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Abnormal Psychology, Exam 3 Study Guide

by: Kayla Mathias

Abnormal Psychology, Exam 3 Study Guide PSY 250

Marketplace > Kutztown University of Pennsylvania > Psychlogy > PSY 250 > Abnormal Psychology Exam 3 Study Guide
Kayla Mathias
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This study guide covers everything in chapters 8 (Gender Dysphoria, Sexual Dysfunction, and Paraphilic Disorders), 9 (Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders), and 10 (Schizophrenia Spectrum and ...
Abnormal Psychology
Dr. George Muugi
Study Guide
Abnormal psychology, Psychology, gender dysphoria, Sexual Dysfunction, Paraphilic Disorders, Substance Abuse Disorders, Addictive Disorders, Schizophrenia, Psychotic Disorders
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Mathias on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 250 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. George Muugi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.

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Date Created: 03/30/16
Abnormal Psych (PSY250) Exam 3 Study Guide Chapter 8—Gender Dysphoria, Sexual Dysfunctions, and Paraphilic Disorders (pgs. 271-312) Note: Vocab words are in bold print. I. Human Sexuality: It has been a taboo subject for most of history until the mid- 1900s when Alfred Kinsey published a book about human sexuality A. Sexual Function: Four stages—DesireArousalOrgasmResolution. Women can experience multiple orgasms in one go whereas men can typically only experience one at a time B. Sex Differences in Sexual Response: Men do not necessarily have a stronger sex drive than women. They tend to think about and have sex more, but women are biologically more capable of having sex for longer periods of time. Men’s sex drive is often based on physical pleasure and intercourse whereas women include emotional intimacy in their definition of sex drive C. Understanding Sexual Behavior: Age and race can affect ideas about sex and how often it happens. Sexual orientation seems to be primarily based on biology D. Cybersex (pg. 277): No set definition. Because of limited knowledge on the subject, researchers do not even know who’s at risk for cybersex use/over- use II. Gender Dysphoria: Gender dysphoria is when gender identity does not match one’s biological sex. A. Transgender Behavior: When a male wants to be a female and does things a female would do or dresses like a female and vice versa. B. Transsexualism: Wanting to be the opposite sex C. Sex Reassignment Surgery: Procedure that changes one’s physical appearance to match their gender identity. Ex: Chaz Bono (pg. 281) D. Functional Impairment: Cross-gender behavior does not seem to cause any issues, but it can give reason for other kids to bully. Harm can be caused when children are not allowed to engage in the desired behaviors that go along with gender dysphoria. E. Sex, Race, and Ethnicity: Among children, gender dysphoria is equally common among boys and girls. However, adult males are more likely to experience gender dysphoria than adult women. India recognizes a third gender, hijra, which is neither feminine nor masculine. F. Etiology 1. Biological Theories: Male transsexuals have brains that are more similar to heterosexual females than to heterosexual males. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is when the enzyme that produces cortisol and aldosterone is absent. As a result, too much androgen (male hormone) is produced i. Ethics and Responsibility: Dexamethasone is sometimes given to pregnant women to control CAH. Some researchers are wondering it could prevent homosexuality in girls. 2. Psychosocial Theories: Parental rejection due to the parents wanting a boy and having a girl or vice versa possibly plays a role in gender dysphoria. G. Treatment 1. Sex Reassignment Surgery: Three phases—living as the desired gender (at least 2 years), hormone therapy, and sex reassignment surgery 2. Psychological Treatment: Reinforcing same-gender behavior and punishing cross-gender behavior. This method is no longer used III. Sexual Dysfunction: Sexual dysfunction is an impairment or absence of some part of sexual response that causes distress and/or functional impairment A. Sexual Interest/Desire Disorder: Absence or lack of interest in sexual activities 1. Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: Persistent or recurrent lack of sexual thoughts and desires. Factors include negative thoughts about sexuality, low sexual satisfaction, and another sexual dysfunction 2. Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder: Greatly reduced or absent sexual arousal and/or interest. Sexual activity loses its excitement. It can be psychological and physiological. i. Subjective sexual arousal disorder: Physical response to stimulation, but no feeling of excitement ii. Genital sexual arousal disorder: Feelings of sexual desire, but no physical response to stimulation iii. Combined sexual arousal disorder: Lack of sexual desire and physical response to stimulation 3. Erectile Disorder: Failure to get and keep an erection during sexual activities regularly B. Orgasmic Disorders 1. Delayed Ejaculation: Delay or failure to ejaculate, despite sufficient stimulation. This is not as common as premature ejaculation 2. Female Orgasmic Disorder: (also called anorgasmia) Trouble reaching orgasm and/or lessened intensity of orgasm 3. Premature ejaculation: When ejaculation occurs within one minute of vaginal penetration and the male is unable to delay ejaculation. Primary premature ejaculation is when a man has had the condition since his first sexual experience and secondary premature ejaculation is a conditioned response C. Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder: Issues with vaginal penetration, vulvovaginal or pelvic pain, fear or anxiety about pain, or tightening or the pelvic floor muscles during intercourse D. Functional Impairment: Sexual dysfunction often results in dissatisfaction. Dysfunction also affects one’s sexual well-being, but does not seem to affect overall well-being. E. Sex, Race, and Ethnicity: It seems that SES might play a bigger role in sexual dysfunction than race. F. Etiology 1. Biological Factors: Hormonal imbalances (hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, and menopause) can lower sex hormones and cause a decreased interest in sexual activity. Physical disorders like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease can also lessen sexual desire. Alcohol and drugs can also cause sexual dysfunction, though it is usually temporary 2. Psychosocial Factors: Depression is often associated with sexual dysfunction. Stress in a relationship or negative life events may also contribute to sexual dysfunction G. Treatment 1. Biological Treatments: Testosterone replacement therapy, Viagra, penile implants, and vacuum devices 2. Psychological Treatments: Sex therapy (uses sensate focus and non- demand pleasuring), “stop-squeeze” technique, directed masturbation for females, and systematic desensitization using vaginal dilators for women with genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder IV. Paraphilic Disorders: Sexual interest in things that do not involve genital stimulation/foreplay/intercourse with a physically mature and consenting partner. Anomalous target preferences—deviating from the expected; Anomalous activity preferences A. Paraphilic Disorders Based on Anomalous Target Preferences 1. Fetishistic Disorder: Sexual arousal caused by non-living objects or a non-genital region of the body (ex. feet). Disorder primarily found in men 2. Transvestic Disorder: Cross-dressing. Sexual arousal from wearing women’s clothing (disorder is almost always only found in men) 3. Pedophilic Disorder: Sexual urges or arousal towards prepubescent children. Arousal can be towards both genders. Most common pedophilic acts are genital exposure and fondling, less common is intercourse, and least common is rape/abduction. Girls are victims more often than boys are. Mainly a male disorder, but there are female pedophiles B. Paraphilic Disorders Based on Anomalous Activity Preferences 1. Exhibitionistic Disorder: Flashing. Getting sexual pleasure from exposing one’s self to an unsuspecting victim 2. Frotteuristic Disorder: Sexual arousal gained by rubbing one’s genitals on a nonconsenting person. Often, a fantasy of an emotional relationship with the victim accompanies the “rubbing” 3. Voyeuristic Disorder: “Peeping toms.” Sexual arousal from watching an unsuspecting person undress or have sex. 4. Sexual Masochism Disorder and Sexual Sadism Disorder i. Sexual Masochism Disorder: Sexual arousal from being made to suffer ii. Sexual Sadism Disorder: Sexual arousal from inflicting pain on someone else 5. Functional Impairment: Paraphilic disorders generally do not cause functional impairment unless the person acts on their impulses/desires 6. Developmental Factors: Common age of onset is anywhere from adolescence to young adulthood. Average age of onset is 16, but ranges from 7-38. 7. Etiology: Unknown. Researchers speculate that endocrine abnormalities may play a role 8. Treatment: Plethysmography—used to determine the difference between sexual and nonsexual offenders, but raises many ethical issues. Visual reaction time task is generally used to assess people i. Biological Treatment: Surgical castration (no longer used) and antiandrogen medication reduces sexual drive ii. Psychosocial Treatment: Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral therapy a. Eliminating of decreasing inappropriate sexual arousal: Satiation— exposure to an arousing stimulus for a long enough period that it is no longer arousing. Covert sensitization—imagining the arousing act as well as the negative implications and consequences. b. Olfactory Aversion: Pairing an unpleasant odor with sexual behaviors or fantasies (classical conditioning) c. Enhancing appropriate sexual interest and arousal: Social skills training, couples therapy, and sex education Chapter 9—Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders (pgs. 316-354) I. Substance-Related Disorders: Substance use is simply using a substance in low to moderate doses that do not affect normal functioning. Substance intoxication is 1) reversible, 2) substance specific, 3) results in maladaptive behavior, and 4) begins shortly after or during the use of a substance. Neither substance use nor intoxication are considered to be substance abuse unless it gets out of hand. High levels of tolerance are often a good indication of substance abuse and withdrawal is an almost certain indication of dependence on a substance II. Commonly Used “Licit” Drugs: Legal psychoactive drugs A. Caffeine: Central nervous system stimulant that boosts energy, wakefulness, mood, etc. Negative effects include headaches, fatigue, trouble concentrating, etc. It is thought that the neurotransmitters adenosine and serotonin are involved with the effect of caffeine on the brain 1. Functional Impairment: Can contribute to the development of cardiovascular disorders, osteoporosis, reproductive issues, and even cancer. Caffeine can also react badly with anxiety-prone individuals and worsen their anxiety. Huge amounts of caffeine in a short period of time can cause death 2. Epidemiology: Caffeine is the most widely used drug with 80% of the world’s population consuming it daily. Energy drinks are becoming increasingly popular and generally contain more caffeine than coffee B. Nicotine: Highly addictive drug that generally comes from the tobacco plant. The most common source of nicotine is from cigarettes (chewing tobacco and nicotine patches are also common). It is both a sedative and a stimulant. Nicotine causes the brain to release dopamine. 1. Functional Impairment: A high dependence makes smokers slaves to whatever method of nicotine intake they use. Withdrawal symptoms can last up to a month. Pregnant smokers can cause harm to their unborn child. 2. Epidemiology: Numbers of smokers are decreasing. Sex, race, and ethnicity seem to have no effect on who smokes C. Alcohol: Depressant. Primarily affects the GABA system which in turn inhibits some brain activity. 1. Functional Impairment: Withdrawal symptoms can be very severe and can include hallucinations. Delirium tremens is a withdrawal symptom that includes disorientation, agitation, high blood pressure, and a fever. Alcohol cirrhosis is a disease of the liver that occurs in alcoholics. If too much alcohol is consumed, the liver loses the ability to clear the alcohol out of the blood. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome causes confusion, amnesia, and confabulation (filling in missing pieces of memory with made-up situations). Most people with this syndrome do not recover completely. Fetal alcohol syndrome: Passing of alcohol through the placenta and harms the developing baby. This generally causes birth defects and can even harm the baby’s brain. 2. Epidemiology, Sex, Race, and Ethnicity: Alcohol is the second most common psychoactive substance after caffeine. Alcohol use disorders are more common in males, but women are more susceptible to negative health consequences. Alcohol use is more prevalent among whites than any other race. III. Illicit Drugs A. Marijuana: Cannabis sativa plant. Most commonly used illicit drug in the US. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the active ingredient in marijuana and generally lasts 1-3 hours in the brain and causes relaxation, heightened sound and color perceptions, dry mouth, increased hunger, and sometimes fatigue, depression, or anxiety. 1. Functional Impairment: Heavy use leads to memory loss, trouble paying attention to something, learning issues, and problems with motor movement. Head, neck, and lung cancer are also possibilities. Medical uses include nausea caused by chemo, glaucoma, and appetite stimulation 2. Epidemiology: Average age of the start of marijuana use is 18 B. CNS Stimulants: Amphetamines: legal uses include treatment for asthma, nasal congestion, ADHD, and narcolepsy. Amphetamines are produced in labs, but are often mixed with toxic substances. They are generally consumed in a pill or injection. Ecstasy is a common form of the drug, as is crystal meth. 1. Functional Impairment: Damage to blood vessels in the brain which causes strokes. Paranoid anxiety, confusion, and insomnia are common effects. 2. Epidemiology: Whites are more likely to use these drugs, but sex does not make a difference C. Cocaine: Made from coca plant leaves (grown in South America). It was once used regularly in cigars, cigarettes, and Coca-Cola and was used as a pain- killer. 1. Functional Impairment: Highly addictive. Inhibits the reabsorption of dopamine. The more a person takes, the more likely they are to suffer from its negative effects. 2. Epidemiology: Most cocaine users used marijuana before trying cocaine. The highest rates of cocaine use are found among Native Americans followed by African Americans, whites, Hispanics, islanders, and Asians, respectively. D. Sedative Drugs: CNS depressants 1. Barbiturates: Work similarly to alcohol. They can be pills or injections and counteract amphetamines. Low doses cause disinhibition and euphoria and higher doses cause slurred speech, decreased respiration, impaired memory, irritability, and suicidal thoughts 2. Benzodiazepines: Originally used to treat anxiety. Higher doses can cause light-headedness and muscle control issues. Benzodiazepines include Xanax, Halcion, and Rohipnol (roofies) 3. Functional Impairment: Over-sedation and trouble thinking and/or interacting with others. Withdrawal symptoms are similar to those of alcohol. 4. Epidemiology: Average age on onset is 25. More common in women and drugs are generally used with alcohol. E. Opioids: Drugs including heroin, morphine, and codeine that are made out of opium poppy plants. These drugs relieve pain and anxiety and give feelings of euphoria, sedation and tranquility. 1. Functional Impairment: Tolerance develops in only 2-3 days. Overdose happens very easily. Drug trafficking rates are very high and people are often killed just trying to maintain these drugs. Withdrawal symptoms may occur as soon as 4-6 hours after the most recent use of the drug. When injection needles are shared, diseases like HIV can be spread. Insufficient blood flow to the brain (caused by the drugs) can result in a coma. 2. Epidemiology: Use varies based on SES, age, education, and type of drug. F. LSD and Natural Hallucinogens: Hallucinogens cause altered perceptions, sensations, emotions, detachment from oneself, and feelings of insight. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the most common synthetic hallucinogen. 1. Functional Impairment: Emotional swings, paranoia, and panic can cause strange and dangerous behavior. These drugs are not physically addictive, but hallucinations can last for a while after the drugs are no longer in the body (hallucinogen persisting perception disorder) 2. Epidemiology: Little data, but hallucinogen use appears to be more common in men G. Inhalants: Most commonly used by teens and include cleaning fluid, paint, gasoline, and glue. These fumes generally have immediate effects. Negative effects include dizziness, confusion, impaired motor skills, etc. 1. Functional Impairment: Severe damage to vital organs and myelin. Muscle spasm and tremors result and can be permanent. Inhalants can cause changes in the structure of the brain and permanently impair motor and cognitive abilities. 2. Epidemiology: One of the top four drugs used by American teens. Males are more likely to use these drugs IV. Non-Substance-Related Disorders: Behavioral addictions including gambling, kleptomania, compulsive bullying, and excessive sexual activity. Tanning, Internet use, and computer or videogame playing can also be considered addictions A. Sex, Ethnicity, Education, and Illicit Drug Use: Men and women become addicted to drugs in different ways. Women become dependent faster and drug use is often associated with relationship issues. People living in low SES regions (especially the inner city) are at a higher risk for drug use. People with a higher education are less likely to use drugs. V. Etiology of Substance-Related Disorders A. Biological Factors 1. Family and Genetic Studies: Both genes and the environment affect the likelihood of struggling with substance abuse. A Norwegian study showed that illicit drug use is 58-81% heritable 2. Neurobiology: People with low levels of dopamine or hypodopaminergic traits may feel more of a need to use drugs to increase dopamine. B. Psychological Factors 1. Behavioral Factors—Drugs as Reinforcers: When positive feelings are caused drugs, that positive reinforcement makes the person more likely to use drugs again and at a higher capacity. Negative reinforcement also makes further drug use more likely (ex: coffee takes away feelings of tiredness and thus reinforces drinking it). Environmental factors can also be reinforcers. Being in places where drugs are usually used, seeing people you use drugs with, etc. can trigger drug use. 2. Cognitive Factors: Thoughts activated by a social situation may make someone more likely to use a substance. Thoughts about needing substances can make one more likely to actually “need” it. C. Sociocultural, Family, and Environmental Factors: Influences of family and peers, economic factors, and trauma have all been linked to greater risks of substance use and abuse. Family, social, and cultural factors can also protect an individual from substance abuse. D. Developmental Factors: Being introduced to drugs at a young age and heavy substance use during adolescence are both risk factors for further substance abuse as an adult. Substance use generally starts with nicotine and alcohol, then marijuana, and finally illicit drugs. Marijuana is often considered a “gateway” drug, but many marijuana users do not use anything stronger than that. VI. Treatment of Substance Use Disorders: Treatment depends on the drugs used and to what extent. For illicit drugs, the goal is total abstinence and no relapse. For alcohol, the goal might be to simply reduce alcohol intake dramatically, but not necessarily eliminate it. A. Therapies Based on Cognitive and Behavioral Principles 1. Avoidance of the Stimulus: Instruction to avoid stimulants that make people want to use whatever substance they have a problem with 2. Relapse Prevention: Use of functional analysis to develop alternative behavioral and cognitive skills using antecedents and consequences of drug use. Abstinence violation effect focuses on the cognitive and affective responses to the prohibited behavior 3. Stages of Change and Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET): Transtheoretical model gives five stages of behavior change— precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance 4. Skills Training: Part of CBT. Teaches people coping skills that they need to handle their addiction 5. Behavioral Therapies Based on Classical and Operant Conditioning: Aversion therapy pairs a negative stimulus with drug and alcohol use. While this should not necessarily be used by itself, it is a good element to include in comprehensive treatment. Contingency management approaches give rewards for compliance with treatment 6. Twelve-Step Approach: Steps used by Alcoholics Anonymous to help people overcome their addiction (list of steps is on pg. 346). The 12 steps have also been used for drug users and overeaters. B. Ethics and Responsibility: If a psychologist is suffering from substance abuse, they are no longer allowed to treat people with that problem. If the problem is serious enough, they can have their license revoked. C. Biological Treatments: Detoxification is a medically supervised drug withdrawal. In these situations, medication can be given to reduce withdrawal symptoms. Agonist substitution is when the patient is given a similar, but safe medication instead of their preferred substance. Methadone is the most common chemically safe medical substitute 1. Nicotine replacement therapy: This kind of therapy doesn’t necessarily change the drug intake as much as it changes the method. People can use gum or nicotine patches that help people to stop smoking 2. Antagonist Treatments: Use if opioid antagonists are used to treat alcohol disorders 3. Aversive Treatments: Antabuse is consumed with substances and gives the person a noxious feeling. The negative feelings that go with nausea, vomiting, etc. are eventually associated with alcohol 4. Vaccines: A vaccine that contains antibodies that latch onto the substance and blocks its effects before it gets to the brain. D. Sex and Racial/Ethnic Differences in Treatment: Women (especially mothers) are less likely to seek treatment so that they don’t risk having their kids taken away. Racial and ethnic minorities also appear to be less likely to seek treatment Chapter 10—Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders (pgs. 356-388) I. Psychotic Disorders: characterized by strange thinking, odd behaviors, and distorted perceptions A. What is Psychosis? Psychosis is a mental condition in which people lose contact with reality. Delusions and hallucinations are common in people with psychosis. Many people believe that people are spying on them or are out to get them. Psychosis often accompanies schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s. There are also times when a person experiences psychotic symptoms, but they do not actually have psychosis. B. What is Schizophrenia? Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that involves severe disorganization of thoughts, perceptions, and behaviors. Many schizophrenics think that the people on the radio or TV are talking to them in code that only they can understand. Schizophrenia was first defined by Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler and was known as dementia praecox. There is a difference between schizophrenia and split personality disorder and DID. C. Schizophrenia in Depth: Positive symptoms (abnormal behaviors that are present in an individual) include unusual thoughts, feelings, and behaviors such as delusions. Persecutory delusions are the belief that someone is out to get you and harm you. Delusions of influence are when a person thinks that they are much more important or higher up in society than they actually are. Hallucinations (auditory, visual, olfactory, gustatory (taste), and somatic) are also a positive symptom of schizophrenia. Disorganized thinking leads to loose associations, thought blocking, and clang associations. Catatonia is also a positive symptom. This includes waxy flexibility. Negative symptoms (lacking certain normal behaviors) include diminished emotional expression, anhedonia (unable to experience pleasure of any sort), avolition (inability to initiate or stick to plans), alogia (decreased quality and quantity of speech), and psychomotor retardation (slowed mental and physical abilities). Cognitive impairments and a lack of social cognition are also common in schizophrenics. Echolalia is when someone repeats word-for-word what someone else said and is also a schizophrenic symptom. Schizophrenics are likely to also have anxiety, depression, and PTSD, as well. D. Functional Impairment: The severity of symptoms affects how well a person is able to function normally. Schizophrenia affects not only the person suffering from it, but their family, as well. When depression goes along with schizophrenia, patients are much less likely to have a good outcome and experience frequent hospitalization and unemployment. People in developing countries seem to have better outcome than those in developed countries. E. Ethics and Responsibility: Violence is sometimes an issue with schizophrenics, but it is generally minor. More violent acts are generally done by schizophrenics who also suffer from substance abuse. Many times, people take advantage of schizophrenics because their cognitive function is not 100%. F. Epidemiology: Schizophrenia seems to be equally common across all cultures. It is most common in men who live in an urban area and have recently moved to a new place. Onset can be gradual or acute and premorbid (before onset) features often occur. Stages of onset—Prodromal phase (social withdrawal and lack of personal hygiene), acute phase (positive symptoms are experienced), and the residual phase (psychotic symptoms go away, but negative symptoms don’t). G. Sex, Race, and Ethnicity: Women develop schizophrenia at a later age than men do. Race does not seem to make a difference. Misdiagnosis sometimes occurs because of racial bias or the misunderstanding of different cultures. H. Ethics and Responsibility: Diagnosing someone whose face the clinician has not seen can help reduce and eliminate racial bias. I. Developmental Factors: Magical thinking, ideas of reference, and delusions of reference can all lead to schizophrenia. Being less social as a child can be an indicator that schizophrenia will develop in adulthood. Early-onset schizophrenia is when the disorder develops before the age of 18. J. Other Psychotic Disorders 1. Brief Psychotic Disorder: Sudden onset of psychotic symptoms that do not last for longer than a month (postpartum mood disorder—Andrea Yates) 2. Schizophreniform Disorder: Schizophrenic symptoms, but they only last for up to six months and daily activities are not affected 3. Schizoaffective Disorder: Psychotic symptoms with the addition of major depression, manic, or mixed episodes of both. 4. Delusional Disorder: The presence of believable delusions (such as believing that you have cancer, even though multiple doctors have said you don’t) i. Erotomanic delusions: believing that someone important (like a celebrity) is in love with you ii. Grandiose delusions: believing that you have a special relationship with a deity or famous person iii. Jealous delusions: believing that your partner is unfaithful iv. Persecutory delusions: believing that you are being mistreated v. Somatic Delusions: believing that you have some severe medical condition 5. Shared Psychotic Disorder: Two or more people with a close relationship having the same delusional beliefs. II. Etiology of Schizophrenia A. Biological Factors 1. Neurotransmitters: Dopamine hypothesis—excess dopamine could contribute to the development of schizophrenia. Chronic stress caused by schizophrenia can lead to brain abnormalities which involve production of excess dopamine. Too much dopamine could be responsible for positive symptoms while too little dopamine could be responsible for negative symptoms. Serotonin, GABA, and glutamate may also play a role. 2. Genetics and Family Studies: Schizophrenia seems to run in families. If one parent has it, the child will be 15% more likely to get it and if both parents have it, the child will be 50% more likely to get schizophrenia. MZ (identical) twins are more likely to both get schizophrenia than are DZ (fraternal) twins. 3. Neuroanatomy: Enlarged brain ventricles and reduction of gray matter of the brain. 4. Viral Theories and Other Prenatal Stressors: Babies whose mothers got the flu during their second trimester were more likely to have schizophrenia as adults. 5. Neurodevelopmental Model of Schizophrenia: Synaptic pruning is when the weaker synaptic connections in the brain are eliminated and the stronger connections are strengthened. Synaptic pruning appears to happen at a faster rate in schizophrenics than in other people. B. Family Influences: Bad parenting does not cause schizophrenia. Expressed emotion is how family members are emotionally involved and what their critical attitudes are. High levels of expressed emotion can lead to relapse. Gene-environment correlation is when a parent provides for the patient’s living needs. Parents with schizophrenic traits can contribute to the development of schizophrenia in their children. III. Treatment of Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders A. Pharmacological Treatment: Antipsychotics—block dopamine receptors as specific locations temporarily, permanently, partially, or completely 1. Typical Antipsychotics: Conventional or typical antipsychotics reduce positive symptoms, but had very severe side effects including stiffness, tremors, and tardive dyskinesia which is a neurological condition that involves abnormal and involuntary body movements 2. Atypical Antipsychotics: Preferred meds to use for schizophrenia in all ages. They treat positive symptoms and are not as likely to produce tardive dyskinesia as a side effect. However, they can cause diabetes, and agranulocytosis (low numbers of white blood cells). A lot of patients do not take their meds when they are supposed to, so their recovery is not as fast as it could be. B. Psychological Treatment 1. Psychoeducation: Education of the family about schizophrenia and what they should or shouldn’t do to help with treatment 2. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment: Used to reduce psychotic symptoms and teaches patients how to cope with their disorder 3. Social Skills Training: Teaches patients basic social skills so that they can have successful job interviews, go to school, etc. 4. Supported Employment: Employment set up for patients that matches their skill sets and is something that they want to do 5. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS): Stimulates a specific area of the cerebral cortex in order to change brain activity. Electrical currents are sent through the head to cause depolarization. TMS has been shown to temporarily reduce auditory hallucinations. Side effects include headaches that can be treated with Advil or some other over-the-counter pain reliever.


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