Test 3 Study Guide
Test 3 Study Guide P SC 1113
Popular in American Federal Government
P SC 1113
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Political Science
P SC 1113 030
verified elite notetaker
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Hurlburt on Sunday November 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to P SC 1113 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr. Tyler Johnson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see American Federal Government in Political Science at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 11/15/15
Test 3 Study Guide 1 What are some reasons why people don t vote or participate in politics Gosnell s NonVoting Causes and Methods of Control 39 Four categories of nonvoters in the survey 1 Physical Dif culties illness absence detained by helpless member of family 39 2 Legal and administrative obstacles insuf cient legal residence fear of loss of business or wages congestion of the polls poor location of polling booth fear of disclosure of age 3 Disbelief in voting disbelief in women s voting objections of husband belief that one vote counts for nothing disgust with politics disgust with own party belief that ballot box is corrupted disbelief in all political action 4 Inertia general indifference indifference to particular election intended to vote but failed ignorance or timidity regarding elections failure of party worker Why Don t Some People Take Part They can t They don t want to 39 Nobody asked They Can t Lacking resources time or money Not effective at using resources They Don t Want To Little interest in politics overall or now Think they can t make a difference no eff1cacy Littleno knowledge about process Nobody Asked Isolated from networks of recruitment 39 People around them in everyday life aren39t political 2 Why do people participate in politics Verba Schlozman and Brady s Four Reasons to Participate 39 Material bene ts want to solve personal problems 39 Social grati cation exciting enjoyment Civic grati cation sense of duty doing one s share 39 Collective outcomes want to in uence policy for all What is mobilization and how are individuals mobilized Defming Mobilization 39 Process by which candidatespartiesactivists groups convince others to participate 39 Two types direct and indirect Direct personal contact from campaign through doortodoormail speeches 39 Indirect contact through surrogates like the media supporters endorsers Strategies of Political Mobilization 39 Don t mobilize everyone don t mobilize all the time 39 Get the most effective number of people with the least amount of effort What variables affect vote choice and which are more powerful than others What Shapes Vote Choice Party identi cation 39 Social identities groups 39 Incumbentcandidate performance Policy issues 39 Candidate traits Policy Issues 39 Ideally voters would engage in proximity voting Proximity voting evaluate candidate ideologypositions choose who is closest 39 Reality many do not engage in this Why Takes more time and effort than other shortcuts Pessimists on Issue Voting 39 It s rare because of 3 condition threshold 39 Condition 1 have to be aware of an issue and have an opinion 39 Condition 2 have to feel intensely about an issue 39 Condition 3 have to know where candidates are that one is better for you than the other Optimists on Issue Voting 39 Some issues are easier than others to understand 39 Even imperfect information is something Candidates Helpful or Hurtful 39 Candidates not always helpful with information clearer on some issues for specific reasons 39 Candidates uid depending on time during campaign primary v general Candidate Traits A simpler strategy Requires less timeeffort 39 Links between positive assessments on personality and likelihood of voting for someone Might matter more when there s less information to draw on 39 Examples caringcompassionate understanding of people like me experienced quali ed trustworthy leadership intelligent honest Who Has Which Traits 39 Which candidate is most caring Least caring 39 Which candidate is most experienced Least experienced 39 Which candidate is most trustworthy and honest Least trustworthy and honest What factors shape political development and why WhoWhat Shapes Political Development Family PeersFriends 39 Schools HistoryEvents 39 Genetics Media Why Do Parents Succeed Time spent together equals opportunities 39 Frequent political discussions 20 percent more likely to vote and continue voting 39 Strong directional bonds between family and children translate to politics Still as successful Children more rebellious Changes in family structure Peers A Secondary In uence 39 Substantial time spent with friends 39 Can reinforce undermine lessons or maybe be completely apolitical Schools Modern Classroom Roles Teach political knowledge 39 Teach political participation skills Teach tolerance 39 Teach acceptance of support for democratic values What does college do 39 More people are going to college than ever 39 More attending equals more education 39 More education means greater tolerance support for democratic values History and Events 39 Generation effects time you come of age affects opinions Life cycle effects aging affects opinions 39 Specific events events affect opinions Genetic evidence Minnesota Center for Twin and Family Research examines 1400 sets of twins Identical twins more likely to be ideologically similar than fraternal twins 39 John Alford gets 9000 twins to react to 28 political words e g segregation immigration capitalism 39 Identical twins reactions correlated more highly for all 28 words 39 More conservative students larger right amygdala more liberal students larger anterior cingulate What might cause opinions to change What could cause opinion change 39 New job 39 New community 39 New circle of friends Marriage Marriage effects 39 Huber and Malhotra many take place in assertive mating choosing someone with similar beliefs 39 Most married couples political beliefs grow even more similar over time What aws eXisted in past surveys and what aws in modern surveys or types of modern surveys should we worry about Literary Digest and 1936 39 Literary Digest correctly predicts the presidential election winner from 19201932 1936 predicts Alf Landon Republican will defeat Franklin Roosevelt Democrat 5743 39 How they drew this conclusion sent 10 millions postcards to Americans 39 Addresses from phone books club and association rosters city directories lists of car owners 22 million sent the postcards back 4 Flaws in Literary Digest s Method l the sample was biased toward the wealthy and during the Depression 39 2 the postcards were sent out too early couldn t capture late movement 39 3 the New Deal Coalition had solidi ed and were behind Roosevelt yet not sampled 39 4 the survey relied on selfselection who sends back postcards educated wealthy strong opinions Considerations with Survey Questions and Answers Have you taken a vacation in the last few years 39 Question wording needs to be clear Recognize words phrases have power Example Americans 31 percent less likely to cut aid to the needy than public welfare programs 39 Think about the possible responses respondents can give as well Think about optouts like don t know or middle categories e g neither approve nor disapprove 39 Question ordering could affect outcomes as well Modern Survey Challenges 39 Response rates declining 39 Shift to robotic polls turns people off Rise of cell phones no autodialing area code matching issues Internet as solution The Slippery Slope When Polls Have Other Motivations 39 Begging Polls 39 Pseudo Polls 39 Push Polls Why do Americans dislike Congress so strongly Why can t Congress solve such problems Congress As Public Enemy Hibbing and TheissMorse The least liked branch clearly so 39 The concept of Congress well liked 39 The reality of Congress the people the processes strongly disliked Common Complaints Unable to represent diverse interests 39 Unable to solve big problems Inefficient 39 Too removed from ordinary people Too heavily in uenced by interest groups 39 Too focused on Washington The Roots of the Broken Branch Idea 39 Congress appears broken Mann and Omstein Many problems partisanshipcentered 39 Hurts the ability to get along in general 39 Hurts the ability to formally work together 39 Hurts the speed and reception of outcomes What Can Be Done Can change come from inside ie new rules Or must it be forced from outside new elected officials 39 Suggestion One new schedule 39 Suggestion Two time to deliberate 39 Suggestion Three independent office to deal with outside in uences What are Home Style and Hill Style Why do members of Congress build them and care about them What is Home Style 39 Term originated by Richard Fenno Unique relationship Members build with constituents All constituencies are different 39 Home Style is about actual interaction with constituents and groups Home Style is about decisions of allocation time resources residence What to Convey When Home Qualification I can handle this job Identification I am one of you Empathy I understand your problems Explaining Washington When Home Description what s happening 39 Interpretation why it s happening 39 Justification why I m doing what I m doing Setting Priorities In DC Members have too much to do Result picking and choosing what gets on the schedule Two Ways of Participating Formal and Informal Formal and Informal Participation Formal actions like voting on bills attending hearings participating in debate Informal working behind the scenes studying legislation coalition building negotiating meeting with public and groups How do members of Congress make decisions related to participation and voting What Shapes Participation and DecisionMaking Personal Interests 39 Constituency Interests Presidential Interests Party Interests Group Interests Kingdon s Field of Forces 39 Often times interests push in similar direction 39 When they con ict tough decisions must be made Kingdon offers important questions that shape tough decisions Q1 Is the bill controversial Q2 Is there con ict among cue givers and what does that con ict look like 39 Q3 Are my goals related to this legislation What does it mean for a president to go public and why might it happen What evidence do we have that presidents are going public more readily The How of Going Public 39 More and more addresses ex Hoover 5 GWB 170 More appearing in public ex Hoover 15 GWB 230 39 More travel ex Hoover 8 days GWB 115 More local press More oneonone interviews Presidential News Management Strategies Winning favor with journalists public Shaping news ow feeding the media vs take out the trash day 39 Orchestrating coverage what will get attention and what won t Getting around the lters direct messaging technology Explaining Going Public 39 Technology transportation radiotelevisionsatellites 39 Politics electing outsiders era of bargaining and divided government How do presidents get their ideas on the agenda How is their strategy shaped by Congress Agenda Setting Important part of power getting heard 39 Presidents compete for space but get on the agenda make up 13 of it More when government is uni ed Presidential ideas more likely to pass than congressional ideas 39 The question how can a President navigate Congress Bond and Fleisher s President in the Legislative Arena Competent and skillful leader can overcome Congress or are these just myths we build Reality some things are in the president s hand Four Factions of Focus 1 Base 39 2 Crosspressured partisans 39 3 Crosspressured opposition 4 Opposition base President with majority in Congress hold on to group 2 President with minority in Congress peel off with group 3
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