TEST 3 STUDY GUIDE
TEST 3 STUDY GUIDE 101/41603
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1 PATRIARCHATES/PATRIARCHAL SEES(=CITIES) LIST THE 5 PATRIARCHAL CITIES: PLACES Carthage: Hippo: Milan: The Age of Persecution 1. The post-‐‑apostolic period saw intermittent local persecutions throughout the Empire with two Empire wide persecutions. With respect to the persecutions, Tertullian wrote “The blood of the martyrs is the seed of the Church.” Explain what he meant using the story of PErpetua in your answer. 2. Using Perpetua’s story as an example, explain the impact upon a family of having a family member convert to Christianity. 3. Take the position of P’s son (as a teen), husband, mother and write a one paragraph “letter” to her telling her how you feel about her decision to become a Christian. The Age of “Heresies,” “Heretics” and “Defenders of the Faith.” 1. Even today people grapple with questions regarding Jesus’ humanity and divinity. Referring to the “heresies” and “heretics” that abounded prior to 451, identify the issues and explain how different heretics struggled to answer these questions. 2. Anselm of Canterbury puzzles about why God became human in the second Christian millennium. What conclusion does he reach? Chapter 9: The Age of the Imperial Church 1. The filioque has divided Orthodox and Roman Catholics for over 1000 years. What is the filioque and why is it such a divisive issue? 2. In what ways did Constantine affect the development of the Christian tradition for good and for “ill” ? 2 3. What were the positive and negative aspects of Christian devotion to the Roman Empire after 313? 4. What was the status of the Bishop/Patriarch of Rome with respect to the Universal Church i.e. the other Patriarchs during the 4 and 5 centuries? 5. Some scholars maintain that one of the worst things that happened to Christianity was when it became the religion of the Empire. Explain. Chapter 10: Augustine of Hippo Book 1 1. To whom is the Confessions addressed? That is, to whom does the author appear to be speaking? What kind of literary work is it (e.g. novel, poem, prayer, speech)? 2. In the Confessions iii (3), Augustine struggles with the claim that God is everywhere and in everything. What is his problem? What solution, does he come to, if any? 3. In Confessions iv (4), Augustine writes in antitheses (pairs of opposites) about God. How would Augustine answer these questions about God: Does God exist? Is God personal or impersonal? Is God good or evil? How much does God know? What does God do? How does God interrelate with humans? 4. In Confessions vii (11), Augustine begins to talk of the "sin" of his infancy (p. 8). What was this sin? Why do people "smilingly tolerate" it? Do you agree with Augustine that humans are influenced by sin from the very beginning of their lives? 6. In Confessions xi (17-18), Augustine tells the story of an illness that almost led to his being baptized in childhood. 'Why did his family want to baptize him when he was sick? Why did they put off his baptism again when he got well? 7. Augustine ends Book I with a thanksgiving [xx(31), p. 22-23]. What does he thank God for? What sin does he acknowledge? Book II 1. In Book II of the Confessions, section i (1), Augustine gives the reason for recalling the "wicked ways" of his adolescence. What is it? 2. In Confessions ii (2), what does Augustine say was the basic problem or sin of his adolescence? Why is this a problem? 3 3. From Confessions ii (3), give some concrete examples of what Augustine means when he says that someone should have imposed restraint on his disorder in order that "the fleeting experiences of beauty in these lowest of things" might have been transformed. 4. In Confessions iii (6), how did Augustine's father see that his son was becoming sexually mature? What did he think and do in response? What did Augustine think was wrong with his father's reaction? 5. In Confessions iv (9)-vi (12), Augustine reflects on a theft he committed. What did he steal? What was the role of peer pressure in this act of theft? What was there about the incident that especially upset Augustine as he thinks back on it? 6. What does Augustine mean when he says that the "soul fornicates" (vi)? In this context what does he mean when he says "friendship can be a dangerous enemy" (ix)? CTT 1. Explain how the rise of monasticism affected the way that Augustine understood marriage in his Confessions. 2. Explain the three “conversions” Augustine underwent on his “journey” to Christianity. 3. Take the position of Augustine’s son or the mother of his son or his father or one of the many women he slept with and write a 1 paragraph letter to Augustine telling him how you feel about his decision to join a monastery. Chapter 13: Christianity in the Early Medieval Period 1. Who was Gregory I? What were his major accomplishments i.e. “What’s so great about Gregory the Great?” 2. Who was Gregory VII? Christianity in the High Middle Ages: Chapter 14 4 1. Describe the relationship between Christians and Jews during the High Middle Ages. What were the conditions that brought about discrimination against the Jews and persecution in this period? 2. What various motives inspired the military campaigns called the crusades? Who started the movement? Against whom were they directed? 3. How did the new mendicant religious orders of the High Middle Ages differ from the monastic orders. Eastern and Western Expressions of Christianity 1. Until 1054 Christianity exemplified “diversity in Unity” having a multitude of expressions of the faith in Eastern and Western form. However, the East and West grew apart. How and why did this occur? What precipitated “The Great Schism” in 1054? 2. In 787 at the Council of Nicea II, in the face of the expansion of Islam, the Church grappled with whether to adorn its churches with artistic representations of the faith or not and decided that it must. A classic example of this are the “Icons” that adorn Eastern Churches. Explain what an icon is and its importance in Eastern Christianity. 3. What are the important elements to remember when praying with icons? What would be an example of a Western “icon”? Vocabulary: 1. Theotokos a. Father, Son , Holy Spirit 2. Gnosticism b. Spread of Greek Culture 3. Manicheism c. Makes Christianity legal in the empire 4. Bishop d. People who hold the belief that Jesus is less than God 5. Chalcedon e. Part of the trinity 6. Filioque f. Accepts Jesus had 2 natures-‐‑ son of Mary and son of God 5 7. Nestorians g. “enfleshment”; doctrine that asserts God became human 8. Hellenization h. Tribe in North Africa that Augustine came from 9. Creed i. “knowledge”; belief that there was 2 gods-‐‑ heaven and earth 10. Holy Spirit j. “god bearer” 11. Jerusalem Council k. Dualistic religion around God Mani-‐‑ dualism of evil matter and good spirit 12. Nicene Council l. “the son”: western Christians later added to the Creed 13. Edict of Toleration m. “to seem”; Jesus Christ did not really become human; could not suffer or die 14. Diaspora n. A short summary of beliefs and a teaching instrument 15. Berbers o. Means “overseer”; first overseer of local churches; later, overseer of dioceses 16. Docetism p. Christianity is tolerated 17. Manicheism q. Group of Christians who split-‐‑ said clergy needed to be free from any sin to administer sacrament 18. Incarnation r. Dispersion of Jewish people outside Jewish homeland in Palenstine 19. Ariansim s. Meeting to determine whether Gentiles/converts needed to follow Jewish law 20. Satisfaction Theory of Atonement t. Question of Jesus’ human and divine nature; said Jesus completely human and divine 6 21. Canon of Scripture u. Defends the full divinity of Jesus and condemns Arius 22. Donatism v. Four distinguishing characteristics of the church: one, holy, catholic and apostolic 23. Marks of the Church w. The books that are considered the authoritative Word of God 24. Trinity x. Anselm’s theory; Jesus Christ suffered as a substitute for human sin People: 1. Adeodatus a. Priest who taught only God the father was God; Jesus= less 2. Anthansius b. His sermons inspired Augustine 3. Augustine c. Friend of Perpetua; died a martyr 4. Constantine d. Bishops of one of the leading seats of early Christianity 5. Perpetua e. “Gift of God”: son of Augustine 6. Iraeneus f. Bishop of Alexandria and opponent of Arius 7. Patriarch g. Opposition to Donatism and Palladianism; wrote “Confessions” 8. Tertullian h. Benedictine monk who is known for “debt satisfaction” theory and ontological argument 9. Marcion i. Christian martyr 10. Nestorius j. First Christian emperor of Rome; paved way for Christianity 11. Arius k. Bishop of church of lyons; wrote “Against Heresis” 7 12. Ambrose l. Taught that the God of the Old Testament was not the true God rather the true God had been revealed only with Jesus Christ 13. Anselm m. “the blood of martyrs is the seed of the Church” 14. Felicitas n. Patriarch of Constantinople; said it was not right to call Mary the Mother of God Dates: 1. 250 CE a. council of Chalcedon 2. 787 Ce b. Council of Ephesus 3. 381 CE c. last empire wide persecutions 4. 325 CE d. Perpetua and companions martyred at Carthage 5. 202/203 CE e. edict of Milan 6. 301-‐‑311 CE f. Council called to discuss Heresies (Nicaea) 7. 313 CE g. 2 council of Nicaea 8. 451 CE h. Christianity becomes religion of the empire 9. 380 CE i. empire wide persecutions 10. 431 CE j. Nicene creed expanded at the council of Constantinople Councils: 1. Jerusalem a. Called by: Pope Leo 8 Year: 451 CE Settle: Monophysitism; Christ only has one nature-‐‑ blend of human and divine Verdict: Christ was one person but two natures-‐‑ helped put Pope as leader of Church 2. Nicaea 2 b. Called by: Theodosius II Year: 431 CE Settle: Nestorius said Mary cannot be the Mother of God Verdict: Christ has two natures-‐‑ Divine and human-‐‑ Mary is the Theotokos 3. Constantinople c. Called by: Constantine Year: 325 CE Settle: Arius claimed Christ was created by the Father and adopted as His Son Verdict: Declared Christ is one being with the Father and developed the Nicene Creed 4. Ephesus d. Called by: Theodosius I Year: 381 CE Settle: The divinity of the Holy Spirit Verdict: Added the Holy Spirit to the Creed 5. Chalcedon e. Called by: Empress Irene Year: 757 Settle: define the veneration due to holy images Verdict: Symbols and icons of Jesus 9 Christ should be displayed 6. Nicaea 1 f. Year: 50 CE Settle: Can Gentiles become Christians without converting to Judaism? Verdict: Yes; do not need to follow Jewish law