Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide KIN199
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rani Vance on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to KIN199 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Brett Nickerson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Ecological Approach to Health & Fitness in Kinesiology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
Exam II Study Guide Chapter 6 **=mentioned in class review Know the percent essential fat for males and females Men 3-5% Women 8-12% (higher due to deposits in breasts/ uterus) Know the important aspects of diabetes o Define Type 1 diabetes Pancreas produces little or no insulin, this is the type of diabetes that people are born with, problem with pancreas NOT caused by what they consume o Define Type 2 diabetes (adult onset diabetes because it is based on health choices made throughout life) body does not use insulin properly, becomes insulin resistant o Define Pre-diabetes Elevated blood glucose levels resting glucose levels are 110- 125mg/dl o Know the signs and symptoms o Know the preventative measures and treatments Normal blood glucose: 110 Elevated blood glucose (pre-diabetes): 110-125 High blood glucose: >126 Be able to calculate BMI o Be able to convert heights and weights 1 lb= 2.2 kg inches meters x by .0254 kg/m2 **know waist circumference at risk measurements: men 40, women 35 Hip to waist circumference ratio high ratio leads to increase risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, heart disease etc -waist should be less than half of your height • Men 18-59 years old = >0.96 High Risk • Women 18-59 years old = >0.87 High Risk Know the weight status classifications using BMI Underweight=<18.5 Normal= 18.5-24.9 Overweight= 25-29.9 Obese= >30 Know each of the techniques for measuring body fat percentage o Know the names of the methods and the equipment involved -Hydrostatic (underwater weigh in): % of fat vs non-fat calculated by density (3% error) The Bod Pod- amount of air displaced by a person in a small chamber is measured by computerized sensors (2-4% error) -skin fold: take measurements of 3 locations and use measurements to calculate using equation -women: triceps, waist, thigh -men: chest, abdominal, thigh -Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)- electrical current is sent through the body & the resistance of the body to it is recorded Different type of devices: BIA, multi-frequency, BIS. (TBW) Muscle vs. Fat Estimates how much water in the body to determine body composition Error rate of about ± 4-5% Chapter 7 Be able to list and define each of the 7 steps to putting together a fitness program 1. Goals -short term goals: increase VOx max, reduce mile time, lower body fat by 3% a week etc -long term goals: lower chronic health risks, improve posture, improve energy 2. Activities Factors such as skill, cost, fitness, fun, lifestyle 3. FITT Principle Frequency (how long), Intensity (how hard), Time (duration), Type (what kind) 4. Mini goals & rewards system Keep yourself on track, small rewards, positive gratification 5. Lifestyle physical activity Use campus, 10,000 steps, go outside 6. Tools for monitoring Track progress, keep it fun, measure what works 7. Commitment Stay loyal to what you said you were going to do Chapter 8 Be able to do define a calorie and know how many kcal/g are in carbs, fat, protein, and alcohol 4 kcal/g carbs 4 kcal/g proteins 9 kcal/g fat Know the 6 essential nutrients (macro vs. micro) o Proteins (10-35%) Know the difference between essential vs. nonessential amino acids Know the difference between complete and incomplete proteins Do NOT provide ALL essential amino acids (9 essential amino acids) Complete provides all essential amino acids (poultry and other meats) o Fat (20-35% of diet) Be able to define, saturated, unsaturated, polyunsaturated and trans fats Saturated: solid at room temperature, not want lots of these, animal fat Unsaturated: liquid at room temperature, mostly plant fats, Polyunsaturated: omega-3 (fish, nuts, oil), omega-6 (corn, soy beans) Trans-fat: turn liquidfat through deep frying with unsaturatedbecome more stable after hydrogenation o Carbohydrates (45-65% of diet) Know the difference between simple and complex carbs Simple: sweetness, glucose, sucrose, maltose Complex: slower to digest, contain fiber Know which types of food are in each group and their effect on blood sugar o Vitamins Know difference between fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins and which vitamins make up each group Fat-soluble: D, E, A, K Water-soluble: B, C Know how to read a food label o Determine serving sizes o Calculate kcal when given grams (example: 14g fat: 14g x 9kcal/g = 126kcal) o Calculate %daily values Know the difference between nutrient dense and energy dense foods Energy-dense: high in caloric, junk food, empty calories Nutrient dense: low in caloric, high fiber high vitamin Chapter 9 Be able to explain resting metabolic rate (RMR) and what features can impact it RMR= energy required to maintain vital body functions -higher in men, people with more muscle mass, people who exercise -lower in women, people who are sedentary, people who have lost weight Know the 3 factors that contribute to excess body weight and be able to describe each. (Genetic, Lifestyle and physiological). Genetic: • More than 600 genes linked to obesity – Size – Shape – BF distribution • If both parents obese, 80% risk for child Physiological: • Metabolism = sum of all vital processes by which food energy and nutrients are made available and used by the body • Resting metabolic rate (RMR) = energy required to maintain vital body functions; the largest component of metabolism Lifestyle: • Eating – Eating out – Calorie-dense – Underestimating portion size • PA Levels – 60% overweight cases linked with TV viewing • Psychosocial Factors – SES • Income Level Influence • Women/Lower • Men/Higher Know the Pros and Cons to each 7 of the approaches to overcoming a weight problem 1. Doing it yourself: don’t try to lose more than 0.5-2 lbs per week, combine workout with balanced diet 2. Diet books: avoid diets that say to cut out whole food groups, accept diet books that encourage a balanced diet and exercise 3. Dietary supplements and diet aids 4. Weight-loss programs: non commercial weight lose programs, promote slow and steady weight loss 5. Prescription drugs: can cause moderate weight loss however can have many adverse side effects 6. Surgery: usually recommended for people that have a BMI >40 or 100 lbs overweight, gastric bypass= create smaller pouch 7. Psychological help= should seek out help for body image and weight loss issues Define and list each of the body image disorders • Body image is the mental representation a person holds about her or his body – perceptions, images, thoughts, attitudes, and emotions • A negative body image is characterized by dissatisfaction with body in general or some part of the body in particular • Different cultures have different ideas of the “ideal” body type Define and list each of the eating disorders • An eating disorder is a serious disturbance in eating pattern or behavior, characterized by a negative body image and concerns about body weight or body fat • Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by a refusal to maintain body weight at a minimally healthy level and an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat. – Affects 1% of Americans, or about 3 million Americans, 95% being female – Typically develops between ages 12 and 18 – Based on a distorted body image – Consequences result in severe medical complications, including death • Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating and purging. – Begins in adolescence (11-12 years) or older (40-60 years) – Research suggests that about 5% of college-age women have bulimia – During a binge, a person may rapidly consume thousands of calories. – Binge-purge cycle places tremendous stress on the body Chapter 10 Be able to define the central, peripheral, somatic, autonomic, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems Autonomic Parasympathetic: “rest and digest” in control when you are relaxed Sympathetic: activated during a time of arousal (excitement, emergencies, pain, fear) Know the names and effects of each chemical messenger • Norepinephrine (noreadrenaline) - neurotransmitter released by the sympathetic division to increase body functions; increases attention, awareness, alertness – Tells body to use energy in response to a crisis. • Epinephrine (adrenaline)- hormone secreted by the inner core of the adrenal gland that affects the function of organs. • Cortisol - steroid hormone secreted by the outer layer of the adrenal gland • Endorphin - chemicals that the brain secretes to inhibit pain. Understand the flight-or-flight reaction and how it affects the body Defense mechanism that prepares the body for some kind of reaction, either conflict or escape o HR, vision, sweat, respirations, blood sugar etc. HR increases, vision and hearing become acute, liver releases extra blood sugar, sweat increases to cool rising body temperature Be able to list and define each of the personality types o Know several of the characteristics of each personality type Type A: ultracompetitive, controlling, impatient, aggressive, hostile o Easily upset; react explosively to stressors o Type B: relaxed, tolerant of others o React more calmly to stressors o Type C: difficulty expressing emotions, anger suppression, feelings of hopelessness and despair o Exaggerated stress response o Know how each type reactions to stress Know the common sources of stress Job, relationship, environment, and internal Know several ways you can manage stress Exercise, sleep, social, communication, spiritual awareness Notes from review day: -field method for BMI/ %fat is through skin fold test cheap, saves time -understand BMI and body fat % -concept of progressive overload -specificity ( of an exercise) -essential v nonessential amino acids -metabolic rate is higher in males because there is a higher muscle mass -losing weight is a balance of what you are taking in vs what you are expending -fats contain more kcals therefore more nutrient dense -subcutaneous (under skin) vs visceral fat (surrounds organs) visceral is more dangerous -triglycerides appear in body>150 -HDL(40-60)= good cholesterol, (LDL >130)= bad cholesterol -know the chart stating % of how we expend energy
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