Study Guide for Midterm 2
Study Guide for Midterm 2 SOC 204
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Delaney Rea on Sunday November 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 204 at University of Oregon taught by Dreiling M in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 202 views. For similar materials see Intro Sociology >2 >IP in Sociology at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 11/15/15
Sociology 204 Midterm 2 Study Guide Chapter 6 Social Control and Deviance Social deviance a transgression against a socially established norm Can range from cutting in line to murder etc Social cohesion the social bonds people create referring to how they relate to one another and get along on a daily basis Mechanical solidarity also called segmental solidarity A sense of social cohesion based on sameness of individual parts Organic solidarity social cohesion based on difference and interdependence of the parts Social integration the level at which one is integrated into their social group community circle of friends etc Social regulation the number of rules guiding your daily life and what you can typically expect from the world Egoistic suicide a form of suicide that happens when one is not well integrated into their social group thus feeling insignificant Altruistic suicide a form of suicide that happens when one is too well integrated into social life This occurs because the social group has come to dominate their life to a level that makes the life feel meaningless Anomie a sense of aimlessness or despair that comes from a sensation that life is unpredictable andor meaningless Anomic suicide a form of suicide that happens when one faces insufficient social regulation Example someone who feels they have done theirjob to the best of their ability commits suicide when they feel the result of their work are not just or sufficient Fatalistic suicide suicide that occurs because of too much social regulation such as a person who practices the same routine day in and day out Strain theory theory that deviance happens when a society doesn39t provide equal opportunity for all of its members to reach socially acceptable goals Conformist someone who only accepts goals and ideas that are considered normal Ritualist one who accepts socially provided goals but not the means of reaching them Innovator social deviant who accepts normal goals but goes about achieving them in unorthodox ways Retreatist one who rejects both socially accepted means and goals by not participating in society Rebel one who acts against socially normative goals and additionally seeks to abolish them Labeling theory the theory that people subconsciously notice how others view them and shape who they are as a result Primary deviance first act of rule breaking that labels one as a deviant and fosters how others label you Secondary deviance subsequent acts of deviance that are a result of the primary deviance resulting from a status as a deviant Stigma negative social label that alters how people treat an individual Deterrence theory a philosophy of criminal justice that comes from a rational calculation of the costs and benefits of deviant acts Recidivism when someone who has been involved in the criminal justice system returns to the behavior that put them there Total institution an institution that one is totally immersed in that controls their everyday life Chapter 7 Stratification Social equality when no differences in prestige power or wealth based on nonnatural bases exist Dialectic a dual relationship where an antitheses is presented to an original thesis leading to a conclusion where the original thesis actually ends up being supported Equality of opportunity the idea that everyone has the an equal chance to achieve wealth prestige etc Free rider problem idea that when more than one person is responsible for completing an action one will take the bulk of responsibility and the others will ride hoping to pull less weight Estate system a politically based system of stratification characterized by limited social mobility Caste system religion based system of strati cation with no social mobility Class system economically based hierarchy with clear oppositional groups often with little social mobility Proletariat working class people Bourgeoisie the capitalist wealthy class Status hierarchy system system based of stratification based on social prestige Meritocracy a society where status and mobility are based on individual attributes ability and achievement Socioeconomic class a person39s status in a stratified social order Social mobility movement between different positions within a system os of social stratification Structural mobility mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy Exchange mobility individuals trade positions not initially equally but in a way that eventually balances out Chapter 8 Gender Feminism movement to create understanding that gender is an organizing principle of life The belief that men and women should receive equal opportunities and respect Essentialism line of thought that explains social phenomena in terms of natural ones Biological determinism line of thought that explains behavior in the context of the natural world Hegemonic masculinity condition wherein men are dominant and privileged a status that is invisible Gender roles sets of behavior norms associated with men and women Glass ceiling invisible limit on women39s climb up the job ladder Glass escalator accelerated advancement of men in the workplace Chapter 9 Race Ontological equality philosophical and religious notion that all people are created equal Ethnocentrism belief that one39s own culture is superior to others and viewing all other cultures from their own perspective Eugenics a pseudoscience that attempts to control the fertility of certain populations to foster the inheritance of supposedly favorable traits and eliminating unfavorable traits Widely controversial and no longer on practice Nativism movement to protect one39s land from the supposedly toxic effects of new immigrants Miscegenation technical term for interracial marriage Racialization formation of new racial identity by drawing boundaries around a formerly ungrouped population Ethnicity one39s ethnic af liation based on cultural identification Primordialism term to explain the strength of ethnic ties saying they are deeply rooted one39s homeland culture Pluralism presence of coexistence between numerous groups in one society Genocide mass killing of a group of people based on racial ethnic or religious traits Subaltern an oppressed group of people Collective resistance an organized effort to alter power hierarchy by a less powerful group Institutional racism social dynamics that appear racially neutral but are in fact disadvantageous to some minorities Chapter 10 Poverty Culture of poverty argument that poor people adopt certain practices that differ from those of the middle class in order to survive in their unfortunate circumstances Absolute poverty the point at which a household39s income falls below the necessary level to purchase food to physically sustain its members Relative poverty measure of poverty based on percentage of median income in a given locale Parenting stress hypothesis in which low income unstable employment lack of resources etc exacerbate household stress levels leading to negative parental tactics like abuse Chapter 11 Health and Society Medicalization process in which problems or issues not traditionally seen as medical come to be seen that way Sick role concept that describes social rights and obligations of a sick person Morbidity illness in a general sense Mortality term for death Chapter 13 Education Hidden curriculum nonacademic less obvious functions of schooling Social capital the information and connections that help people gain power and leverage in social networks Tracking a way of dividing students into different classes by ability or future plans Credentialism overemphasis on credentials for signaling social status or qualifications for a job Affirmative action set of preferential policies that allow treatment of a number of subgroups usually women or minorities with a history of disadvantage Cultural capital symbolc interactional resources that people use to their advantage in various situations Stereotype threat when members of a negatively stereotyped group are placed in a situation where they fear that they may conform to those stereotypes Resource dilution model hypothesis that states parental resources are actually finite and subsequent offspring receives less of them each time Chapter 14 Capitalism and the Economy Capitalism economic system in which property and goods are primarily owned privately investments are personal decisions and distribution of wealth and goods are decided through a competitive marketplace Feudalism capitalistic economic system characterized by lords serfs etc Corporation legal entity unto itself that has a legal identity separate from its members such as owners and shareholders Socialism economic system in which most or all of the needs of the population are met through nonmarket distribuion Communism political ideology of a classless society in which production means of production are shared through state ownership and in which rewards are tied not to productivity but to need Family wage a wage paid to male workers enough to support their wife and children Service sector the section of the economy that invloves providing intangible services like restaurant work or higher education Monoploy form of business that happens with one seller of a good dominating its respective maretplce potentially with no competition Oligopoly economic condition where a handful of corporations control one particular market Offshoring business decision to move all or a part of a company39s operations abroad in order to minimize costs of production Union organization of workers that faciliates baragianing with the employer Chapter 15 Authority and State Charismatic authority an authority that rests on the personal appeal of an individual leader Legalrational authority authority based on legal impersonal rules Routinization clear rulegoverned procedures used repeatedly for decision making Rationalization an everexpanding process of ordering Bureaucracy mode of administration that governs with refernecre to formal rules and roles that emphasizes meritocracy Specialization the process of breking up work into specific tasks Meritocracy a society that assigns social status power and economic rewards based on achievement Milgram experiment 1961 experiment by Stanley Milgram to see how far normal people would go in obeying an authority figure Coercion the use of force to make others do what you want Paradox of authority a state relies on threat of force to enforce their authority but the moment that force is used then their legitimacy as an authority is lost International state system a system in which each state is recognized as territory sovereign by fellow states Soft power power achieved by using cultural attractiveness rather than the threat of coercive action Game theory study of strategic decisions made under conditions of uncertainty and interdependence Altruism an action that benefits a group but not directly the person performing the action Chapter 16 Religion Religion system of beliefs practices etc centered around sacred ideologies Theism worship of a god or gods Ethicalism the adherence to certain principles to lead a moral life Animism the belief that spirits are part of the natural world Denomination big group of congregations that share the same organized faith and are governed by one administration Secularism movement away from religiosity towards a rational and scientific orientation Pluralism the presence of coexistence between numerous distinct groups in one society Fundamentalists religious adherents who follow a scripture literally Reflexive spirituality a contemporary religious movement that encourages followers to look at religion for metaphorical meaning rather than absolute truths Sectarian groups hightension groups that don39t mesh well with the current social environment
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