HIST 1378 Test 2 ID Terms
HIST 1378 Test 2 ID Terms HIST 1378
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Taboh on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1378 at University of Houston taught by Professor Matthew Clavin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see The U.S. Since 1877 in History at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
The U.S. Since 1877 HIST 1378 – 11 (25824) Prof. Clavin Chapters 21 – 27 Identification Terms and Significance Chapter 21 Treaty of Versailles There was a major peace conference in France, and many countries were invited; most attended, but the U.S.S.R opted out the Big Three emerged: America, Britain, and France Woodrow Wilson wanted to sit at the head of the peace table; he brought a bulleted list, known as the Fourteen Points; the list included ways in which he intended to change the world proposed democracy, free trade, freedom of the seas, capitalism also proposed the League of Nations meant to help implement the new principles and settle future conflicts peacefully Britain and France wanted revenge The Big Three brought out a map of the world and began mapping out new countries The Treaty punished the Germans They lost all the colonies they had, and their European borders were shrunken They were told to disband their army, military, air force, and navy Germany had to pay war reparations Forced to sign a War Guilt Clause in which they apologized and asked for forgiveness Congress rejected the Treaty of Versailles Don’t want to be told when and where to intervene; wanted to be free agents Significance Germany was punished and humiliated Germany was desperate; nationalism Treaty was so hard of them economically that they embraced Hitler and genocide Planted the seeds of World War II Red Scare Communism and socialism are associated with race Opposers of equality accused “radicals” of being communist st May 1 , 1919 – dozens of bombs were found in mailboxes of politicians and business men all over the country Bombs went off targeting politicians 1920: a bomb went off in front of Carnegie Steel; there were several casualties There was a fear that communism was in America and that it was spreading quickly Red scare: racism; nativism, xenophobia Americans wanted to get rid of Marxism by force J. Edgar Hoover: formed the Federal Bureau of Investigation to root out race mixers, homosexuals, “radicals” They began arresting hundreds of thousands of people, and conducted searches without warrants Palmer Raids: armed gangs of FBI agents searched homes and arrested people; performed a lot of deportations; arrested immigrants and sent them back to their home countries ACLU – a group founded to stop the oppression of the Red Scare; helped those who were targeted Civil rights disappeared Significance The Red Scare showed what effect fear had on things like Civil Rights, the Constitution, people’s way of life Socialism, communism, and Marxism become associated with evil Chapter 22 Model – T The first model T was manufactured in 1908 Ford produced close to a million vehicles a year The assembly line helped accelerate manufacturing Soon, a standard model t could be out together from scrap in an hour The vehicle was gasoline powered Henry Ford saw a problem: not everyone was able to afford the cars He reduced the price as much as possible Raised his employees’ wages and made them the highest paid employees at the time They could now afford the cars The Model – T sold out by the millions By the end of the 1920s, most American families owned a car, and some owned 2 Ford’s motor company was not the number one producer of cars; General Motors was the number one General Motors put out new cars every two years in different models and colors surpassed Ford motors because people cared about their status – if a person could buy the newest car model, they had higher status Significance A great example of American economic exceptionalism Americans were conspicuous consumers; proof of American materialism The ecological impact was pronounced; automobile production at the root of climate change Scopes Trial The progressive movement was very successful, although it met resistance throughout Christian Fundamentalism was prominent There was strong resistance to the progressive movement and its ideas throughout the South Charles Darwin Theory of Evolution: the idea that all living creatures evolved over millennia White Christians lashed out against anyone who taught evolution in schools The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) looked for a courageous person to challenge the law that forbade teachers from teaching evolution 1925: The Butler law was passed in Tennessee, and it forbade teachers from teaching evolution John Scopes volunteered to be the person ACLU needed; he didn’t actually teach it, but he used a textbook that included a chapter in evolution The trial was known as the case of the century; thousands of people went to Dayton, TN to witness the trial Also called the Monkey Trial because of the notion that people evolved from apes/primates School district calls on William Jennings Bryan to defend the law; ACLU calls on Clarence Darrow Darrow defends Jews, blacks, and other “radicals” It was roughly 100° every day for two weeks Darrow and ACLU members realize it is a show trial, and they are probably going to lose They bring in scientists to testify that evolution should not be questioned, but the judge denies their testimony Darrow decides to question the Bible, and calls Bryan to testify He questions Bryan on the literal meaning of the Bible, and Bryan is unable to answer The court rules in favor of Bryn; Scopes is not allowed to teach evolution and has to pay a fine Scopes lost the trial, but to the public he won; they made the jury and Bryan look foolish Significance Science replaces religion Modernism is embraced by the public Secularization: the notion that you are allowed to believe whatever you want, but you cannot force your beliefs on anyone All over the U.S., antievolution laws are stripped Bonus Army Veterans didn’t have jobs when they came back from war Led by Walter W. Walters, they marched to Washington D.C. to demand the wages that they believed they were owed President Herbert Hoover did not the honor the Bonus Bill that had been passed by the House of Representatives; the Senate defeated the bill Hoover ordered the evacuation of the veterans, and there was a violent outbreak between the veterans and the army The veterans’ makeshift houses were burned down and the campground and was aflame Franklin Roosevelt gave the Veterans the Bonus Bill Significance Destroyed Hoover’s presidency because of how he handled the Bonus Army Americans switched to a Democratic leadership because things were doing poorly under Republican leadership Black and white veterans lived among each other in harmony and interacted peacefully New Deal A program in which hundreds of millions of dollars were spent to create jobs; deficit spending; govt. goes into debt with all the spending The role of govt. is increased No handouts were given; they made people lazy Alphabet Soup F.E.R.A – Federal Emergency Relief Act Govt. hands over $300, 000 to each state to create jobs for those who lived there C.W.A. – Civil Works Administration Created 4 million jobs Workers lived in dorms and built whatever was required of them P.W.A. – Public Works Administration Millions of jobs were created Schools, bridges, hospitals, and courthouses are built C.C.C. – Civilian Conservation Corps Wore uniforms with patches and worked on reforestation projects A.A.A. – Agricultural Adjustment Act Overproduction; federal govt. paid millions of dollars to farmers to stop farming Ten million acres of cotton were destroyed T.V.A. – Tennessee Valley Authority Brought electricity to most of the South Built dams and paved roads in the South Debt is paid in 10 – 15 years Significance It did not end the Great Depression, but it gave Americans hope The federal govt. played a significant role The end of laissezfaire Social Security The Social Security Act of 1932 [OASDI/EE] was part of the Second New Deal Old Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance Provided an old age annuity Social security was based on your individual contribution; there is a cap (limit) Survivors Insurance Provided money to people who lost their spouses Unemployment Insurance Collectively represented a social safety net No healthcare was provided Farmers, domestic workers, poor whites, and blacks were left out It was one of the most significant laws passed during FDR’s presidency Significance People were partially willing to accept help from the govt. Demonstrated how conservative Americans were, and how scared they were of losing their consumer lifestyle Appeasement Leaders of France and England meet with Hitler in Munich, Germany America’s allies appease Hitler They give him whatever he wants as long in order to avoid war Their slogan is “Peace at all costs” Hitler was allowed to keep his territory and army that was formed illegally, maintain the illegal relationship with Japan, as long as he ended there Hitler invaded and took over Czechoslovakia after 6 months Took over Poland which feel to the Nazis in less than 3 weeks France and England realized their mistake and declared war on Hitler Significance Showed that appeasement is a failed policy Made America super aggressive; must turn our back on appeasement (diplomacy) DDay June 6, 1944; Operation Overlord It was the largest amphibious invasion planned 3 million men were stationed in southern England Bombing campaigns were taking place all over France 5000 British and American ships cross the British Channel in the dead of night; more than 200,000 men swarm four beaches The Germans successfully resist at first; they gun down the first 2030 men that came on the beach They finally break through the German lines and liberate France Significance It was the turning point of WWII; Germany was defeated and pushed back Germans begin to lose faith in Hitler and Europeans become optimistic; it has great military and psychological impact Example of U.S. living up to lofty standards Noble undertaking After Germany is defeated, the Soviet becomes the U.S.’s biggest rival Hiroshima and Nagasaki Germany gives up in April of 1945 Germany and all its allies gave up except for Japan Japan had a culture that didn’t allow them to surrender Japanese soldiers embraced Kamikaze (suicide missions where soldiers crashed aircrafts into U.S. vessels) July 1945: American army leaders call for a ground invasion of Japan Harry Truman has other plans; America was the first to detonate a hydrogen bomb Truman became arrogant and began bragging that he had something Japan and the Soviet don’t He wanted to use the bomb for several reasons To defeat the Japanese and same Americans To intimidate the Soviet Truman decides to drop the bomb on Hiroshima, one of the most populated cities in Asia [August 1945] The city is incinerated in an instant; 80,000 people are killed instantly; several more die later on from burns and poisoning Three days later, another bomb is dropped on Nagasaki; Japan surrenders the next day, and WWII is officially over Significance World opinion of America changes; some people accuse the U.S. of war crimes, and some Americans who supported Truman’s decision change their opinions Many people are disappointed America did not act exceptionally Containment The U.S. didn’t attack the Soviet because the Soviet had the technology to counterattack and destroy the U.S. within hours George Kennan was a historian and bureaucrat in D.C. He published an article in 194 entailing what he believed the best way to be the best way to defeat the Soviet Union with igniting WWIII He said that as a result of being bullied for many years, the Russians became hyper aggressive and became the bullies; “simply contain their expansions”; suggested that the U.S. should not let the Soviet spread more than it already had; “application of counterforce” He argued that if people experienced communism for a few years, they would eventually get tired of it His idea was immediately accepted by the American people Significance It helped demonstrate that the term Cold War was a lie; there were numerous casualties wherever the Soviet troops were; many people fought and died Domino theory: if you let one country become communist, the neighboring countries would turn communist as well There were several proxy wars: Korean war – communist North Korea, with the backing of the Soviet Union, invaded south Korea; the possibility of communist China joining the invasion was a scary reality; U.S. troops stepped in and fought on the side of South Korean to stop the invasion; many troops lost their lives Vietnam War – the long, and very unpopular war pitted south Vietnam and the U.S. against north Vietnam and its allies; more than 3 million people died NSC – 68 The national security council is created after WWII NSC – 68 calls for the raising of funds to support containment The NSC confirms that the world has been split into two sphere Calls for a more rapid building up of the political, economic, and military strength of the free world It will be very costly Only 20% of the nation’s GNP was spent on defense; plan suggested that spending needed to be more than 50% America’s budget for military defense was $10 billion at the time NSC68 was proposed; it was raised to $60 million afterwards; defense spending went from 1/3 of the national budget to 2/3 of it Significance There is less money for health care, education, infrastructure, and other programs; there was a shift in priority Slums became more common in places where there were no slums before There is a connection between wars and war profiteers There is a militaryindustrial complex Eisenhower feared that the rise of the militaryindustrial complex will disrupt the peace abroad U.S. economy became rooted in defense; spent more on the defense than the rest of the world combined
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