Social Institutions Quiz Study Guide
Social Institutions Quiz Study Guide SOC 201S
Popular in AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
Popular in Sociology
This 34 page Study Guide was uploaded by Asif Khan on Sunday November 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 201S at Old Dominion University taught by JONATHAN W LOPEZ in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 146 views. For similar materials see AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY in Sociology at Old Dominion University.
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Date Created: 11/15/15
Economy Notes Economic Change gt EconomyA social institution dedicated to the production distribution and consumption of goods and services gt Industrialization 0 US economy continues to be shaped by changes brought about during the Industrial Revolution 0 Sociology developed as a discipline in part to come to terms with economic transition from a preindustrial to an industrial society gt DeindustrializationSystematic widespread withdrawal of investment in basic aspects of productivity such as factories 0 Can take form of corporate restructuring known as downsizing o DownsizingReductions in a company s workforce as part of deindustrialization gt Outsourcing 0 US firms have been outsourcing for generations 0 OffshoringTransfer of work to foreign contractors I Began with manufacturing jobs then office and professional jobs 0 Social costs of deindustrialization and downsizing cannot be overemphasized gt The Great Recession o A global financial collapse began in 2007 triggering an economic crisis o Unemployment became a widespread problem 0 More and more difficult for collegeeducated people to find and secure work 0 In the wake of the crisis economic stratification grew and corporations profited gt The Changing Face of the Workforce 0 During World War II when men were mobilized to fight abroad women entered the workforce in large numbers 0 With the coming of the civil rights movement in the 1960s minorities found numerous job opportunities opening to them 0 Number of Black Latino and AsianAmerican workers continues to increase at a faster rate than the number of White workers 0 As workforce has become more diverse companies have sought ways to adapt including workplace diversity programs Economic Systems gt CapitalismEconomic system in which owners of private property compete in the marketplace in pursuit of profit 0 Smith s The Wealth of Nations 1776 describes four basic principles I Pursuit of profit I Competition in the market I Law of supply and demand I LaissezfairePeople should be able to compete freely with minimal government intervention in the marketplace o In practice capitalism seldom meets Smith s ideals as monopolies form and the government intervenes to stop them or to otherwise interfere with the marketplace in what is perceived as the public interest I MonopolyControl of a market by a single business firm gt SocialismEconomic system under which the means of production and distribution are collectively owned 0 More govt control of businesses 0 Govtsanctioned products 0 Less choice in the marketplace 0 Less focus on personal profit gt Mixed EconomyEconomic system that combines elements of both capitalism and socialism o Capitalist nations regulate economic relations to protect consumers 0 US government took more active role during and after Great Recession I Government bailouts American Recovery and Reinvestment Act 2009 I Despite criticism claiming that these actions and others were moving the nation toward socialism most people hoped that their efforts would minimize negative effects of economic downturn gt Informal EconomyTransfers of money goods or services that are not reported to the government 0 Dysfunctional for a country s overall political and economic wellbeing 0 Also can be dysfunctional for workers Politics Notes Political Systems gt All struggles for power and authority involve politics 0 PoliticsThe competition between individuals or groups over the allocation of valued resources I Political SystemSocial institution founded on a recognized set of procedures for implementing and achieving society s goals 0 Government represents an institutionalized form of authority gt MonarchyForm of government headed by a single member of a royal family gt OligarchyForm of government in which a few individuals rule gt DictatorshipGovemment in which one person has nearly total power to make and enforce laws gt TotalitarianismFeatures complete government control and surveillance over all aspects of a society s social and political life gt DemocracyGovernment by the people 0 Representative DemocracyForm of government in which citizens elect political leaders to make decisions on their behalf I System used for selecting political representatives can vary leads to different forms of politics Power and Authority gt PowerAbility to exercise one s will over others even if they resist Weber gt Two sources of power in any political system 0 ForceThe actual or threatened use of coercion to impose one s will on others o AuthorityPower that is recognized as legitimate by the people over whom it is exercised gt Types of Authority 0 Weber developed useful classification system for authority I Traditional AuthorityLegitimate power conferred by custom and accepted practice 39 Charismatic AuthorityPower made legitimate by a leader s exceptional personal or emotional appeal to his or her followers I RationalLegal AuthorityAuthority based on formally agreedupon and accepted rules principles and procedures of conduct established to accomplish goals in the most efficient manner possible The Power Structure of the United States gt Do we the people genuinely run the United States through our elected representatives gt Or does a small elite behind the scenes control the government and the economic system gt Pluralist ModelView of society in which many competing groups within the community have access to government so that no single group is dominant 0 Variety of groups play significant roles in decision making 0 Historically pluralists have stressed ways in which large numbers of people can participate in or in uence governmental decision making gt Power Elite Models 0 Elite ModelView of society as being ruled by a small group of individuals who share a common set of political and economic interests I Power EliteSmall group of military industrial and governmental leaders who control the fate of the US I Operates as selfconscious cohesive unit I Critics Mills failed to clarify when the elite opposes protests and when it tolerates them making it difficult to test the model I Stresses roles played by elites of corporate community leaders of policy formation organizations and the social upper class I Members still largely White male and upper class I In politics two coalitions have exercised in uence corporate conservative and liberallabor I In this model elites are less uniform in their beliefs but still tend to work together to advance their interests Political Participation in the United States gt Voter Participation o In May 2013 313 percent of registered voters in the United States saw themselves as Democrats 242 percent as Republicans and 398 percent as independents Pollstercom 2013 0 Voter participation uctuated throughout the 20th century increased somewhat in early 21st century 0 Voter political participation makes government accountable I Lower voter turnout increases the likelihood that issues of concern to minority communities will not be addressed by politicians gt Race and Gender in Politics 0 O War and Peace Marginalized groups lack political power As of 2013 20 of 100 US senators were women Two senators were African American 4 were Latino and l was Asian American or Native HawaiianPacific Islander leaving 74 nonHispanic White men Among the 435 members of the US House of Representatives 300 were non Hispanic White men Seventyseven were women 41 were African Americans including 13 women 34 were Latinos including 9 Latinas 10 were Asian Americans or Native HawaiianPacific Islanders including six women and 2 were American Indian These numbers though low represent a highwater mark for these groups Manning 2013 gt WarCon ict between organizations that possess trained combat forces equipped with deadly weapons 0 Sociologists who take global view study how and why two or more nations become engaged in military con ict Those who take nationstate view stress interaction of internal political socioeconomic and cultural forces Those who take micro view focus on social impact of war on individuals and the groups to which they belong gt TerrorismUse or threat of violence against random or symbolic targets in pursuit of political aims o Terrorists believe the ends justify the means 0 Media essential aspect of contemporary terrorism 0 Since September 11 2001 governments around the world renewed efforts to fight terrorism to both positive and negative effects gt PeaceAbsence of war or a proactive effort to develop cooperative relations among nations 0 From 1945 to 2000 five times as many people died as a result of con icts within nations than died in wars between nations 0 International trade may act as deterrent to armed con ict 0 Another means of fostering peace is the activity of nongovernmental organizations NGOs Education Notes Education in Society gt EducationA social institution dedicated to the formal process of transmitting culture and other important knowledge to members of society gt As a society we invest time and money in education because we believe the individual and collective benefits are worth it 0 Path to knowledge and understanding 0 Means of ensuring fairness and opportunity gt History of education in US is one of expansion and institutionalization 0 From 1940 to 2012 proportion of people with a high school diploma increased from 25 to 88 0 Percentage with a college degree rose from 5 to 31 Sociological Perspectives on Education gt Education offers opportunity and helps establish social order 0 Also reinforces existing beliefs values and norms that justify the status quo func theory gt Transmitting Culture 0 Schools preserve and maintain dominant culture conf theory I Teach respect for existing values and norms and reverence for established institutions I Promote social integration I Provide experiences that unify diverse groups gt Training and Social Control 0 Teach students manners punctuality creativity discipline and responsibility 0 Stimulate cultural innovation I College provides a context within which we can challenge existing ideas and try out new practices I Serve as meeting ground where people can share diverse beliefs and traditions gt Childcare 0 Schools take responsibility for children during the school day effectively freeing parents to participate in the labor force gt All of the above would be func theory gt Education and Inequality conf theory 0 Significant inequalities exist in education opportunities available to different groups I Wide disparities in funding and facilities between urban and suburban schools 0 Hidden CurriculumStandards of behavior deemed proper by society and that teachers subtly communicate to students I Prepares students to submit to authority 0 Could be func or conf theory depending on how one looks at it gt Teacher Expectancy Interaction theory 0 TeacherExpectancy EffectImpact that a teacher s expectations about student performance may have on actual student achievements I Student outcomes can become selffulfilling prophecy based on how teachers perceive students gt Bestowal of Status 0 Ideally education selects those with ability and trains them for skilled positions func theory I In practice people are also picked based on social class race ethnicity and gender conf theory 0 TrackingPractice of placing students in specific curriculum groups on the basis of their test scores and other criteria I Schools tend to preserve social class inequalities in each new generation conf theory 0 Correspondence PrincipleTendency of schools to promote the values expected of individuals in each social class and prepare students for the types of jobs typically held by their class conf theory gt Credentialism o CredentialismAn increase in the lowest level of education required to enter a field 0 Fifty years ago a high school diploma was enough to get a good job Today it often takes a college diploma to get that same job 0 One potential effect of credentialism is to reinforce social inequality conf theory gt Gender 0 20thcentury educational sexism I Stereotypes in textbooks I Pressure on women to study traditional women s subjects I Unequal funding for men s and women s athletic programs I Employment bias for administrators and teachers 0 Today women have much greater educational opportunity largely as a result of women s movements Schools as Formal Organizations gt The Bureaucratization of Schools 0 Schools put into practice Weber s ve principles of bureaucracy I Division of labor I Hierarchy of authority I Written rules and regulations I Impersonality I Employment based on technical qualifications 0 Trend toward more centralized education particularly affects disadvantaged people 0 Bureaucratization of schools can lead to student and teacher apathy and discontent gt Teaching as a Profession 0 Teachers encounter con icts inherent in serving as a professional within the context of a bureaucracy I Level of formal schooling is high I Salaries lower than those with comparable education I Overall prestige has declined 0 Many teachers disappointed and frustrated leave educational world for other professions I Shortage of teachers gt Tracking 0 Three distinctive tracks among college students I Collegiate I Academic I Vocational gt Community Colleges 0 Give students chance to prove themselves 0 Relatively low cost and open enrollment lower the barriers to success I As of 2011 over 7 million community college students I These students more likely to be older female Black Hispanic low income and parttime compared to their peers at fouryear schools gt Homeschooling o More than 15 million children being educated at home I 36 of parents motivated by desire to provide religious or moral instruction and 83 identified it as important I Rise in homeschooling points toward a growing dissatisfaction with the institutionalized practice of education I New forms of schooling may meet individual needs of diverse groups but they undermine historical commitment to public education as a means of fostering unity within society Religion Notes Defining Religion gt What Religion Is 0 ReligionA social institution focused on designating that which is sacred from that Which is profane With a highlight on the sacred I Commonly involves some conception of a supernatural realm I SacredElements beyond everyday life that inspire respect awe and even fear I ProfaneOrdinary and commonplace elements of life as distinguished from the sacred gt What Religions Do 0 From a functionalist perspective a religion is something that unifies believers into a community through shared practices and a common set of beliefs relative to sacred things I Emphasis on unifying dimension I Any social practices that strongly unite us such as being a sports fan can function like religion for the individual and for society Components of Religion gt What Religions Do 0 Inspired by Durkheim functionalists study religions as unified systems of beliefs and practices involving sacred things in the context of community I The nature of the beliefs and practices matters less than that they are shared I Believers attitudes toward sacred objects more important than what the objects are I Under this approach unification of believers into shared community is the most important aspect of religion I In this view religion need not fit conventional picture of a religion gt Religious BeliefsStatements to which members of a particular religion adhere o FundamentalismRigid adherence to core religious doctrines often accompanied by literal application of scripture I Fundamentalism found worldwide among most major religious groups gt Religious RitualsPractices required or expected of members of a faith gt Religious ExperienceFeeling or perception of being in direct contact with ultimate reality or of being overcome with religious emotion gt Community 0 EcclesiaReligious organization claiming to include most or all of the members of a society is recognized as the national or official religion 0 DenominationLarge organized religion not officially linked to the state or govt o SectRelatively small religious group that has broken away from some other religious organization to renew what it considers the original vision of the faith I Sects are at odds with society and do not seek to become established national religions I Established SectReligious group that is the outgrowth of a sect yet remains isolated from society gt Cults or New Religious Movements 0 New Religious Movement NRM or CultSmall alternative faith community that represents either a new religion or a major innovation in an existing faith I Similar to sects I Tend to be small and often Viewed as less respectable than more established faiths I May be unrelated to existing faiths gt Ecclesiae denominations sects and new religious movements have different relationships to society 0 Best Viewed as types along continuum World Religions gt Early sociologists predicted that modern societies would experience widespread secularization o SecularizationReligion s diminishing in uence in the public sphere especially in politics and the economy I Increase in the US of nones or agnosticatheists many of whom are young adults I However about 85 of world s population adheres to some religion gt Major religions exert significant in uence collectively and individually 0 Christianity 0 Islam 0 Hinduism o Buddhism 0 Judaism Sociological Perspectives on Religion gt Early sociologists sought to provide a science of society that would tap the ways of knowing built into the scientific method and apply them to society 0 Recognized significant role religion played in maintaining social order 0 Needed to understand how it had accomplished this gt Integration 0 Durkheim viewed religion as an integrative force in human society I Gives meaning and purpose to people s lives I Serves to bind people together in times of crisis and confusion I Strengthens feelings of social integration within specific faiths and denominations 0 Can lead to con ict between members of different religions gt Social Change 0 Weber sought to understand how religion might also contribute to social change 0 The Weberian Thesis I Protestant EthicWeber s term for disciplined commitment to worldly labor driven by a desire to bring glory to God shared by followers of Martin Luther and John Calvin I Religion contributed through the Protestant Reformation to the rise of capitalism o Liberation TheologyUse of a church in political efforts to eliminate poverty discrimination and other forms of injustice from a secular society I Activist Roman Catholics in Latin America are a prominent example I Adherents contend that organized religion has a moral responsibility to take strong public stand against oppression of the poor racial and ethnic minorities and women gt Social Control 0 Marx on Religion I Described religion as an opiate that was particularly harmful to oppressed peoples I Religion drugged masses into submission by offering a consolation for their harsh lives on earth I Religion plays an important role in propping up the existing social structure 0 Gender and Religion I Women have played fundamental role in religious socialization but generally take subordinate role in religious leadership I Most religions are patriarchal and reinforce men s dominance in secular and spiritual matters I Women compose approximately 20 of US clergy but account for 34 of theology students Family Notes Global View of the Family gt Substantive Definition of the FamilyBased on blood shared genetic heritage and law social recognition and affirmation of the bond 0 Boundaries are clear 0 Enables tracking of who is related to whom over time gt Kinship Patterns 0 KinshipState of being related to others culturally learned I Bilateral DescentBoth sides of a person s family are regarded as equally important in determining kinship I Patrilineal DescentOnly father s relatives are important I Matrilineal DescentOnly mother s relatives are important gt Family Types 0 Extended FamilyFamily in which relativessuch as grandparents aunts or uncleslive in same household as parents and their children 0 Nuclear FamilyMarried couple and their unmarried children living together I Married couples with children under 18 make up roughly 29 of all US families I Percentage of singleparent and nonfamily households has risen steadily over the past 50 years gt Types of Marriage 0 MonogamyForm of marriage in which one woman and one man are married only to each other I Serial MonogamyWhen a person has several spouses in his or her lifetime but only one spouse at a time o PolygamyForm of marriage in which an individual may have several husbands or wives simultaneously I PolygynyForm of polygamy in which a man may have more than one wife at the same time I PolyandryForm of polygamy in which a woman may have more than one husband at the same time gt What Families Do 0 Functionalist Definition of FamiliesDefinition of families that focuses on what families do for society and for their members often more inclusive than substantive definition 0 Six main functions of families Ogburn I Reproduction I Socialization I Protection I Regulation of sexual behavior I Affection and companionship I Provision of social status gt Who Rules 0 PatriarchySociety in which men dominate in family decision making 0 MatriarchySociety in which women dominate in family decision making 0 Egalitarian FamilyAuthority pattern in which spouses are regarded as equals o Egalitarian family has become more common pattern in the US in recent decades but male dominance over family still prevails 0 Family serves as basis for transferring power property and privilege I Children inherit privileged or lessthanprivileged social and economic status of parents I Socioeconomic status of child s family has marked in uence on nutrition health care housing educational opportunities and life chances Marriage and Family gt Over 95 of US men and women will marry at least once 0 Our social positions shape our choices when picking partners gt Courtship and Mate Selection 0 Historically not uncommon for marriages to be arranged by families or matchmakers o In US most assume true love will guide the way 0 In practice pool of potential partners is substantially reduced by social location 0 EndogamyRestriction of mate selection to people within same group 0 ExogamyRequires mate selection outside certain groups usually one s own family or certain kin o Incest TabooSocial norm common to virtually all societies prohibiting sexual relationships between certain culturally specified relatives 0 HomogamyConscious or unconscious tendency to select mate with personal characteristics similar to one s own gt Variations in Family Life and Intimate Relationships 0 Social Class Differences I Historically poor and workingclass families were more authoritarian and middleclass families were more permissive and less likely to use physical punishment I Recent research shows middleclass parents provide more structure through participation in organized activities and workingclass parents allow their children greater freedom if they don t overstep disciplinary bounds o Racial and Ethnic Differences I Black single mothers often belong to stable functioning networks I Native Americans draw on family ties to cushion hardships I Mexican American men exhibit machismo sense of virility personal worth and pride in one s maleness I Mexican Americans are described as being more familistic expressing pride in the extended family through the maintenance of close ties outside immediate family gt ChildRearing Patterns 0 Caring for children is a universal function of the family 0 Parenthood and Grandparenthood I Parenthood is one of the most important social roles in US I Rossi Four factors that complicate transition to parenthood 0 Little anticipatory socialization for the social role of caregiver 0 Limited learning occurs during the period of pregnancy o Abrupt transition to parenthood 0 Society lacks clear and helpful guidelines for successful parenthood I One recent development in family life in the US has been the extension of parenthood as adult children continue to live at home or return home after college I In 2012 71 million US children 97 percent lived in a household with a grandparent Adoption I Process that allows for the transfer of the legal rights responsibilities and privileges of parenthood to a new legal parent or parents I Approximately 15 percent of US children live with at least one adoptive parent I In 1995 New York after Vermont and Massachusetts ruled couples do not have to be married to adopt I Approximately 104000 US children were awaiting adoption in 2011 DualIncome Families I Among married couples with children under 6 546 percent have both husband and wife in the labor force I 36 million couples who now live apart for reasons other than marital discord SingleParent FamiliesFamilies in which only one parent is present to care for the children In 2012 283 percent of US children lived With only one parent Families headed by single mothers face especially difficult problems When the mother is a teenager o Stepfamilies Diverse Lifestyles Approximately 58 of children under 18 live With at least one stepparent Stewart 2007 Expanded definition of stepfamilies to include cohabitating couples With children from previous relationships families Whose stepchildren do not live With them full time gay or lesbian couples With children from former heterosexual relationships and stepfamilies With adult children Exact nature of blended families has social significance for adults and children gt Marriage lost much of its social significance as a rite of passage 0 US marriage rate declined since 1970 o CohabitationPractice of living together as a malefemale couple Without marrying In US testing marital waters by living together before making a commitment is a common practice among marriagewary 20 and 30 somethings About half of currently married couples in US say they lived together prior to marriage Half of all cohabitants previously married gt Diverse Lifestyles o Remaining Single Trend toward maintaining a single lifestyle for a longer period is related to growing economic independence of young people Re ects the belief that people do not necessarily need to marry to enjoy a satisfying life Remaining single represents a clear departure from societal expectations and can feel lonely in a society that presumes marriage 0 Remaining Childless Significant increase in childlessness in US About 19 of women age 40 to 44 have never had children More couples choosing not to have children Economic considerations contributed to shift in attitudes 0 Lesbian and Gay Relationships Gay and lesbian couplesface discrimination on both personal and legal levels On average unmarried samesex couples had more education greater likelihood of both members being employed and higher incomes than married oppositesex couples Johnson C 2012 Lofquist Lugaila O Connell and Feliz 2012 Though the majority of states havelaws that define marriage as between a man and a woman recent changes in state laws have expanded legal rights for gay and lesbian couples 0 Domestic PartnershipTwo unrelated adults who share mutually caring relationship reside together and agree to be jointly responsible for their dependents basic living expenses and other common necessities I Domestic partnership bene ts can apply to couples inheritance parenting pensions taxation housing immigration workplace fringe benefits and health care Divorce gt Statistical Trends in Divorce 0 More complete picture by looking at marital milestones people reach based on the year they first married I Since late 1980s divorce rate declined by 30 I About 63 of divorced people in US remarry I Women less likely to remarry because many retain custody of children gt Factors Associated with Divorce 0 Greater social acceptance of divorce I More liberal divorce laws I Fewer children I Greater family income I More opportunities for women gt Impact of Divorce on Children 0 In about onethird of divorces children benefited from parental separation because it lessened exposure to con ict Amato and Booth 1997 o In about 70 percent of divorces parents engaged in low level of con ict Population Health and Environment Notes Population gt More than 7 billion people on Earth gt We must live off the limited resources the planet provides gt To better understand our life chances as well as those of others we must take into account the direction that population trends are heading 0 DemographyStatistical study of population dynamics gt Birth 0 Births are the primary means by which a population replaces its members from one generation to the next I Demographers analyze fertility to better understand population patterns 0 FertilityThe number of children born in a given period of time I Crude Birth RateNumber of live births per 1000 people in the population in a given year I Total Fertility RateAverage number of children a woman would have during her lifetime given current birth rates and assuming she survives through her childbearing years I Replacement Fertility RateMinimum number of children a woman would need to average in her lifetime to reproduce the population in the next generation gt Death 0 Just as with birth demographers use a simple measure of mortality to allow for comparisons between populations I Crude Death RateNumber of deaths per 1000 people in a population in a given year I Infant Mortality RateNumber of deaths in infants less than one year old per 1000 live births per year I Life ExpectancyProjected number of years a person can expect to live based on his or her year of birth gt MigrationThe movement of people from one population group to another 0 In addition to births and deaths the migration between groups is also studied by demographers I ImmigrationWhen individuals join a population of which they were not previously a member I EmigrationWhen members of a population leave that group 0 Reasons for joining or leaving a population group can be varied I Jobs families freedom of expression religion persecution violence 0 In US 125 of the population is foreign born 0 By combining data on births deaths and migration it is possible to create a single indicator that provides a more complete picture of population dynamics I Growth RateOverall percent change in a population in a year gt Demographic Transition 0 In 1798 Malthus claimed that population will ultimately grow so high and so fast that it will result in scarcity of food and other resources and lead to con ict 0 Others argue that a demographic transition will occur instead I Demographic TransitionTheory that as a society moves from preindustrial to postindustrial its population will shift from small and stable With high birth and death rates to large and stable With low birth and death rates Sociological Perspectives on Health and Illness gt Culture Society and Health 0 Health and MedicineSocial institution focused on eliminating disease and promoting health 0 HealthState of complete physical mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity WHO I Health and diseases rooted in shared meanings of particular cultures I CultureBound SyndromeDisease or illness that cannot be understood apart from some specific social context gt Illness and Social Order 0 Illness is a threat to social order I If too many people are sick at one time it affects our ability to perform tasks necessary for continued operation of society 0 Sick RoleSocietal expectations about the attitudes and behavior of a person Viewed as being ill 0 Gender age social class and ethnic group in uence patients judgments regarding their state of health gt Power Resources and Health 0 The Medicalization of Society I Growing role of medicine as a major institution of social control I Medicine has greatly expanded its domain of expertise in recent decades I When problems are viewed using a medical model it is more difficult for common people to join discussion 0 Inequities in Health Care I Poor areas tend to be underserved because medical services concentrate where wealth is 0 Brain DrainImmigration to US and other industrialized nations of skilled workers professionals and technicians who are needed in their home countries 0 Labeling and Power I Power to label and power to oppress sometimes go hand in hand I Policy makers slow to respond to AIDS crisis because those in highrisk groups were relatively powerless I Recently the medical community has recognized premenstrual syndrome posttraumatic disorders and hyperactivity as medical disorders gt Negotiating Cures 0 Physicians use cues to reinforce their prestige and power e g white coat stethoscope 0 Patients are not passive may play an active role in positive or negative health 0 Internet research is transforming patient physician encounters Social Epidemiology gt Social EpidemiologyStudy of disease distribution impairment and general health status across a population 0 O Concerned with epidemics and nonepidemic diseases injuries drug addiction alcoholism suicide and mental illness IncidenceNumber of new cases of a specific disorder that occur within a given population during a stated period usually a year PrevalenceTotal number of cases of a specific disorder that exist at a given time Morbidity RateIncidence of disease in a given population Mortality RateIncidence of death in a given population gt Social Class 0 Studies show people in lower classes have higher rates of mortality and disability Crowded living conditions I Substandard housing I Financial strain I Poor diet I Stress I Inability to afford quality health care gt Race and Ethnicity 0 Health profiles of racial and ethnic groups re ect social inequality in US I Poor economic and environmental conditions manifested in high morbidity rates and mortality rates I African Americans compared with Whites have higher death rates from heart disease pneumonia diabetes and cancer I Cultural beliefs of many Latinos make them less likely to use established medical system 0 CuranderismoLatino folk medicine a form of holistic health care and healing I Latinos more likely to delay seeking treatment gt Gender 0 When compared with men women experience higher prevalence of many illnesses but they tend to live longer I Lower rate of cigarette smoking I Lower alcohol consumption I Lower rate of employment in dangerous occupations I Women more likely to seek treatment I Vulnerable to medicalization of society gt Age 0 Health is overriding concern of elderly 0 Most older people in US have at least one chronic illness I Older people vulnerable to certain types of mental health problems I Older people in the United States age 75 or older use health services more than three times as much as younger people ages 15 24 Health Care in the United States gt Health Care in the United States 0 Costs of health care skyrocketed in past 40 years In 2000 amount spent on health care equaled amount spent on education defense prisons farm subsidies food stamps and foreign aid combined By the year 2019 total expenditures for health care in the United States are expected to exceed 46 trillion or 13709 per person gt A Historical View 0 By 1840s health care largely unregulated American Medical Association institutionalized its authority through standardized programs of education and licensing Gave birth to medicalization of society gt The Role of Government Medicare and Medicaid 1965 greatly expanded government role in health care Growing portion of US population uninsured in early 21St century costs rising rapidly By 2009 widespread political agreement that existing system was not sustainable disagreement over solution In March 2010 Congress passed Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act Most Americans required to get some form of health insurance I Young adults able to stay on their parents health care plans until age 26 I No copays for coverage for checkups and other preventive care I Eliminate annual caps and lifetime limits on the cost of benefits I Preexisting conditions coverage I Companies with more than 50 employees required to provide an employersponsored health plan I Small businesses receive tax credits I Statebased insurance exchanges I Insurance companies required to provide greater transparency regarding overhead costs gt Alternatives to Traditional Health Care 0 Growing interest in holistic medicine I Holistic MedicineTherapies in which a health care practitioner considers a person s physical mental emotional and spiritual characteristics I Medical establishment continues to zealously protect its authority I 1992 National Institutes of Health NIH opened an Office of Alternative Medicine I WHO 80 of people in African and Asian countries use alternative medicine Sociological Perspectives on the Environment gt The environment people live in affects their health gt People also have noticeable effect on their environment gt Human EcologyStudy of the interrelationships between people and their environment 0 The environment provides resources essential for life 0 The environment serves as a waste repository o The environment houses our species gt Power Resources and the Environment gt gt 0 Less af uent nations forced to exploit natural resources to meet their debt obligations o Ethnocentrism is involved When energyhungry industrialized nations insist that foodhungry developing nations must change their practices to save the planet Environmental JusticeLegal strategy based on claims that minorities are disproportionately subject to environmental hazards 0 Poor and oppressed continue to bear brunt of environmental pollution In considering environmental issues sociologists have emphasized the interconnectedness of humans and the environment as well as the divisiveness of race and social class Environmental Problems gt Environmental problems caused by development have effects far beyond the places Where they are created 0 Though levels of public concern about air pollution water pollution and global climate change have declined each of these environmental problems continues to receive significant attention from scientists Air Pollution o More than 1 billion people exposed to healthdamaging air pollution I People capable of changing behavior but difficult to make changes permanent Water Pollution 0 Waste materials dumped by industries and local governments have polluted streams rivers and lakes I Over 884 million people lack safe and adequate drinking water and 26 billion lack access to improved sanitation facilities gt Global Climate Change 0 Scientific evidence for global climate change is clear consistent and compelling yet public opinion polls show people remain skeptical I Signi cant rise in the earth s surface temperatures occurs when industrial gases like carbon dioxide turn the planet s atmosphere into a virtual greenhouse I Rise in global population a primary factor I Technological advances contribute to increased environmental concerns gt The Global Response 0 Globalization can be both good and bad for environment I Can create race to the bottom as polluting companies relocate to countries with less stringent environmental standards I Can allow multinationals to exploit the resources of developing countries for shortterm profit I As barriers to the international movement of goods services and people fall multinational corporations have an incentive to carefully consider the cost of natural resources
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