech Agreement, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which commenced in 1947. When: January 1, 1995 Where: EVERYWHERE! (HQ @ Geneva, Switzerland) Significance: It oversees the implementation, administration and operation of the covered agreements. It provides a forum for negotiations and for settling disputes. Additionally, it is the WTO's duty to review and propagate the national trade policies, and to ensure the coherence and transparency of trade policies through surveillance in global economic policy-making. Another priority of the WTO is the assistance of developing, least-developed and low-income countries in transition to adjust to WTO rules and disciplines through technical cooperation and training. National Security Strategy (2002) Who: Bush Administration. What: a document prepared periodically by the executive branch of the government of the United States for Congress which outlines the major national security concerns of the United States and how the administration plans to deal with them. The legal foundation for the document is spelled out in the Goldwater-Nichols Act. The document is purposely general in content (contrast with the National Military Strategy) and its implementation relies on elaborating guidance provided in supporting documents (including the NMS). When: Sept 17, 2002. Where: United States Significance: It highlights that a threat is just as likely to come from a terrorist group such as al- Qaeda as from a nation state such as Iraq or Iran. Health Care Reform (it’s a joke, guys.) When: Since 1996 (When released in Japan) Where: Kanto, Johto, Hoenn, Sinnoh Who: All Pokémon trainers. What: Pokémon have universal health care. Every time your Pokémon get sick or hurt, you just bring them to a Pokémon center where they get healed fully for FREE. This is obviously the best government run healthcare system ever. I mean, some days I have to run to the Pokémon center like seven times for minor injuries while preparing for a huge gym battle. Hist Sign: America is basing theirs off of this. Prove me wrong.
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