Com 275 Final Exam Study Guide
Com 275 Final Exam Study Guide COM 275
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nick Bahoric on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COM 275 at Michigan State University taught by r. tamborini in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Effects of Mass Communication in Journalism and Mass Communications at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
`Communications 275 Final Exam Tuesday at 12:45- 2:45 at B119 Wells 11/17 Chapter 15: Health Communication Advertisement and Entertainment Portrayals ● Most (83%) studies show media use linked to negative health outcomes ○ Tobacco ■ Evidence linking media use and negative outcomes is strongest for tobacco ○ Alcohol ● Moderate evidence linking media use and drinking ○ Studies focus on 1 start of adolescence drinking and (2) increased consumption/drunk driving ○ Prescription drugs ■ Less evidence linking media use and Rx drugs ○ Food ■ Mixed evidence linking media use and food Television health and risk ● Smoking and drinking is common on TV ● Sexual activity is increasing on TV ● American TV has “thin standard” for women Film health and risk ● Smoking and drinking often portrayed ● Drug use less often portrayed ○ Usually portrayed as evil ○ Negative outcomes Health news · The 3 effect of health news might be on agenda setting o Framing thought to impact policy makers and policy Health and the internet · Search for health-related info is one of the most common uses of the internet o Validity of info is not checked by users Health campaign · A purposive attempt… o To inform, persuade or motivate behavior changes in a relatively well-defined and large audience generally for non-commercial benefits to either the individual and/ or society at large o Often complemented by social support · Health campaigns have mixed results · Two recent models focus on: o Learning new info o Making preexisting beliefs important Characteristics of a good campaign? (Review sheet) Risk learning models · Message communicates new info about health risks and behaviors that minimize those risks o 4 messages increase self-protective behavior § severity § vulnerability § response efficacy § self-efficacy Stereotype priming models · Messages prime preexisting stereotypes o EX: cigarette smokers shown with stained teeth Why campaigns fail · Audience selective attention · Barriers to audience’s observations · Unsophisticated audience-targeting techniques · Unrealistic goals · Lack of clear standards for success Media health education · Two new educational strategies o Media advocacy § Public health agents attempts to focus media on health issues to effect social or public policy § Edutainment Health messages embedded in entertainment 11/19 Media Entertainment (Angel) A Brief History of Entertainment • Entertainment • Old view (e.g., Pascal) • Merriment is considered sinful • Modern view (Montaigne and Freud) • Entertainment is an effective and acceptable means of relief Method of research • Uses and gratification approach • Provides lists of motivations for consuming media • Behavioral research • media effects • attitudinal change Entertainment theory • Two recent theories: • mood management theory • Disposition theory Mood management theory ● • Assumes that people make entertainment choices based on personal preferences and needs ○ Media selection is usually impulsive ○ Done to satisfy a variety of needs ○ Excitement ○ relaxation ○ Others? ○ Often determined by mood Mood management theory • people select programs to relieve their discomfort or extend pleasure • programs that are absorbing or inconsistent with mood can distract and alter mood • Programs that are consistent with mood can maintain focus and extend mood Disposition Theory • We enjoy seeing: • Good thing happen to people we like • Bad thing happen to people we dislike • We hate seeing: • bad things happen to people we like • good things happen to people we dislike Drama • Defined as a state, situation, or series of events involving 3 elements 3 Elements • interesting characters • conflict • stratifying resolution ● Disposition model ○ Strong like/dislike for characters increases involvement ○ Favorable end for liked person -> enjoyment ● Humor/Comedy ○ Drama containing cues such that it shouldn’t be taken seriously ■ Disposition model ■ We laugh at misfortunes of disliked others ○ Persuasion: ■ Humor may lower guard and help persuade ■ Increases positive dispositions toward source ● Sports ○ Disposition explains most sport appeal ○ BIRGing and CORFing ○ Fans whose team wins have higher self-esteem and personal confidence ○ Basking In Reflective Glory ■ Fans revel in teams success, but can distance themselves from failure Cutting Off Reflected Failure ● Suspense ○ Narrative where we are unsure of final outcome ■ Two rationale explaining appeal ■ Arousal jag – arousal from suspense is liked ■ Excitation transfer – great distress intensifies enjoyment from the happy end (disposition) ● Empathy theory ○ Explains why audiences of suspense become involved ○ Involvement strengthens potential enjoyment ● Horror ○ Exposure explained by social factors ○ Desire to learn mastery, demonstrate mastery or demonstrate lack of mastery ○ Appeal Same social factors ○ Men enjoy horror more in company of scared females ○ Women enjoy horror more in the company of fearless males ○ Disposition influence is a bit different ● o Unfavorable end for disliked person -> enjoyment ● It isn’t about seeing the good guy win, it’s about seeing the bad guy lose ● Recent and Future Trends ○ Technology brings more leisure time and opportunity for entertainment ○ New media research is just beginning ○ Video game research is current rage ○ Roles of interactivity and narrative form are central to new media How these combine is not understood Enjoyment of video games Flow theory ● o Uses and Gratifications of video games 11/24 Chapter 11: Violence ● Measuring violent content: ○ -two best known research projects: ■ 1. Message System Analysis (Gerbner) ● Researched number of violent acts ● demographics of perpetrators and victims ● does not code viewer perceptions ● findings show: ○ lots of violence on TV ○ TV does not represent real life (exaggerated) 2. National Television Violence Study (NTVS) ● Violence Defined as: ○ Any threat or overt act intended to physically harm an animate being or the visible consequence of such acts ● Recorded: ○ Demographics of perpetrators and victims ○ Context of violence ● High Risk Content ○ Five things that likely contribute to negative effects are ■ Violen ce justified ■ Violen ce unpunished ■ Minim al consequences to victims ■ Violen ce is realistic ■ An attractive role model ○ What did they identify as high risk content? ■ the five things stated above, likely contributors to negative effects, are what the NTVS identified as high risk content. ● Findings show lots of violence ● Important context features ○ 1/2 acts are justified ○ Most violence is unpunished ○ Blood and gore rarely shown ○ 1/4 of all violence features guns ○ Most interactions involve repeated acts Impact of Media Violence ● 3 levels of impact: ○ Behavioral ■ 5 major mechanisms of behavioral effects: ■ Catharsis ■ Viewers vent their aggressive impulses harmlessly through viewing TV violence ■ Arousal ■ Excitement or arousal from violent TV content enhances aggression and anger ■ Imitation ■ Viewers learn from what they see on TV and try to mimic actions themselves ■ Disinhibition ■ Exposure to TV violence, especially justified violence, weakens the effect of learned restraints against committing violent acts ■ TV show Justified violence ■ Desensitization ■ Exposure to repeated acts of TV violence makes us less bothered by seeing violence and more likely to accept real life violence ■ The Sopranos ■ Might have strongest supporting evidence ○ Affective (Emotional) ■ Effects may be long or short term ■ Fright reactions in children ■ Coping Strategies help kids reduce their fears ■ Cognitive Strategy ■ Rationalization ■ Non-Cognitive Strategy ■ Desensitization ○ Cognitive ■ Cultivation ■ Repeated exposure leads to an exaggerated view of real life dangers ■ Levels of Judgement Media Violence and Public Policy ● Phases of public policy ○ Debating TV violence and the rise of juvenile delinquency ○ Research to identify the broad effects of TV violence on social life ○ Proactive efforts to reduce TV violence with legislation ● Early reports express concern (Payne studies, Seduction of Innocent) ● Later reports ○ National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence (1960s) ■ TV is not the primary cause of violence ○ Scientific Advisory Committee on TV and Social Behavior (1960s) ■ Viewing violence on TV increased viewers tendencies to behave aggressively ● Recent reports ○ Children's TV Act of 1990 ■ Mandated a minimum #hours of educational children's TV ■ Rule often ignored by local TV stations ○ The Telecommunications Act of 1996 ■ Mandated implementation of content labels and V-chip(allows you to program TV to not show any designated TV shows) ○ Joint Statement on Impact of TV Violence on Children (2000) ■ Consortium of medical associations ■ Violent content can lead to aggression (especially for kids) ■ Small effect sizes criticized by others 12/01 Chapter 12: Sex in the Media Government Action: ● National Commission obscenity and pornography ● Reported no known harm- rejected from White House ● Meese Commission Report on pornography ○ Concluded that there was harm ● Zillman Studied this issue- Intrapersonal ● Ed Meese: Attorney General under Reagan Sexual Content: ● Showing or implying sexual acts or making sexual references or innuendos Pornography: ● The graphic and explicit depictions of sexual activity Obscenity: (after Meese) *Three criteria to define legal obscenity 1. The material appeals to a prurient interest in sex (shameful, lustful) a. Hard to distinguish 2. The material is patently offensive or beyond community standards a. Which community? b. Ex: Girl in Bikini: if her bottoms were lower was what would it be considered? 3. The material lacks “serious literary, artistic,, political, or scientific value” a. Penthouse Magazine: Did it lack these characteristics? b. Mapplethorpe Sexual Content in Media: Music videos, X-rated movies: ● Television ○ 56% include sexual content (Kunkle published results) ○ Major findings: Talk about sex much more frequent than actual behavior ■ Show people intending to do something but not the actual act ○ 27% showed explicit sexual behavior ■ Only 10% depicted or implied intercourse ■ 50% involve people in relationships ● Teen sex usually associated with risk Sexual Arousal: ● Explicit sexual arousal content usually leads to temporary physiological arousal ○ Explicit sex more arousing for males whereas women like the romantics ● Heavy exposure habituates the effect ○ Habituation: the diminishing of a physiological or emotional response to a frequently repeated stimulus ○ Ex: Like skydiving, everytime you go, the excitement will start to wear off and you’ll never get the first time feeling back. Changes in Values and Attitudes: ● Repeated exposure caused desensitization (Zillman and Bryant) ○ Ex: Jail Times ● Exposure to explicit sex caused: ○ Less satisfaction with real-life partners ○ More Acceptance of premarital sex and extramarital sex ○ Less desire for kids and marriage ○ Effect size: .60, normal is .04 ○ Nobody will repeat this experiment Effects of Erotica on Aggression: *Some mixed findings ● Provoked people exposed to arousing erotica were more likely to aggress ● But pleasing and and non arousing erotic calmed aggressive tendencies *The mixture of sex and violence has potentially harmful effect Ex: Young couple and a slasher in movies The study of Sex offenders; The Factor Syndrome (Cline 1994) 1. Addiction 2. Escalation 3. Desensitization 4. Tendency to imitate 12/03 Chapters 13 & 17: Children & Media Why be concerned about children? • Children are malleable • Over 3000 studies on children & tv • TV and other media affect children • least = displacement • Most = beliefs —> emotions —> behaviors Little People, Big Changes • there isn’t just one “children” audience • really 3 to 4 children audiences • stage theories • Cognitive Development • Jean Piaget • Moral Development • Lawrence Kohlberg Cognitive Development • Piaget: 4 stages of mental maturity 1. Sensorimotor (B -2 yrs) • Learning Language • Discovering physical world • Learn: • Object exist outside themselves • Thing exist even when they can’t be seen • Some things cause other thing to happen • TV: Sights/colors & sounds/voices/music 2. Pre-Operational (2 - 7 yrs) • Develop logic & reasoning skills • Begin to Utilize symbols • Make guess about motives • Group thing in one relationship • TV: short stories, cartoons, characters 3. Concrete Operational (7-11 yrs) • Classification skills • Conservation tasking • Mental recreations • planning, scheming • perspective taking of others • TV: 1/2 hour & 1 hours shows story-lines, humor, simple problem- solution 4. Formal operational (11yrs - death) • Abstract thinking • Verbal (logic/axiomatic) reasoning • Geometric theorems • TV: Mystery, crime stories, complex social problems, sci-fi, relationships Moral development • Lawrence Kohlberg • Difference between right & wrong • 3 major levels 1. Pre-conventional • From 2 to 9 years • Based on punishment/reward 2. Conventional • From 10 to death for 80% • Acceptance of society’s conventions concerning right • e.g. being good & caring. following rule, duty to society 3. Post-conventional • From about 20 years to death for 20% • Ignoring convention and living by one’s own ethical principles • Based one sense of universal ethics that go beyond simple rule 6 Moral development stages 1. Pre-conventional (judgment based on) 1. Obedience and punishment orientation (how can I avoid punishment?) 2. Self-interest orientation (what’s in it for me?) 2. Conventional (judgment based on) 3. interpersonal accord and conformity (Follow social norms to be seen as good likable) 4. Authority and social-order maintaining orientation (Obey the law to maintain order) 3. Post-conventional 5. Social contract orientation (perform acts that do greatest good for most people - change laws for this purpose) 6. Universal ethical principles (perform act that intuitively right not because it avoids punishment, is in one’s interest, is expected, legal, previously agreed upon, or greatest good) Major issues • Violence: • Gerbner (1986): in no year from 1967 to 1985 was the proportion of cartoons containing violence lower than 90% • Sex: • Greenberg et al. (1993) :24-36 channels offering “adult programming: in America • Stereotyping: • Brand (1995): Counter-stereotyped content reduces traditional stereotypes What children get from TV • Infants : • Language, objects, tasks • Toddlers: • Language, behavior, form over content • Grade schoolers (K - yr 6): • Advertising, stories, roles • Teens: • Social relations, sexuality How Children use TV • Viewing Habits • Opportunity Costs • Learning & Social cues Viewing Habits • Viewing increase by age until formal operational stage, then declines a little • 6 months - 1.5 hrs/day • 5 yrs - 2.5 hrs/day • 11 yrs - 4 hrs/day • 15 yrs - 2-3 hrs/day • these are the averages Opportunity Costs • Displacement Hypothesis • Media use reduces chance of doing something else • Activities at and away from home complete w/TV • Away: school clubs, music & sports, religion • Home: sleeping, studying, Hobbies Learning and social Cues • Children find out from television • Occupations • Fashion • politics/world • social relationships Capstone • There are many “audiences” • children constitute 3-4 audiences • Children use television as a window on the world • Children’s TV generally is violent & stereotyped 12/08 Chapter 18: Videogames “New Media” ● What’s considered “new” ● A broad term for the research that highlights the effect of the media technology itself, rather that the effect Marshall McLuhan: ● Media technology itself causes change ● Global Village- Communication technologies have, in effect, shortened the distances between people in different parts of the world ● People thought he was ahead of his time; TVs and radios are good for receiving information *To transmit and create, we need computers Lev Manovich: 1. Numerically represented a. New Media object exist as data (numeric not analog). 2. Modularity a. New media elements/objects are made of discrete structures that come together to form wholes. 3. Automation a. Many operations can be performed automatically 4. Variability a. New media objects usually have several different versions of the same basic thing i. E.g Different Platforms 5. Transcoding a. A New media object can be transcoded into different forms *Manovich says the dominant form for storing knowledge was once the narrative but is now the database and this may change how we think Moores Law Describes the exponential decrease in size and cost of an integrate circuit versus the exponential increase in computational speed over time. ● Not on Manovich’s list; Interactivity: Extent to which a user can influence the form and content media environment Chapter 18 Computer and video games: first interactive computer game: “Space war” *Created Pong for Altari Modern Technology Features: ● High speed online gaming ● Motion Input and IR tracking (like a wii) ● Wireless controllers, touch screen & cameras ● Glasses free 3D & Augmented reality Main Concern over children: Research on games and aggression: ● Short-term effect- primes and related scripts ● Longitudinal data- Repeated Exposure can lead to aggression and aggressive thoughts ○ Empathy and helping behaviors ○ Dehumanization ○ Desensitization ■ Ex. Professors cousin at pizza place: son was angry which made him last out ■ Can videogames do this long term? *Younger Males are most at risk for addiction or problematic behavior ● Heavy users have more online social support ● But also have less real-world support: more stress, less anxiety Pro-Social: ● Educational Games ○ Serious game with learning goals ● Exergames ○ Promote exercise and healthy activities ○ Some evidence or benefits with senior citizens or obese people ● Games for Social Change ○ Try to increase awareness of political, religious social issues ○ Little work here to date *Video Games can accomplish effective teaching goals ● Students challenged to completed task/level ● Game difficulty adjusted to player knowledge ● interactivity simulation advantaged ○ Researched Behavior ○ E.g Treating phobias 12/10: Chapters 19 and 20: Internet and Mobile Communications Effect of Internet Use · Media Multitasking · Expanded Socializing on social network site (SNS) o E.g. Facebook & Twitter o Construct public profile within abounded system o Connect with other users, crafting list of “friends” o View and navigate connections What do we do when we log on? · Social networking – 22.5% · Online games – 9.8% · E-mail – 7.6% · Portals – 4.5% · Videos/movies – 4.4% · Info searches – 4% · IM – 3.3% · Software reviews – 3.2% · Classified ads – 2.9% · Events & News – 2.6% · Other -35% o (e.g., porn, sports, music, shopping) Worldwide use = 10.5 billion minutes per day on Facebook SNS - Social Network Sites · Use and Gratifications o Over 1.44 billion active Facebook users, 50% on any given day o Multitasking more likely to use SNSs and stay on longer o SNS Uses § Main use is focused on old relationships § Other typical uses · Collect information · Reduce stress · Record daily events · Effects on well-being o Heavy use linked to low self-stream & academic performance o Honest self presentation -> greater happiness from SNS use o Viewing attractive user profiles -> discontent with own body o Many fear privacy invasions Blogs · A shortened version of the learn web log o An informational site consisting of discrete entries (“posts”) · 5 Uses of Traditional Sites o Document life events o Commentary and opinions o Express deeply felt emotions o Agriculture ideas through writing o Create and maintain community forums · Microblogging (e.g., tweets, status update) o Focus on interactivity, engagement, & conversation (like SNS) · Twitter user motivations o Information source – Large group of followers o Information seeker – users log on but do not post o Friends – connections with people actually known CMC – Computer Mediate Communication · Computer Mediate Communication o Any communication transaction using networked computers o Often refers to computer mediate formats (e.g., IM, email) o CMC characteristic § Asynchronous messages – sent & received at user convenience § Reduced verbal and nonverbal cues · More functional for exchange of factual information · Emotional intent of message hindered emotions may helps · Considered less fulfilling then face to face contact o Massive usage today § 3 billion email accounts in existence § trillions of emails send each year Effect of Internet Use · The internet paradoxocit o Conflicting research internet use and loneliness § One study found that heavier users lonely and isolated § Another showed extroverts benefit from online socialization Easily used to maintain contact with family & friends · Social Capital o Resources accrued from individuals in a network § Bridging- Resource from weak friendship ties (e.g., information) § Bonding- Resources from close ties (e.g., emotional support) § Maintained- resources from staying connected to old networks · Facebook o Provides greatest social gains for low self esteem users o Online connections easier for shy individuals to manage · Internet Addiction versus problematic internet use o No approved medical diagnosis for internet addiction o Dependency called deficient impulse control by some and addiction by others · Internet in the workplace o Intranet (not internet)- company links computers within workplace o Really simple syndication (RSS) – employees get corporate info o Blogs allow communication between CEOs and employees o Telecommuting enables working § Can be effective cost saving measure § Employees can balance job/home life demands § Some telecommuting can feel lonely, isolated and stressed Chapter 20 – Mobile communication Evolution of Mobile Communication · 1973 o First public cell phone call o Inspired by Star Trek communicators o Ease of use became of goal · Martin Cooper o GM of Motorola’s communication system division o Developed “The Brick” · Cell phones grew faster than any other medium o Smart phones combine many media in a single device o Interaction is driven more by shared interests than proximity Effect of social Coordination · Scheduling o Scheduled time is more flexible · Logistics o Plan change are easily communicated · Ongoing refinement o IM allows moment to moment coordination of plans o May encourage more spontaneous face-to-face encounters · Mobile Workers o Lowers boundaries between work and home o May increase stress Effect of relational communication · Perpetual contact (permanently online & connected) o Heightened sense of connection may strengthen social bonds o The text messaging may symbolize friendship/intimacy o But, extreme connectedness may have cocooning effect · Interesting research (Vorderer) o Multitasking is predictor of depression and social anxiety o The more presence of mobile device inhibits closeness, trust, and empathy between two people o Those who multitask LESS are BETTER paying attention in the face of distractions
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