Test 1 Study Guide
Test 1 Study Guide BSC 108
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristen Walsh on Thursday January 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 108 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Yates in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 592 views.
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Date Created: 01/29/15
BCS 108 Study Guide Test 1 Chapters 14 What is Biology Biology is the study of life What are the three domains There are three main groups of life 0 O Eukarya Eukaryotic cells organisms with a true nucleus Bacteria Prokaryotic cells 0 Archae Prokaryotic cells What are the four kingdoms in Eukarya Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Animalia Protista multiple kingdoms diverse group consisting of algae kelp protozoa slime molds Mostly made up of single celled organelle What are the properties of life There are seven properties of life 1 2 6 7 Order all living things have a complex ordered organization Regulation all living things have the ability to adjust their internal environments to survive in their drastically changing outside environments Growth and Development the information in DNA controls the growth and development in an organelle Energy Processing Organisms take in energy to perform life activities and emit energy as heat Response to the environment all organisms respond to environmental stimuli Reproduction Organisms reproduce their own kind Evolution With reproduction comes changes in population over time How do you define something as living Anything that is complex and made of chemicals Something that needs to eat food We recognize life mainly by what living things do What are some common themes in Biology The scientific explanation for O O The unity of life I There are many characteristics common to different species For example the universal genetic language of DNA The diversity of life I Taxonomy is the branch of biology that names and classifies species Puts species into a hierarchy What is the scientific method Hypothesis tentative explanation for an observation Observations lead to questions and questions lead to a hypothesis 0 Failure to falsify a hypothesis does not prove it 0 Used to solve everyday problems Experiment design an experiment that tests the hypothesis Results what are the results of the experiment Conclusions what conclusion can you make based off of the results What is a theory Much broader than a hypothesis formed from multiple hypotheses Comprehensive statement about the world that is supported by an accumulation of extensive and varied evidence Theories can be changed but it is rare What are the limits of science Science is not the only way to understand nature Cannot address every question posed by man Religion and art are other methods used to understand the world we live in What is an element Substance which cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical reactions 92 naturally occurring elements 103 total Most common elements 0 Hydrogen H 0 Carbon C o Nitrogen N 0 Oxygen O 0 Phosphorus P o Sulfur S What is an atom Atom is the smallest unit of an element that has all its properties Composed of o Protons a subatomic particle with a single unit of positive electrical charge found in the nucleus 0 Electrons a subatomic particle with a single unit of negative charge orbits the nucleus 0 Neutron electrically neutral found in the nucleus Neutral Atom an atom that contains the same number of electrons and protons What is an Ion An atom or molecule where the total number of electrons does not equal the total number of protons making the atom or molecule a positive or negative electrical charge What is an isotope Have the same number of protons and electrons but a different number of neutrons Forms of an element that differ in mass What is a radioactive isotope When the nucleus decays giving off particles of energy Can be harmful to living organisms by damaging DNA What is Energy The capacity to do work make a change in matter Ioining atoms or breaking up molecules take energy Potential Energy stored energy in the bonds that hold atoms together Kinetic Energy doing work energy is released when bonds that hold atoms together are broken 0 When electrons move to a lower energy level energy is released What is a trace element Required in small amounts but people cannot live without them Less than 001 of body weight is made up of trace elements Electron Shells First shell 2 electrons Second shell 8 electrons Third Shell 8 Electrons Atomic Number and Atomic Mass Atomic Number the number of protons in an atoms nucleus determines which element it is Atomic Mass the number of protons the number of neutrons What are the different types of Bonds Ionic The attraction between oppositely charged ions the strongest bond Covalent when two atoms share one or more pairs of outershell electrons Hydrogen Unequal sharing of electrons important in biological molecules the weakest bond Peptide Bond a chemical bond formed between the carboxyl group and the amino group while releasing a water molecule dehydration synthesis reaction Water Chemistry Life is tied to water it only occurs where liquid water is present Water is 60 of the mass of organisms Water is a solvent chemical reactions take place in water Water transports substances from one place in the body to the other and helps regulate body temperature and lowers body temperature by evaporation Properties of Water Ice Formation 0 When water freezes it expands and oats due to the formation of a crystalline structure 0 Ice is less dense than water causing it to oat which is a consequence of hydrogen bonding I This supports life on earth by keeping large bodies of water from entirely freezing in the winter 0 When water freezes the molecules get further away from one another When water is exposed to heat it first absorbs it before its temperature rises because it is first used to break hydrogen bonds Cohesion attraction between like molecules Adhesion attraction between different molecules Water is a polar molecule and has an unequal charge distribution Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with one another and with other molecules Only substances that are ionic or polar will dissolve in water 0 Hydrophilic water loving polar o Hydrophobic a substance that is nonpolar and will not dissolve readily in water oils and fats Solvent the dissolving agent of a solution water Solute The substance that is dissolved salt Solution a liquid that is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances PH Levels PH Scale a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution Measure how acidic or basic The scale goes from Zero most acidic to 14 most basic PH changes of body uids affect how molecules are transported across membranes how rapidly chemical reactions take place and the shape of proteins 0 Acid a chemical compound that releases H to a solution A solution is acidic if it lt7 on the PH scale I Lemon Juice I Black Coffee I Urine 0 Base a compound that accepts H and removes them from a solution A solution is basic if it ranges from gt7on the PH scale I Seawater I Household bleach I Oven Cleaner 0 Neutral a compound is neutral when it is at 7 on the PH scale I Pure Water 0 Buffers buffers are substances that resist changes in pH I Bicarbonate HC03 39 is an important buffer in body and environment Dehydration Synthesis Removes equivalent of a water molecule to link molecular units Requires energy Builds macromolecules from smaller subunits Hydrolysis adds the equivalent of a water molecule to break apart macromolecules Releases energy Four Basic Macromolecules Carbohydrates o Monosaccharide I Simple sugars Glucose Fructose Galactose Ribose Deoxyribose I Main fuel that cells use for cellular work 0 Disaccharide I Two monosaccharides linked together by dehydration synthesis I A double sugar Sucrose glucose fructose most common table sugar Maltose glucose glucose Lactose glucose galactose people who have trouble digesting lactose are lactose intolerant o Polysaccharide polymers I Complex carbohydrates I Long chains of sugar units I Store energy thousands of monosaccharides joined in chains and branches Starch made in plants stores energy Glycogen made in animals stores energy Cellulose indigestible polysaccharide made in plants for structural support 0 Most abundant organic compound on earth 0 Subunits are sugars 0 Sugars that have two main forms I Simple is absorbed and digested faster I Complex 0 Stores energy I Animals glycogen I Plants starch Lipids 0 Complex group of molecules 0 Hydrophobic not soluble in water 0 Triglycerides I Composed of two molecules glycerol and fatty acids I Energy storage I Insulation of warmblooded animals I Cushion internal organs 0 Phospholipids I Composite molecules I Contains glycerol 2 fatty acids andPO4 I Part of molecule associates with water part of it does not I Phospholipid bilayers form structure of most biological membranes 0 Steroids I Stabilize membranes cholesterol I Chemical messengers sex hormones testosterone estradiol Fatty acids 0 Saturated no double bonds solid animal 0 Unsaturated contain one or more double bonds liquid is in plants Proteins o All proteins are constructed from a common set of 20 kinds of amino acids Nucleic Acids High Fructose Corn Syrup HFCS 55 mostly used in soft drinks HFCS 42 used in beverages processed foods cereals and backed goods HFCS9O used in small quantities for specialty applications Trans Fat a type of saturated fat that is harmful to humans Organic Molecules Carbon building block of living things 0 Forms four covalent bonds 0 Forms single or double bonds 0 Can build macromolecules or micromolecules o Covalently compatible with many element I Hydrogen I Nitrogen I Carbon I Oxygen Hydrocarbons are the simplest organic compounds consisting of only hydrogen and carbon atoms 0 Methane is the simplest Protein Folding Proteins shape is sensitive to the surrounding environment Denaturation where the protein unravels and loses shape Caused by unfavorable temperature and changes in pH Misfolded proteins 0 Alzheimer s disease 0 Parkinson s disease 0 Mad cow disease Who won the Nobel Prize for the Nature Paper describing the double helix Francis Crick James Watson Maurice Wilkins DNA cells genetic material inherited from their parents that resides in cells in long fibers called chromosomes Two strands form together to form a double helix A pairs with T G pairs with C Found in the mitochondria of animals and the chloroplasts of plants RNA Ribonucleic acid Usually single stranded Is made in the nucleus Uses sugar ribose and the base uracil U instead of thymineT What is a cell Organisms basic units Lowest level of organization that can perform all activities Enclosed by a membrane and use DNA for process of life Prokaryotic 0 Has a rigid cell wall 0 Smaller the eukaryotic cells 0 Lacks a nucleus 0 Lacks internal structures surrounded by membranes Eukaryotic 0 Has a nucleus Microscopes Light Microscopes used to explore the structures and functions of cells Electron Microscope uses a beam of electrons two types 0 Scanning electron microscopes examine cell surfaces 0 Transmissions electron microscopes useful for internal details of cells Cytoplasm found in all cells The area within the membrane not including organelles Plasma Membrane found in all cells Phospholipid bilayer that creates a selective barrier that separates the living cell from its nonliving surroundings It is a twolayered membrane Organelle a membrane enclosed structure with a specialized function within a eukaryotic cell Ribosome tiny structures that build proteins Endomembrane system Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi Apparatus Lysosomes Vacuoles Nuclear Envelop Cilia and Flagella What moves the cell Motile appendages o Flagella propel the cell in a whip like motion 0 Cilia move in a coordinated back and forth
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