BSC 101 Helms Exam 3 Study Guide
BSC 101 Helms Exam 3 Study Guide BSC 101
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Daniel Hemenway on Sunday November 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 101 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Helms in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 143 views. For similar materials see Concepts in Biology in Biological Sciences at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 11/15/15
BSC 101 Helms Exam 3 Study Guide Gain energy from cellulose o For us cellulose is Fiber Cows have a complex four stomach system that helps break cellulose down through microorganisms that house enzymes that break the bonds of the cellulose molecules Animals can be described as generalist or specialist feeders Generalist Opportunistic feeders eat a wide variety of foods Example Black bears Specialist Highly selective diet have adaptations for acquiring necessary nutrients from that particular food 1 Fluid Feeders organisms that ingest nutrient rich fluids Examples mosquito leech hummingbird 2 Bulk Feeders Use teeth and jaws to attack and feed on other organisms Many adaptations in teeth Carnivores Eat meat sharp teeth Herbivores Eat plant material clipping incisors big grinding molars Omnivores Generalist feeders sharp canines incisors molars 3 Filterfeeders Marine Freshwater Example 0 Sponges Whales Nutrition Specialization of biology that examines how nutrients are digested broken down or used in the body Nutrients Chemical substances essential for survival 0 Provide energy raw materials or supports body processe Macronutrients Organic molecule needed in large amounts 0 Large complex molecules 0 Carbohydrates 0 Proteins Lipids VVater Essential nutrients Body can t make it have to obtain it through diet BSC 101 Helms Exam 3 Study Guide Micronutrients Organic molecule needed in small amounts support metabolic processes Vitamins Minerals Proteins 0 We eat these in Meat fish beans nuts seeds eggs 0 Sequence chain of amino acids 0 Have diverse functions Hormones Enzymes any protein that speeds up a chemical reaction 0 Signaling molecules Complex carbohydrates energy storage molecules Starch Complex carbohydrates from plants OH groups all on the same side Cellulose structural carbohydrate used by plants to build their cell walls every other bond has OH groups sticking up Glycogen energy storage carbohydrates made by animals Lipids organic macronutrients greasy oily Triglycerides three fatty acids attached to glycerol 0 Can be energy 0 Protection 0 Nervous System 0 Insulation Vitamins Diverse group of organic chemicals that are generally required in small amounts by the body 0 Fatsoluble Watersoluble Minerals 0 Diverse functions Build bones and shells Transport oxygen and hemoglobin Assist enzymes Enzymes chemically digest food 0 Enzyme active site Substrate binds to enzyme Substrate is converted to products Products are released BSC 101 Helms Exam 3 Study Guide Substrate Starch Hydrolysis Using water to break Mouth Teeth Shred food and mix it in with saliva Salivary glands produce mucus and enzymes that begin digestion Mucus Water and enzymes Complex carbohydrates Pharynx the quotthroatquot Esophagus Connection between esophagus back of oral cavity and nasal cavity Both respiratory and digestive systems Stomach Muscular sack Mixing food Mixes with gastric hydrochloric acid Produces Pepsin digest protein Hydrolysis use water to break apart As the mixture of gastric juice and food khyme enters the small intestine Liver bile produced Gall bladder bile storage Pancreas Makes pancreatic juice rest of enzymes necessary to break down rest of macromolecules Bile Breaks down fat Breaks it down so there is greater surface area for it to be broken down by enzymes Small intestine Where end of chemical digestion takes place Where absorption takes place Finishes digestion Villi Fingerlike projections of cells that are facing the inside of he small intestine Large intestine also called the colon Reduces the amount of water in our feces Feces Mass of solid undigested matter eliminated from the body Antibiotics exert strong selective pressure on bacterial populations BSC 101 Helms Exam 3 Study Guide Beware of the common misconception Bacteria don t adapt to drugs the resistance has to already be present in the gene pool Does this mean we shouldn t ever use antibiotics No we should use them when they are absolutely needed Recall from earlier chapters that bacteria are prokaryotic Prokaryotic simple no membrane bound organelles They do have organelles made of protein All bacteria have a cell wall and some have a capsule Proteins comprising these are good for antibiotics Peptidoglycan Highly cross linked to form a rigid structure forms cell wall of bacterium a Capsule b Biofilm Survival and transmission of pathogens Bacterial Growth Binary Fission During cell division plasmids replicate Plasmids small circular piece of DNA not part of chromosome found in bacteria Plasmids can be exchanged between bacteria Bacterial pathogens advance through steps in the infectious disease cycle Series of steps that a bacteria or pathogen follows throughout the infection of its host Differs depending on the pathogen but provides framework Exposure Attaches to host target cell Damage or destruction of a host cell Pathogen exits host Viruses Nonliving Obligate intracellular parasites Composed of nucleic acid core Capsid protein coat protects nuclear material Some also have Envelope enveloped viruses Lipid rich coating around capsid host cells membrane BSC 101 Helms Exam 3 Study Guide Viruses are diverse Huge role of every organism on earth Host specific Vary in flow of genetic information Retroviruses Class of RNA viruses that have special enzyme that transform RNA in the virus into DNA then essentially hijack host cell to turn DNA back to RNA Viruses are difficult to treat mainly because of 1 High levels of mutation 2 Genetic recombination 3 The host cells can t die but that s where the viruses exist Target specific points in the replication cycle 1 Attachment 2 Nucleic acid synthesis 3 Assembly of viral proteins are three main lines of defense between pathogens and the body Body surfaces Tissues and blood Immune system Body surfaces Epidermis Outer most barrier Multiple cells deep Multiple layers Mucous membranes lines body cavities open to the outside Mucus mostly water glycoproteins adds thickness Creates barrier to keep things out Tissueblood defenses Phagocytosis Recognizes things that don t belong and engulfs them Antigens specific molecules on the surface of microbes that our body is able to detect as being quotout of place Phagocytes a special group of white blood cells that are able to recognize ingest and kill microbes that display nonself antigens on their surface Macrophage one type of phagocyte that is able to capture and ingest and destroy as many as 100 bacteria at a time BSC 101 Helms Exam 3 Study Guide Inflammatory Response nonspecific response to damage the response is the same every time 1 Damage to tissues releases histamines 2 Histamines bring change in capillaries causes swelling Swelling releases fluids 3 Phagocytes engulf bacteria dead cells and cellular debris 4 Platelets create dam to contain bacteria in area Adaptive immune system very specific white blood cells that identify very specific antigens Memory component respond better if exposed to same antigen a second time Lymphocytes 2 types constantly monitoring for things that are not supposed to be there 1 g Lymphocytes cells Found in gone Marrow mature and are educated in the spleen They recognize specific antigens 21 Lymphocytes cells Educated in the Ihymus Recognize quotselfquot vs quotnonselfquot Primary immune response Being expose to antigen for the first time Macrophage Engulfs pathogen and gives receptors antigens to Helper Tcells Helper Tcells Activates Bcells Bcells Help recognize antigen again for future Antibodies Yshaped protein that recognize specific antigen presented by the macrophage Bcells also produce memory cells which are part of the secondary immune response Primed and recognized antigen but don t make antibodies Just replicates itself Expose to antigen a second time Getting memory Have quicker response very fast production of antibodies Attacking and destroying infected cells Killer Tcells Kill cells already infected Bind to any cell showing infection BSC 101 Helms Exam 3 Study Guide Modification of diet and lifestyle have resulted in high levels of preventable chronic disease in the human population which is projected to increase by 1520 in the next 10 years Chronic disease illness or medical condition that lasts over a long period of time it can cause long term change in the body that affects a persons functioning for at least 3 months Genetics and Lifestyle Chronic Disease Prevalent Costly Preventable Risk factors Behaviors and genetic factors that increase the chance of developing a disease Modifiable risk factors diet behavior Obesity Response to diet and physical activity Preventable Accounts for about 10 of all medical costs Problem worldwide The cardiovascular system Supplies body with oxygen and nutrients via the flow of blood Driven by the pumping heart The heart has 4 chambers Right atrium Receives low oxygenated blood form the body s tissues and pumps it into the right ventricle Right ventricle Pumps low oxygenated blood to the lungs and that s where oxygen is restored in the blood Left atrium Receives highly oxygenated blood from the lungs pumps into left ventricle Left ventricle Largest of the chambers Pumps blood around the whole body Pulse Pumping of ventricles per minute Blood pressure pressure exerted on the walls of the arteries due to the heart pumping Diastolic lower number in BP Pressure during ventricular relaxation Systolic higher number in BP During ventricular contraction pumping BSC 101 Helms Exam 3 Study Guide High blood pressure hypertension BP in arteries is above normal range Atherosclerosis condition involves reduced blood flow caused by build up of plaques in the walls of the arteries Plaque build up is cause by cholesterol fats and calcium build up Leads to hardening of the arteries Very often associated with high blood pressure Most heart attacks and strokes are caused by atherosclerosis Heart attacks and strokes Both caused by a blood clot lodged in the circulatory system Clot in the heart vessels Heart attack Clot in the brain Stroke Lowdensity lipoproteins LDL bad cholesterol contributes to plaque build up in arteries Highdensity lipoprotein HDL good cholesterol removes cholesterol bound to LDL from the arteries Cancer cells divide continuously without control because a mutations disrupted normal cell division generally arise in rapidly dividing tissues Examples epithial and connective tissues Cancer cells can proliferate to form tumors f cancer cells break off of the tumor and enter the bloodstream we call this metastasis When this happens the tumor is considered to be malignant Tumor an abnormal mass of cells resulting from uncontrolled cell division Oncogenes a family of genes that transform normal cells into tumor cells mutated form of genes usually used to allow the cell cycle to proceed mutation results in uninhibited cell cycle BOTH lead to loss of control over the cell cycle and unchecked cell division Tumor suppressor genes family of genes involved in regulating transcription DNA repari and cellcell communication typically prevent cell division and lead to cell death suicide of a messed up cells if you will mutations mean that cell division is not prevented and the cells are not killed BSC 101 Helms Exam 3 Study Guide DNA repair genes a gene family associated with cancers they function to detect and repair DNA damage from mutations or other damage to DNA Normally these function to detect and repair damaged DNA sequences prevent mutation Mutations to these genes result in rapid accumulation of additional mutations in other genes
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