ANT.101, WK2, DS2, Exchange Systems
ANT.101, WK2, DS2, Exchange Systems
CSU - Dominguez hills
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Date Created: 11/15/15
Exchange Systems Using Chapters 3 and 4 of the textbook as your guide address the following 0 Identify and explain the major forms of reciprocity found in both Foraging and Horticultural societies and provide examples regarding how they impact the level of con ict found in these societies 0 Consider the use of reciprocity in your own life and comment on its impact on the level of con ictdivisions in your own relationships Remember to use terminology from the text as well as your own ideas Your initial response should be 150200 words in length Please support your claims With examples from the text required and recommended material andor scholarly articles Respond to at least two of your classmates postings by Day 7 EXCHANGE SYSTEMS Tarasha HicksonSmith ANT 101 WEEK 2 DISCUSSION 2 The Major Forms of Reciprocity Found in Both Foraging and Horticultural Societies Reciprocity is a means of receiving something in exchange for providing something The major forms of reciprocity in the foraging society operate within an immediate return system in most cases Woodburn 1988 The three types of reciprocal exchanges generalized balanced and negative Nowak amp Laird 201033 Economy With generalized reciprocity foragers like to share and not waste food so when they have a large catch or a large amount of gathered goods or even prepared food they share with everyone until all are feed and stocked with no expectations just the willingness to give Nowak amp Laird 2010 This type of communal effort is done within kinship groups and can cut down on labor throughout the whole community which also alleviates competition leaving no one on top or left behind With balanced reciprocation a product is exchanged with someone outside of a kinship group and another product of equal value is given as reciprocation For example if a certain good is unavailable in one person s tribe and the other tribe has that good in abundance then an equal trade is made between the two tribes to accommodate one another s need On the complete opposite side of balanced reciprocation is negative reciprocation This means that when the trading transaction would normally take place the other person on the receiving end reacts in a delayed or non respondent way by giving nothing in return Although this sounds something like general reciprocation the difference is the person expects an exchange but does not receive one This can happen in many ways in both kinship and non kinship groups For instance if someone of kin constantly provides a family with goods and food but that family s providers being of able mind and body never participate in hunting or gathering then they are looked at as being lazy and turn general reciprocation into negative reciprocation If a nonkinship member of the tribe does the same and does not participate in the communal potluck they are considered greedy Reciprocity in My Own Life For me reciprocation expected at home and at work but each environment has a different level of expectation Reciprocation is how we survive in life it is a great feeling to give but is an even better feeling when you receive In my household my husband and I share the responsibilities of keeping the bills paid and doing chores to maintain our lifestyle as an independent married couple In Atlanta the cost of living is high and it takes two or more incomes to make ends meet sometimes At times when my husband has a heavy work load I take on most of the chores in the house so that he is able to concentrate on his job and not worry about his duties at home This can be looked at as general reciprocation or balanced reciprocation It is more general if the house is fairly clean already and there is not allot for me to do but his work load may still be twice as heavy He does not expect me to sweat and slave till I look as tired as he does because some days are worse than others depending on the amount of activity in the house Now with work I have to create balanced reciprocity to avoid negative reciprocity As an Esthetician I am not paid hourly unless I have a client I am paid based on the type of service I provide and how long it takes me to perform the service This can be good or bad some days On a good day it is well over balanced reciprocation because within an 8 hour period I can make more than someone makes in a whole week on a regular job But on a bad day I may work 8 hours and but not service any clients that whole day therefore receiving nothing in exchange for those 8 hours of time equaling negative reciprocity In order to balance time lost and no pay I use my talent as a market by trading my services with friends and family for services or goods we both need Works Cited Nowak B amp Laird P 2010 Economy In CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGYp Chap 33 San Diego California Bridgepoint Education Inc Hi Tarasha One of the things that the textbook talks about in terms of negative reciprocity is that in smallerscale cultures such as those that practice foraging and horticulture we see this occur between those who are not so intimately acquainted or strangers How do you see this comparing to our own culture In what relationships do we see negative reciprocity Rachel In our culture as AfricanAmericans we do not support our own community enough to promote growth There is a higher theft rate in our community by people that live in our community As the business owners invest in putting the best product on the market for our consumption there is neither appreciation nor value in the time or money invested in that product and therefore the existence of negative reciprocity resides in our community as potential consumers buy stolen merchandise off the street instead of in the stores The relationships where negative reciprocity exist is sometimes in the household of the elder parents of the coming of age elder adults In our society there are still adults that live with their parents well into their own elder age This is considered negative reciprocity because as a parent years of general reciprocity come to a halt when that child is considered an adult that can care for him or herself if they are of stable mind and body In today s era the young adults do not value the responsibilities of being an adult and rely on the parents to provide for their needs and show no initiative to seek independence It takes more energy and funding to care for an adult than it does a child therefore it is unfair for an adult to place that type of strain on their parents without reciprocating them in service or money for the inconvenience that they cause Hello Phillip Thank you for your compliment on my post and application of the information I realized that doing what you love has a large price tag and in this case sometimes reciprocation can play all the roles available Sometimes it is general as a new comer in my eld there are times where I had to do nonpaying jobs just to get my name out there and show my skills Then there is a brief period of negative reciprocation when you discover you are not as good as you thought or someone may not see the value in your work as you perceive therefore there is no pay after the hard work is done Then there is a positive period in your moments of despair that you learn from your mistakes and you learn to hone your craft until it is perfected afterwards the respect of a freelance artist is gained and balanced reciprocity is the reward for the fruits of your labor Exchange Systems James MCCOy 762011 102728 AM There are two types of reciprocity found in the foraging society negative and generalized reciprocity Generalized reciprocity is an exchange where there are no expectations in return no one keeps track of what is traded and everyone is just there to make sure that all are equal with no expectations in return This would be like helping the homeless in our society without expecting any form of return for the help you provide Negative reciprocity is the absence of reciprocity Foragers use this type to gain things that they could not get in their everyday society This is obtained in many was by stealing A balanced reciprocity is found in the horticultural societies Balanced reciprocity is the exchange of something with the expectation that you will relieve in return an equal or greater value of something Simply meaning that if I were to give you a bag of potatoes it would be expected that you would return to me an equal sized bag of potatoes in return or something equal to the bag of potatoes I can see how balanced and generalized reciprocity are present in my own relationships I have a very generalized reciprocity with my wife and family We share everything with each other I do not buy a diamond ring for my wife and expect something of equal value in return There is also a balanced reciprocity present in relationships with other friends I do expect equality in return from people other than my family members I would give my friends the shirt off my back to help them but I do expect the same in return from them Hello James I love your examples of each type of reciprocity I can identify with the general reciprocity you give and receive from family and friends However I do believe there is such a thing as being taken advantage of in the situations where general reciprocity is provided In the case where you give more than you have then you are left with an empty hand every time There must be balance value and respect present when general reciprocity is given and received If either person does not have these characteristics during the transaction it can result in negative reciprocity I think in America we do not have lost most of the traditions nor sacred practices that placed value on relationships with each other family or stranger as the creator had purposed it to be We must get back to teaching and practicing traditions that follow us from young to old and give meaning to the important things in life like sharing and caring for one another then the true value of reciprocity will start to equal out the way it should I enjoyed reading your post and wished that more people thought this way Your classmate Ta rasha
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