HD 205- Exam 1 Study Guide
HD 205- Exam 1 Study Guide HD 205-001
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This 27 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Green on Thursday January 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HD 205-001 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Blanche C. Komara in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 306 views.
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Date Created: 01/29/15
HD 205 Exam 1 Study Guide 01302015 Chapter 1 What is Child Development 0 Changes in developmental function from conception to adolescence What is developmental science 0 Includes all changes and development that we experience throughout our lifespan What are the three domains of development 0 Physical cognitive and emotional amp social The physical domain includes changes in 0 body size amp proportions Appearance Functioning body systems Perceptual and motor capacities 0 Physical health The cognitive domain includes changes in 0 Intellectual ability 0 Attention memory academic and everyday knowledge problem solving imagination creativity and language The emotional and social domain includes changes in Selfunderstanding Knowledge about others 0 Interpersonal skills and intimate relationships Moral reasoning and behavior What are the periods of development Prenatal infancy amp toddlerhood early childhood middle childhood adolescence emerging adulthood Prenatal From conception to birth AKA pregnancy 0 Dramatic changes in the body and brain that support motor perceptual and intellectual capacities 0 Beginning of language and intimate ties especially with primary caregiver mother Infancy and Toddlerhood Birth 2 years dramatic changes in the body and brain that support motor perceptual and intellectual capacities 0 beginning of language and intimate ties Early Childhood 26 years 0 Motor skills re ned selfcontrol and independence arise make believe imaginary play begins this supports psychological development thought and language expand sense of morality develops friendships with peers Middle Childhood 611 years master new responsibilities athletic ability improves children begin involvement in organized sports thought processes become more logical master fundamental reading writing math and other academic skills morality selfunderstanding and relationships friendships grow Adolescence 1118 years Child begins transition to adulthood Puberty takes place Abstract and realistic thoughts develop Preparation for work or higher education Establish independence autonomy Children de ne their own personal goals and values Emerging Adulthood 0 1825 years 0 focus on nding love exploring careers and personal values before making commitments to those areas Difference between continuous and discontinuous development 0 Continuous change occurs gradually and smoothly as children add more of the same types of skills 0 Curvilinear 0 Example of continuous development changing from a small tree to a larger one change is slow and continuous with minimal noticeable changes from day to day Discontinuous change occurs suddenly and abruptly as children step up to a new level and then plateau with very little change for a while 0 Steplike 0 Example of discontinuous development changing from a butter y to a caterpillar change happens almost over night sudden and noticeable Difference between onecourse of development and many courses of development 0 Stages people everywhere follow the same sequence of development most children learn how to talkspeak o Qualitative changes in feeling behaving thinking that are speci c characteristically to certain periods of development Contexts unique combinations of circumstances result in different paths of change environment can affect development Difference between Nature and Nurture 0 Nature 0 lnborn biologic givens 0 Based on genetic inheritance 0 quotwhat you are born withquot 0 Example abilities musical athletic intelligence somewhat height etc Nurture 0 Physical and social world 0 In uences biological and psychological development 0 quotenvironment shapes youquot 0 Example your environment helps to breed you to be a good writer athlete musician etc What is the difference between stability and plasticity 0 Stability 0 Individuals who are high or low in a characteristic continue that pattern at later ages 0 early experience may have a lifelong impact Plasticity 0 change is possible based on experiences 0 Can continue to learn through all ages even older age 0 Stroke patients often have to relearn certain activities speech walking eating What is a balanced viewpoint o All viewpoints work together to shape an individual 0 Continuous AND discontinuous 0 Universal features AND those unique to individuals Heredity AND environment o In the past psychologists and scientists would choose a side of the issue whereas today many believe in the combination of the different sides working together What makes a child resilient Personal characteristics biologically o A warm parental relationship 0 Social support outside the immediate family strong bond with a caring adult aunt or uncle grandmother teacher mentor pastor Community resources and opportunities good schools health care and social services libraries recreational facilities Medieval Era Childhood to age 7 or 8 regarded as separate phase with special needs protections After that the child belonged to adult society Children spent a lot of time playing Boys spent time specializing in activitiesjobs that were meant for men hunting Girls spent time specializing in activities that were meant for women crochetingsewing Very little if any education 16th Century 0 Puritan quotchild depravityquot views 0 Children born evil and stubborn had to be civilized Adults believed that children were born evil and needed to be quottaughtquot or beaten to become civilized 17th Century 0 John Locke quottabula rasaquot or quotblank slatequot view Believed children were born innocent and needed to be nurtured and that adults must provide experiences in order to shape their children into who they would eventually become 18th Century JeanJacques Rousseau 17121778 Believed children born as quotnoble savagesquot Maturing is an innate process quotGod makes all things good man meddles with them and they become evilquot Believe more that nature rather than nurture shapes children Born with the skills that you would always possess EX If the father was a great hunter than the son would be a good hunter What is the evolutionary theory Darwin s ideas of natural selection and survival of the ttestare still in uenUal 0 Natural selection species survive because they possess characteristics or natural traits that are wellsuited to their environmentsurvival 0 Survival of the ttest those animals who best meet the requirements to survive in their environment will be able to reproduce and pass those characteristics on What is the normative approach 0 Hall amp Gesell Agerelated averages based on measurements of large numbers of children are computed 0 EX On average children learn to walk at age 1 so it is the norm to begin to walk at the age of 1 Children say their rst word at age 1 Children learn to reason at age 4 And so on What is the mental testing movement 0 Binet amp Simon Early Developers of intelligence tests 0 Stanfordbinet intelligence test Developed tests to help identify children who possess learning problems or lower intelligence Agegraded tests to measure speci c abilities What is the psychoanalytic perspective 0 Children encounter several stages and in each stage they must overcome a biologicalsocial con ict How they overcome the con ict helps to develop them intellectually socially and psychologically What is are the three components of Freud s personality theory 0 Id ego superego 0 Id Largest portion of the mind Unconscious present at birth Source of biological needs and desires Conscious rational part of the mind Emerges in early infancy Redirects ld impulses acceptably The quotinbetween the Id and the superego o Superego The conscience morality Develops from age 3 to 6 through interactions with parents What are Freud s psychosexual theory Believes that in order for a child to develop a healthy personality their parents must appropriately deal with the child s sexual and aggressive drives Not widely accepted Oral birth1 year thumbsucking breastfeeding Anal 13 years Toilet Training Phallic 36 years OedipusElectra con ict looking at parent of the opposite sex from the child why the parent of the opposite sex is quotdifferentquot sexually competing with same sex parent for the opposite sex parent s attention Latency 611 Superego strengthens Genital adolescence Sexual impulses reappear What are Erikson s psychosocial stages 0 Birth1 yr 0 Do parents take care of your basic needs 0 Trust parents take care of needs and provides intimacy cuddling cooing at baby providing toys blankets music 0 Mistrust a parent fails to provide the baby with basic needs or any intimacy o 13 yrs 0 Autonomy being independent A parent lets the child explore and experience on their own e letting a child explore the cabinet and play with pots and pans o Shame and Doubt Being punished for exploring e punishing a child for playing with pots and pans Doubtful of the child s independent ability 0 O O O O 0 36 years lnitiative exploring amp asking why Wondering about the world and asking why and how things work Parents take the time to explain and answer questions Guilt A parent ignores punishes or does not have time to answer questions or explainexplore the child feels guilty for bothering a parent 611 years Industry Being productive Feeling good about yourself and con dent in your abilities lnferiority Feeling quotnot good enoughquot about your abilities and doubting yourself Thinking others are better than you 0 Adolescence 0 Identity exploring values and goals to establish a personal identity O O O 0 Role Confusion confusion about future roles because they did not explore values or goals do not possess a sense of self Emerging adulthood Intimacy establish intimate relationships Isolation because of earlier disappointments some individuals cannot form close bonds and remain isolated Adu hood Generativity giving to the next generation through child rearing caring for others or productive work Stagnation failing to give back to the next generation results in an absence of meaningful accomplishment Old age Integrity results from feeling that life was worth living as it happened Despair dissatis ed with the life that was lived results in the fear of dying What are Piaget s stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor O O O 0 Birth to 2 years Infants think using their eyes ears hands and mouths They invent ways to solve sensorimotor problems such as pushing a button to hear the sound of a music box nding hidden toys and placing objects in and out of a container Preoperational 0 27 years preschool children represent their earlier sensorimotor discoveries with symbols children start to develop language and makebelieve play takes place However thinking lacks the logic that the two remaining stages possess Concrete operational O O O O 0 711 years children s reasoning becomes logical and better organized schoolage children understand the concept of conservation the idea that a certain amount of liquid or soft solid remains the same even after its appearance changes They also organize objects into orders of classes and subclasses Thinking is not yet abstract and not yet at the adult level 0 Formal operational O O O O 11 years on the capacity for abstract systemic thinking adolescents are now able to hypothesize deduce testable inferences and isolate and combine variables to solve a problem Adolescents can also evaluate the reasoning of verbal statements without referring to realworld circumstances 0 Critics believe that Piaget underestimated the abilities of infants and preschoolers What is classical conditioning Classical conditioning O O O Pavlov amp Watson Stimulus response There is a stimulus ie food that causes a response droolingsalivating when you pair that stimulus with another ringing a bell the new stimulus will eventually elicit the same response salivating by itself What is operant conditioning Operant conditioning o BF Skinner o Reinforcers amp punishments o Reinforcing good behavior Praising or giving positive consequences for a behavior encourages the behavior reinforce o Punishing bad behavior Giving negative consequences for a bad behavior spanking timeout discourages the behavior punisher What is the social learning theory Bandura o Emphasized modeling or observational learning Children repeat behaviors that they see adults participating in mom claps her hands baby claps her hands 0 Bobo doll experiment Children watched adults being aggressive with dolls so the children were then aggressive with the dolls 0 Social cognitive approach Personal Standards Children begin to believe their own abilities will help them succeed Selfef cacy the belief that their own abilities and characteristics will help them succeed 0 Limitations Too narrow Bandura s work is unique because children play an active role in their own learning What is behavior modi cation Combines conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses 0 Example four and ve year olds wild behavior in preschool was reduced when they were given fake money for good behavior that they could trade in for candy What is the information processing theory 0 The mind is viewed as a system that can manipulate symbols and through which information ows 0 information is actively coded transformed and organized What is developmental cognitive neuroscience Studies the relationship between changes in the brain and the cognitive processing and behavior patterns of the developing child 0 Combination of psychology biology neuroscience and medicine Neuroscientists 0 Making quick advancements in identifying the speci c types of experiences that support or weaken brain development at various ages 0 Clarifying the brain bases of many learning and behavioral disorders 0 Contributing to treatments for children with disabilities What is Ethology Concerned with the adaptive or survival value of behavior and its evolutionary history 0 Roots traced to Darwin lmprinting Lorenz 1952 baby geese 0 Baby animals or humans come to identify another animal or person as a parent or personobject of habitual trust babies humans seek an attachment to their parentmother Critical Period limited time for capacities to emerge 0 about 36 hours after hatching imprinting must occur Sensitive Period optimal time for speci c abilities capacities to emerge 0 Individual is especially responsive to environment 0 Boundaries less clearly de ned than a critical period 0 Babies need around a year and a half to form an attachment to an individual who is consistent in their environment and who is responsive to the child 0 Has to do with learning language trust What is evolutionary developmental psychology Seeks to understand adaptive value of human competencies Studies emotional social and cognitive competencies as they change with age Expands upon ethology seeks to understand the organismenvironment system as a whole What is Vygotsky39s Sociocultural Theory 0 Culture passes from one generation to the next 0 Beliefs customs skills 0 In order for cognitive development to progress social interaction is vital 0 Communication with members of society are more knowledgeable is important in development 0 Learning from others What is the Ecological Systems Theory 0 Microsystem 0 Family childcare center or school neighborhood play area church Mesosystem o How all of the microsystem interacts forms a routine 0 Exosystem 0 Things that are occasional and may have in uence on immediate family 0 Extended family community health services friends amp neighbors workplace 0 Macrosystem 0 Customs values laws Chronosystem o Chrono time o How do all the systems work over time 0 Changes over time changes in all the systems and how they in uence the child What is the Dynamic Systems Perspective 0 A child s integrated system consisting of mind body physical and socials worlds guides the mastery of new skills 0 The system is dynamic or constantly in motion What is a hypothesis o prediction drawn directly from a theory proposed explanation for a certain phenomenon What are research methods 0 activities of participants What are Research designs 0 overall plans for research studies What is Naturalistic observation 0 In the eld or natural environment where behavior happens What is Structured observation 0 All participants have equal chance to exhibit the behavior 0 A speci c situation is set up in a laboratory to encourage or evoke a behavior that the experimenter is interested in What is a Clinical interview 0 Flexible conversational style Probes for participant s point of view 0 Can provide a lot of information change to expand on questions 0 Children are often in uenced by how things are asked or what speci cally is asked It could changein uence their answer What is a Structured interview 0 Each participant is asked same questions in the same way 0 May use questionnaires get answers from groups 0 Not as indepth there is an inability for the interviewee to elaborate on their answer 0 Because the same questions are asked in the same way it reduces the likelihood that a child could be persuaded to answer the question to satisfy the interviewer What is a Case Study Involves interviews observations and test scores and combines all the information involved 0 Best used to study unique types 0 May be subjective Cultural In uences Academic achievement and adjustment children from other countries children of immigrant parents adjust well to the academic life in America and the culture which is different than that of the diverse countries they come from What is a Correlation design 0 Researchers collect information and do not change their experiences in any way 0 Limited because the cause and effect relationship cannot truly be determined What are Correlation coef cients 0 The magnitude of the number tells you the strength of the relationship 0 Size of the number will always be between 0 and 1 o 0 no relationship 0 1 or 1 strong relationship 0 The sign of the number or indicates if the relationship is positive or negative 0 1 strong negative relationship 0 1 strong positive relationship What is an independent variable 0 This is the variable that the experimenter will manipulate o Anticipated to incite changes in another variable What is a dependent variable 0 This is the variable that the experimenter will measure Anticipated to change as a result of the independent variable Example of a laboratory experiment using independent and dependent variables 0 In an experiment testing whether treatment will cause a decline in u symptoms 0 The independent variable Treatment 0 Dependent variable Percentage of people showing a decline in u symptoms What are eld experiments 0 Utilize a natural setting to study rare opportunities that would not be as random or personal in a supervised setting What are natural experiments 0 Use already existing treatments and compare the differences between them 0 Choose groups that are as similar to the characteristics as possible What is a longitudinal design study 0 Studies transformations over time making it the best research deggn The design studies the same participants again and again at different stages in life as they age 0 Perry preschool project study that follows children from preschool age all the way to age 40 s currently studying to see where they are now no criminal record holding a job married to a spousedivorced etc What is a crosssectional design 0 Studies different ages at the same time using participants that are different ages What is a sequential design Crosssectional or longitudinal studies that are similar in their designresearch are conducted at different time What is a microgenetic design 0 The experimenter will give a participant a unique task and then observe how well they are mastering the task over several sessions Can music experiences at a young age enhance intelligence 0 quotMozart effect the belief that playing classical music such as Mozart had an effect on a babies intelligence o The music must be ongoing and handson in order to be effective 0 Other activities that can enhance development may also produce similar effects 0 not reliable What are children39s research rights Pdvacy Knowledge of results 0 Bene cial treatments Informed consent 0 Protection from harm What are family in uences on development 0 Families are the most in uential environment 0 If family relationships are warm nurturing and gratifying it can predict better physical and psychological health of a child later on o If a child feels an isolation from their family it can be associated with developmental problems throughout their life What is the ecological systems perspective 0 Direct 0 Twoperson relationships 0 Punishment vs warmth When a parent is rm but warm a child is more likely to cooperate and when children are willing to cooperate the parent is more likely to continue to be rm but warm in the future warmth When a parent is harsh and impatient a child is more likely to rebel and when a child rebels the parent is more likely to continue to be harsh and impatient punishment 0 Indirect 0 When relationships between family members are cooperative and supportive they are more likely to exhibit the same behavior towards the child 0 In contrast when family relationships are hostile they are more likely to ignore criticize or punish the child 0 Coparenting where parents are not in a romantic relationship but are parenting their shared child mutually supporting one another 0 Grandparents can provide parents with parenting advice and provide a warm response to the child Adapting to change 0 Change is inevitable within the family and outside of the family 0 Parent development adults continue to develop as parents How does socioeconomic status in uence family functioning o The size of the family and the timing of the family life can in uence development at what age the adults become parents how far apart the children are in age etc o The moralsethics as well as expectations of families can have an in uence 0 Whether or not the father is involved with the child can in uence a child as well as coparenting o The communication style of the family as well as how discipline is distributed can make an in uence 0 Cognitive development of the child children of low SES families are more likely to go to lessaccredited schools How does af uence in uence family functioning An abundance of wealthy parents are not accessible to their children either physically andor emotionally Af uent parents are more likely to set extreme standards of achievement for their children 0 Parents who believe that success is more valuable than character often raise children who have academic and emotional troubles eating dinner together can make a difference How does poverty play a role in development 0 Poverty can cause 0 Joblessness 0 High divorce rate 0 High rate of teenpregnancy o Inadequate government programs Less subsidized housing 0 Homelessness US ranked high in childhood poverty among industrialized nations US ranked high in infant deaths in rst year US ranked high in teenage pregnancy rate US ranked high in public expenditure on education as a percentage of gross domestic US ranked high in public expenditure on early childhood education and child care as a percentage of gross domestic product US ranked high in public expenditure on health as a percentage of total health expenditure public plus private How do neighborhoods and schools in uence development 0 Neighborhoods are often a good resource for children s development in areas such as social ties LowSES families are more dependent on their immediate surroundings than highSES families are Areas that have high levels of unemployment crime and population turnover are more likely for social ties that link families together to break down By high school graduation children will on average have spent 14000 hours in school When parents are involved in their children s school life it supports the development of that child through all ages How does culture play a role in development Daily life is shaped by culture Values depend on the culture They vary depending on the culture North American culture values include selfreliance independence and family privacy Subcultures Family structures that cooperate with one another Africa nAmerican extended family In today s society more black adults than white have extended family Relatives other than their children all living in the same house Having an extendedfamily system can provide support emotionally and the sharing of resources helping to relieve the stress that most single parents endure as well as povertystricken families Living with extended family can also in uence and stress the importance of values such as cooperation morals and religion What is an individualist society People believe they are separate from other people Their main concern is their personal goals and growth What is a collectivist society 0 People identify themselves as a part of a group of other people 0 Their main concern is the goals of the group rather than individual goals Where does public policy fall short Some children not receiving health insurance Child care that is subpar 0 Poor preparation for the workforce Many children not nishing high school Children s Rights 0 1989 Convention on the Right of the Child UN General Assembly 0 interest groups that are in uential children s defense fund What is a passive correlation in the geneticenvironment correlation Parents choose the environment What is a evocative correlation in the geneticenvironment correlation how children are parented is determined by the reactions they evoke from others What is an active correlation in the geneticenvironment correlation o nichepicking children pick the environment that most complements their heredity suited to one s ability How does the environment in uence gene expression Geneticenvironmental correlation is viewed as genetic driven 0 Several researchers are concernedhave issues with any hereditary traits or heredity in general having supremacy o Bidirectional in uences Negative geneticenvironmental correlations can be avoidedseparated by parents or other caring adults 0 Example a child with aggressive behavior who was parented by a mother that practiced good parenting could see a decline in aggressive behavior What is the Epigenetic Framework Epigenesis development as a result of continuing bidirectional exchanges between all levels of the environment and heredity o The development of a child and individual is in uenced by gene expression behavior and environment all working together
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