Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide HDF 213
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jacobi Johnson on Sunday November 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HDF 213 at Central Michigan University taught by Angera, Jeffrey in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 161 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Human Sexuality in Human Development at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 11/15/15
Exam #3 Study Guide HDF 213 Chapter 10 Contraception History • Although we often take it for granted, contraception is a relatively new development. Methods available and laws concerning their use have been generally restrictive. • Margaret Sanger most instrumental in promoting changes in birth control legislation and availablility. She opened an illegal clinic, which she was later prosecuted for. After fleeing to Europe, Sanger returned to the US and worked to promote research of birth control hormones. • It was not until 1960 that birth control pills became available. • Prior to 1965, states could legally prohibit the use of contraceptives between married people. • In 1972, the US decriminalized the use of contraception by single people. • For the typical heterosexual women may need contraception for 30+ years since she is only trying to reproduce for a tiny percentage of her life. • A significant increase in teen contraceptive use has been seen over the past 20 years. However, the US still has among the highest rates of teen pregnancy, birth, and abortion. • Objections to contraception often stem from religious beliefs. • An estimated 63% of the worldwide population uses contraceptives. Choosing a Birth Control Method • Couples share the contraceptive decision. This can enhance the relationship and be a good way to initiate conversation about personal and sexual topics. • An ideal method of birth control isn’t currently available, so a variety of factors (effectiveness, cost, potential side effects, etc.) may help determine which method to use • Effectiveness can be best evaluated by looking at the failure rate the number of women out of 100 who become pregnant by the end of one year of use of a contraceptive. • The most important variable of method effectiveness is human error. • Often, people turn to backup methods contraceptives used simultaneously with another method to support it. • Outercourse, or noncoital forms of sexual intimacy, can be a viable form of birth control. HormoneBased Contraceptives • Oral contraceptives are the most commonly used reversible method of birth control used in the US today. • The estrogen prevents ovulation, while the progestin thickens and acidifies the cervical mucus and the lining of the uterus. • Most oral contraceptives are taken every day for a 28 day cycle. Forgetting to take a pill or taking the pills at different times of day sharply reduces the effectiveness. • The constantdose combination pill uses two constant doses of two hormones, estrogen and progestin (a progesteronelike substance). • The triphasic pill varies the doses of estrogen and progesterone. • Seasonale is an extended cycle pill that reduces menstrual cycles from 13 to 4 a year. • The progestinonly pill uses a constant dose of only progestin. • The vaginal ring and transdermal patch work by releasing hormones into the bloodstream. Both must be replaced once every 3 weeks. • Injected contraceptives, such as DepoProvera or Lunelle, may be injected once every 12 weeks. • Contraceptive implants, such as Implanon, may be used for up to 3 years. Barrier and Spermicide Methods • Condom a sheath that fits over the penis and is used to block sperm from reaching an ovum. • They are the only form of birth control available for men and the only form that effectively reduces transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. • Must be used before any genital contact occurs to thoroughly prevent pregnancy. • The female condom resembles the male counterpart but is worn internal by the woman. • Vaginal spermicides foam, cream, jelly, suppositories, and film that contain a chemical that kills sperm. • can be less effective, so they may be used in conjunction with condoms. • Cervical barrier devices these devices (often used in conjunction with spermicide) fit snugly around the cervix to prevent impregnation. They should remain in place for at least 8 hours to allow the spermicide to work properly. Intrauterine Devices • An intrauterine device is a small, plastic device that is inserted into the uterus. • Both the copper and progestin in these devices help prevent pregnancy. • They should be inserted by a health care professional. Other Types • When unprotected intercourse occurs, people often turn to emergency contraception such as a pill or IUD. • Fertility awareness methods, such as the standard days method (abstaining from sexual contact for 12 days in the middle of the menstrual cycle), the calendar method (abstaining from sexual contact during the fertile period), the mucus method (tracking changes in cervical mucus), and the basal body temperature method (tracking body temp) may also be used to help decrease or even increases chances of becoming pregnant. • Sterilization refers to the permanent removal of the ability to have children. This can be done in both males and females. • For females, sterilization can be accomplished in two ways. Tubal sterilization is accomplished by severing or typing the fallopian tubes, and transcervical sterilization is accomplished by inserting something into the vagina that slowly grows tissue that blocks the fallopian tubes. • Approximately 25% of fertile married women use sterilization as their method of BC. • For males, a vasectomy may be performed by severing and cauterizing the vas deferens. This is a minor surgery that only takes around 20 minutes. • Unreliable methods such as nursing, douching, and the withdrawal methods are often used, but they are not reliable enough to fully prevent pregnancy. New Directions in Contraception • Possible contraceptive methods for men in the future include the use of hormonal and non hormonal methods to reduce the production and motility of sperm or to create a “dry orgasm”. • Possible contraceptive methods for women in the future include nonhormonal contraception, variations of the IUD, and new methods for delivering hormones. Chapter 12 Sexuality during Childhood and Adolescence • It is often believe that the period between birth and puberty is a period of sexual dormancy, but this is rarely the case in real life. • Data on childhood sexuality is scarce, as research is limited due to a number of factors. • Many experiences during formative years help shape the future expression of adult sexuality. • In the first 2 years of life, often call infancy, many girls and boys discover the pleasure of genital stimulation. • Infants have been observed experiencing what appears to be an orgasm. • The largest study was done a couple years ago by interviewing mothers of children ages 212. • The inclination we have as adults toward giving and receiving affection seem to be related to our early opportunities for warm, pleasurable contact with significant others, especially parents. • Rhythmic manipulation of the genitals associated with adult masturbation generally does not occur until 2 and a half or 3 years of age. • Masturbation is a common and natural expression of sexuality throughout the childhood years. • Parental reactions to self pleasuring can be an important influence on developing sexuality. • Telling them to stop this behavior rarely eliminates it, and just magnifies the guilt and anxiety associated with these behaviors. • Prepubertal children also engage in play that could be considered sexual activities ranging from exhibition and inspection of the genitals to simulating intercourse. • Curiosity about what is forbidden plays an important role in encouraging early sexual exploration. • Children in the age 57 range often mirror the heterosexual marriage script, often by playing house. • By ages 89, boys and girls play separately. Sex play decreases, but interest does not. Often, sex play is limited to same sex contact. • By 1011, kids are quite interested in their body changes and begin to anticipate puberty. The Physical Changes of Adolescence • Puberty a period of rapid physical changes that occurs in early adolescence during which the reproductive organs occur. • Between ages 8 and 14, gonadotrophins, or pituitary hormones that stimulate activity in the gonads (ovaries and testes) begin to be secreted into the bloodstream. • Secondary sex characteristics physical characteristics other than genital development that indicate sexual maturity such as body hair, breasts, and deepened voice. • The median age for menarche (first period) is 1213 years old. • In boys, the prostate gland and seminal vesicles increase noticeably in size during puberty. Ejaculation is not possible until this happens. • Voice changes occur in both sexes. • Boygirl friendships change, and both sexes begin to be homosocial. Sexual Behavior during Adolescence • Adolescence is a period of exploration sexuality included. • Emphasis on gender role differentiation increases during this period, especially with sexual activity. Sexual permissiveness is different for both genders. • Masturbation increases in frequency from ages 1319. • Noncoital sex, or physical contact such as kissing, touching, or manual or oralgenital stimulation provides a great way for teens to explore without being too “unacceptable” or risky. • As the teen ages, ongoing sexual contact (such as in relationships) becomes more common • Sexting sending sexually suggestive photos or messages via the internet, cell phones, etc. • The incidence of adolescent coitus has increased. Reasons for this include an accelerated output of hormones, curiosity, or a sense of readiness. • Factors that predispose teens to early coitus include poverty, family conflict, lack of education, lack of supervision, substance abuse, lack of self esteem, etc. • Factors that predispose teens to delay coitus include strong religious beliefs and a strong connectedness with friends. • Teenagers engage in blogging, social networking with peers, seeking health information, accessing pornography, researching school topics, and posting personal profiles • Adolescent multiperson sex (MPS), consensual or coerced, is a growing concern. • 1 in 10 teens experience samesex sexual contact. This can be experimental or a true expression of one’s sexuality. • Gays, lesbians, and bisexual teenagers frequently encounter adverse societal reactions to their sexual orientation. Adolescent Pregnancy • Even though the incidence of adolescent pregnancy has gone down, the US still has the highest rate of teen pregnancy among the Western industrialized nations. • Approximately 750,000 unmarried US adolescent females become pregnant each year. Adolescent pregnancy is associated with social, medical, educational, and financial difficulties. • Many adolescents who have intercourse do not use contraceptives consistently or effectively. • The low rate of contraceptive use among US adolescents is related to a number of factors such as ignorance, false beliefs, inadequate sex education, embarrassment over acquiring contraceptives, lack of communication with partners, etc. • Strategies for reducing the teen pregnancy rate include upgrading the family planning clinic system, establishing a compulsory national sex education curriculum, educating males on their contraceptive responsibility, providing access to condoms in middle and high schools, and increasing dialogue between parents and children about sex. Sex Education • We should start educating our kids on sex when they start asking questions. If communication does not spontaneously occur, it may be helpful for parents to initiate dialogue by sharing feelings or asking nonstressful, open ended questions. • Some important topics such as menstruation, first ejaculation, and nocturnal orgasms might not be discussed if parents don’t take the initiative. • Although most adolescents prefer their parents as the primary source of sex information, evidence indicates peers are considerably more likely to provide that information, often biased or incorrect. • Only a minority of American schools include comprehensive sex education in their curriculum. Research indicates that these programs increase the use of birth control, reduce teenage pregnancies, reduce high risk behavior, do not hasten the onset or frequency of sex, and do not increase the number of an adolescent’s sexual partners. Chapter 13 Sexuality and the Adult Years Single Living • Intimate relationships occupy a position of considerable significance in many adults’ lives. • Remaining single has become increasingly prominent lifestyle in the United States. This is partly due to men and women marrying later but many may prefer to not be in a committed relationship. Some single people may remain celibate, others have occasional sex, and others may practice serial monogamy. • Mary people experience higher levels of sexual activity and satisfaction in singles, but many singles claim their sex lives are more exciting. • The Internet has changed the dating world, making matchmaking dating sites available to all. Cohabitation • Cohabitation – living together and having a sexual relationship without being married. • This practice used to be quite unconventional. Common reasons people decide to cohabit or to spend more time together, for convenience, to evaluate compatibility, and to share expenses. • Domestic partnership – an unmarried couple living in the same household in a committed relationship. Ex) gays and lesbians. Marriage • Marriage involves a higher degree of commitment than cohabiting does. It typically provide stable family units, an economic partnership that integrates childrearing, performance of household tasks, earning an income, etc, as well as defining inheritance rights for property. • Collectivism vs. Individualism collectivist cultures emphasize group goals over individual aspirations, while individualistic cultures stress individual desires and goals over family interests. • Individualistic cultures have higher rates of failed marriage. • Polygamy a marriage between one man and several women. It is the most common form of marriage across the ages and remains prevalent in the Middle East and parts of Africa. • There are 60 million girls under 18 around the world who are already married, often due to poverty. • Matriarchal society society in which women carry him through the generations, and women govern the economic and social affairs of the community. • Married people tend to be happier and healthier physically and psychologically then unmarried people, but only if the marriage itself is healthy. • Children can be stressful to marriages. • Miscegenation, or sex between members of different races, was illegal until the US Supreme Court invalidated those laws in 1967. Because of this interracial marriage was banned in many states. • Over time, people have become more accepting of these marriages. • There are patterns one can track in order to predict marital satisfaction. Researchers suggest a ratio of five positive interactions to one negative interaction is key. • Married people appear to be engaging in a wider repertoire of sexual behaviors and enjoying sexual interaction more. • Relationship quality and sexual satisfaction are closely linked. Nonmonogamy • Nonmonogamy refers to sexual interaction outside a couple relationship, regardless of how serious it is. • Extramarital relationship a term used only for married couples. • Consensual extramarital relationships a sexual relationship that occurs outside of the marriage bond with the consent of one spouse. • Swinging the exchange of marital partners for sexual interaction. • Open marriage a marriage in which spouses with each other's permission to have intimate relationships with other people as well as with the marital partner • Polyamory multiple consensual sexual relationships of trios, groups of couples, and intentionally created families that emphasize emotional commitment. • Nonconsensual extramarital sex sexual interaction in which a married person engages in without the consent or knowledge of his or her spouse • The commonality of this is debated, as many don't want to admit it. • Reasons for cheating include a desire for excitement and variety, dissatisfaction with the current marriage, etc. • A recent 2011 study done by the NHSLS, it was reported that 25% of married men and 19% of married women have had an extramarital affair. • The internet has made it easier for people to get involved in affairs as well as for their spouses to figure out about them. • Involvement in an extra marital affair can have serious consequences for the participants including jealousy, loss of selfrespect, severe guilt, stress associated with living a secret life, damage to reputation, loss of love, and complications of sexuallytransmitted infections. Divorce • 43% of first marriages end in divorce within 15 years. • Divorce is increased dramatically from the 1950s to the late 1970s since the 1970s, there's been about one divorce for every two marriages. • Some of the causes of the high divorce rate or liberalization of divorce laws, a reduction in the social stigma attached to divorce, high expectations for marital and sexual fulfillment, and increased economic independence of women. • Women tend to report that their husbands problematic behavior lead to divorce, and men are more likely to say that they do not know what caused the divorce. • Divorce typically involves many emotional, sexual, interpersonal, and lifestyle changes and adjustments. Sexuality and Aging • The options for sexual expression change in the older years, and many individuals continue to enjoy their sexual relationships. About 50% of men and women age 60 or older report still maintaining a sex life • The double standard exists with aging too. • Good physical health and available partner often the most important variables in maintaining sexual functioning and satisfaction. • Gay men and lesbians may be better prepared to cope with aging, given the adversity they have already learn to face and the extensive network of friends they have often established. • Since men tend to die earlier, there are there are four widows for every widower. Chapter 14 Sexual Difficulties and Solutions • Research indicates that sexual problems are quite common, and can lead to lower satisfaction with overall life. • Sexual satisfaction is a subjective perception what clinicians consider a sexual problem may not be distressing or dissatisfying to the patient. • Women are generally more likely to report distress about sex. • To be accurately considered a sexual disorder the problem happens in spite of the person having adequate physical and psychological sexual stimulation. • Specific sexual difficulties • Desire phase difficulties • Hypoactive sexual desire disorder lack of interest prior to and during sexual activity • Desire discrepancy is the term used to describe the situation where preferences for frequency, type, and timing of sexual activities don't match up for couples. • Sexual aversion disorder extreme and rational fear of sexual activity, often with physical symptoms • Excitement phase difficulties • Female genital sexual arousal disorder persistent inability to attain or maintain the lubrication swelling response • Female subjective sexual arousal disorder absent or diminished awareness of physical arousal combined • Genital and subjective sexual arousal disorder absent or diminished subjective and physical sexual arousal • Persistent genital arousal disorder spontaneous, intrusive, and unwanted genital arousal • Erectile disorder consistent or recurring lack of an erection sufficiently rigid enough for penetrative sex, for at least 3 months • One in five men over 20 experience this, and incidence increases with age. • Orgasm phase difficulties • Female orgasmic disorder the absence, marked delay, or diminished intensity of orgasm • This can be situational, ex) possible while masturbating but not with a partner • Male orgasmic disorder the inability of a man to ejaculate during sexual stimulation from his partner. • About 8% of men experience this difficulty. • Premature ejaculation a pattern of ejaculation within 1 minute and an inability to delay ejaculation, resulting in a man’s impairing his or his partner’s pleasure. • Some people fake orgasms, which is problematic for a variety of reasons. • Dyspaurenia pain or discomfort during sexual intercourse. • Dyspaurenia is uncommon in men but it does occur. This could be due to inadequate hygiene, foreskin being too tight, infections of the urethra, or Peyronie’s disease abnormal fibrous tissue and calcium deposits in the penis. • Dyspaurenia in women is much more common. • Genitopelvic pain/penetration disorder occurs when pain happens during and after partial vaginal entry. • Vestibulodynia occurs when extreme pain happens at the entrance of the vagina. • Vaginismus involves involuntary spasmodic contractions of the muscles of the outer third of the vagina Origins of Sexual Difficulties • Physiological factors often play a role in sexual problems, so it is important to have a physical exam to try and rule them out. • Good health habits is closely tied to proper sexual functioning. • Things that may affect sexual functioning: • Chronic illnesses, such as diabetes, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and strokes • Medication or prescriptions such as psychiatric medication, antihypertensive medications, and other miscellaneous meds • Disabilities such as a spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, or blindness or deafness • Cultural influences strongly impact the way we feel about our sexuality. Negative childhood learning, the sexual double standard, a narrow definition of sexuality, and performance anxiety all can block or hinder natural sexual functioning. • Individual factors such as knowledge and attitudes, self concept, emotional difficulties, or sexual abuse and assault • Relationship factors such as ineffective communication, fears about pregnancy or STIs, and sexual orientation Basics of Sexual Enhancement and Sex Therapy • To improve sexual experiences, partners must often become more self aware, share knowledge, and be more communicative. • One coupleoriented activity used often in sex therapy is sensate focus. Sensate focus is a process of touching and communication used to enhance sexual pleasure and reduce performance pressure. • Masturbating in each others presence can be an excellent way for partners to indicate what touch they find arousing. • Therapy programs for women to learn to experience orgasm are based on progressive self awareness activities that lead to interaction with a partner. • Treatment for vaginismus also involves promoting increased self awareness and relaxation. Slowly, penetration may be attempted. • For men, a variety of approaches can help a man learn to delay ejaculation, such as taking antidepressants or using the stopstart technique. • Dealing with erectile dysfunction may involve medical treatments such as Viagra, penis pumps, or surgical treatments. • A behavioral approach to male orgasmic disorder combines selfstimulation, sensate focus, and eventually ends with ejaculation by the partner’s stimulation. • Many basic sex therapy techniques are used to help with hypoactive sexual desire disorder, and therapist also often include insight therapy in couples counseling. • Testosterone can be helpful for both men and women with low sexual desire, but its safety is not wellestablished. • Two nonprescription products have been shown a research to be helpful with low desire and arousal and women and other products are being studied. • Counseling is often helpful and sometimes necessary in overcoming sexual difficulties, but few people with problems seek help. A skilled therapist can provide useful information, problemsolving strategies, and sex therapy techniques. • It is unethical for a therapist to have sexual relations with a client, either during or after treatment.
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