ANT101 â€“ Lecture 8
ANT101 â€“ Lecture 8
CSU - Dominguez hills
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Date Created: 11/15/15
ANT101 Lecture 5 Monday January 21 2013 Chapter 4 Modern Human Variation amp Adaptation De nitions p 6061 A Modern Synthesis I Variation in a Population a Produced by Mutation i Least common source of variation but the only way you can get new traits b Mixed Distributed by Recombination amp Sexual Reproduction i This is how you get different combinations c Redistribution by Gene Flow Genetic Drift p 6263 ll Natural Selection a Reproductive Fitness i Genetic differences result in higher reproductive tness in some individuals due to differential reproduction and sexual selection ii Variation is ALREADY in a population it doesn t arise when it s needed contrary to Lamarck o In general you need BOTH for evolution to happen B Evolution I Long Time Scale Macroevolution a Large often phenotypical changes includes speciation ll Shorter Time Scale Microevolutionary a Allele Frequency changes within the population from one generation to the next NOT CHANGES IN PHENOTYPES not in the way things look but in the of alleles i Proportions of the alleles in a population Allele Frequency ii 4 phenotypes but 3 allele types and look at their distribution and number in a POPULATION ABO Blood Group 0 B A Alleles Distribution in a 80 10 10 Pop Change Over time 70 15 15 to C Population l A group of interbreeding individuals marked by a degree of genetic relatedness and shares a common gene pool ll Factors that determine mate choice are Geographical Ecological and Social 0 In theory the entire species of homo sapiens are one population because we are capable of producing fertile offspring no matter what our subgroup is Humans are and have been interbreeding in high amounts we interbreed across the entire species to an incredible extent for a species that is so widely distributed 0 The interbreeding is part of what creates variation and we need variation for evolution so what are the sources that redistribute genetic variation D Sources that Produce and Redistribute Genetic Variation I Produce Variation a Sexual reproductionMeiosisRecombinationMutation only source new alleles ll Redistribute Variation a Gene Flow b Genetic Drift including Founder effect c Natural selection is the most important longterm factor in the direction of evolutionary change p 65 lllAllele Frequencies a Can only be changed by mutation gene ow and genetic drift p 61 64 l NOT sexual reproduction amp recombination i Gene Flow Exchange of alleles between populations due to interbreeding with migrants how you get new things in a sub population ii Genetic Drift Allele frequency changes evolutionary changes that are produced by RANDOM factors only occurs with SMALL population sizes 1 Founder Effect a small amount of founders contribute to the new population READ p 6567 for lab A Race amp Polytypic Species 0 Means many TYPES species with local populations that differ in the expression of one or more phenotypic traits B Race as both Social amp Biological Concepts a Ethnicity 0 Even before 1800 people already knew that skin color was not a good way to de ne groups so they measured head shape because there are overlapping categories continuous variation Historically race has had both a social and a biological concept 0 19505 they said to use the term ethnicity Problem it s supposed to refer to CULTURAL characteristics NOT biological characteristicsso that doesn t work for anthropologists C Problems with Use of Race and the de nition of Human Biological groupings papam Controversy with SOCIAL associations Races not xed biological units they change over time Continuous variationpolygenic traits More variation WITHIN populations than between them Modern Synthesis focus on Interaction A New loci for Human Variation Studies 1 Variations in allele frequency genotypic within amp between populations 2 Adaptive Signi cance of genotypic and phenotypic variation Need to do both since there s more to the phenotype B Variation in Allele Frequency Polymorphisms amp Human Biocultural Evolution 1 Polymorphism Poly Many Morph Form A genetic trait with more than one allele Not something where everyone has the same allele About alleles where you have more than 1 type around in some abundance Ex Lactose Tolerance ABO Blood type Sicklecell p 8081 If you have in the population a signi cant occurrence of one allele there must be some evolutionary explanation 2 HardyWeinberg Equilibrium Equation distribution of alleles ideal conditions An equation that you can use to predict the allele frequency should be under IDEAL conditions p 80 Then you compare this with observed frequencies And this lets you know if the allele frequency is changing 3 Multivariate approaches stats Idea that we interbred a lot in the past variation WITHIN population is greater is proof DON39T MIX UP POLYMORPHISM WITH POLYGENC C Genetics amp Environment Physical amp Cultural Reprise 1 Importance of environment 0 Determining the nal phenotype o This is true for both monogenic and polygenic traits Monogenic both the sickle cell and the lactose tolerant traits have a culturalenvironmental in uence 0 Polygenic traits height weight skin color even more in uenced by environment in uenced by your nutrition 0 At the population level there are more examples of environmental in uence ex skin color and it s relation to sun screen vs folate processing and vitamin D production p 8184 0 Dark skinned individuals who move to the north have to be careful because their skin is designed for a much more intense sun 0 lnuit s who are quite dark skinned and grew up in the north how come they haven t died out ANSWER they eat a lot of sh high source of Vitamin D There s a chance of small children getting rickets when there is a vitamin D de ciency 2 Importance of cultural adaptations i Biocultural evolution ii Biocultural Adaptations Not just cultural adaptations Human variartion is related to adaptations to physical and cultural environments A Types of Adaptation to Environment 1 Acclimatization physiological responses to changes in the environment during an individuals lifetime p81 a Adult Acclimatization i Short term ex tanning ii If you move to a high altitude place hemoglobin production is increased to carry more oxygen to your lungs iii Happens in adults and is reversible b Developmental Acclimatization i Happens during childhood and growth and development ii If children move to a new location example if a child was born in a high altitude location their lungs will be larger during the growth period and then they average out after they move iii Not genetic and not reversible iv Happens at the individual level and is not passed on 2 Evolutionary genetic change 0 Cultural evolution is part of long term evolutionary change Adaptations that are short term see topics above B Skin Color Solar Radiation Folate Vitamin D o Page 5556 8184 lab this week C Responses to Heat amp Cold High Altitude A Heat Our body has an instantaneous response to heat we sweat Immediately cools us down and is an ef cient system Loss of body hair might be related to this an adaptation to heat 0 This is short term B Cold 0 Metabolic rate increases 0 If you re cold the metabolic rate increases to maintain body temperature C Bergmann39s amp Allen39s Rules 0 Suggested that body shape is an evolutionary adaptation to cold amp heat 0 Cold stocky body with short limbs Hot leaner bodies with long limbs D High Altitude 0 Example Adult Acclimatization Heart rate increases Children born in high altitudes have an increased lung capacity Cultural adaptations chewing cocoa leaves D Infectious Disease 0 Read p 8993 and answer one of these will be on the Midterm as MIC 1 What is a zoonotic disease How it is related to in uenza Zoonotic Disease Pertaining to a zoonosis a disease that s transmitted to humans through contact with nonhuman animals 0 Relation to In uenza In uenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by various strains of virusit is a zoonotic disease The in uenza viruses that infect humans are initially acquired through contact with domestic pigs and fowl 2 What is a possible relationship between resistance to HIVAIDS and Smallpox 0 Some researchers have suggested that the original selective agent was not HIV but that it may have been the virus that causes smallpoxmay reveal how a mutation that originally was favored by selection because it provides protection against one type of infection smallpox can also increase resistance to another AIDS 3 What is the main reason why death due to infections disease is on the rise 0 Human Population Growth 0 Increased global warming through increased human activity 0 Overcrowding and unsanitary conditions
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